Cold-inducible RNA-binding Protein Induces Neutrophil Extracellular Traps in the Lungs during Sepsis.
ABSTRACT: Extracellular cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRP) exaggerates inflammation and tissue injury in sepsis. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are released by activated neutrophils during sepsis. NETs contribute to pathogen clearance, but excessive NET formation (NETosis) causes inflammation and tissue damage. Peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PAD4) is associated with NETosis by increasing histone citrullination and chromatin decondensation. We hypothesized that CIRP induces NETosis in the lungs during sepsis via upregulating PAD4 expression. Sepsis was induced in C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) and CIRP-/- mice by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). After 20?h of CLP induction, NETs in the lungs of WT and CIRP-/- mice were quantified by flow cytometry by staining the single cell suspensions with MPO and CitH3 Abs. PAD4 expression in the lungs of WT and CIRP-/- mice after sepsis was assessed by Western blotting. In vitro effects of recombinant mouse (rm) CIRP for NETosis and PAD4 expression in the bone marrow-derived neutrophils (BMDN) were assessed by flow cytometry and Western blotting, respectively. After 20?h of CLP, NETosis in the lungs was significantly decreased in CIRP-/- mice compared to WT mice, which also correlated with the decreased PAD4 expression. Intratracheal administration of rmCIRP into WT mice significantly increased NETosis and PAD4 expression in the lungs compared to vehicle-injected mice. In vitro culture of BMDN with rmCIRP significantly increased NETosis and PAD4 expression compared to PBS-treated control. Fluorescence microscopy revealed typical web-like structures consistent with NETs in rmCIRP-treated BMDN. Thus, CIRP serves as a novel inducer of NETosis via PAD4 during sepsis.
Project description:Sepsis represents uncontrolled inflammation due to an infection. Cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRP) is a stress-induced damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP). A subset of neutrophils expressing ICAM-1+ neutrophils was previously shown to produce high levels of reactive oxygen species. The role of CIRP for the development and function of ICAM-1+ neutrophils during sepsis is unknown. We hypothesize that CIRP induces ICAM-1 expression in neutrophils causing injury to the lungs during sepsis. Using a mouse model of cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis, we found increased expression of CIRP and higher frequencies and numbers of ICAM-1+ neutrophils in the lungs. Conversely, the CIRP-/- mice showed significant inhibition in the frequencies and numbers of ICAM-1+ neutrophils in the lungs compared to wild-type (WT) mice in sepsis. In vitro treatment of bone marrow-derived neutrophils (BMDN) with recombinant murine CIRP (rmCIRP) significantly increased ICAM-1+ phenotype in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The effect of rmCIRP on increasing frequencies of ICAM-1+ neutrophils was significantly attenuated in BMDN treated with anti-TLR4 Ab or NF-?B inhibitor compared, respectively, with BMDN treated with isotype IgG or DMSO. The frequencies of iNOS producing and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) forming phenotypes in rmCIRP-treated ICAM-1+ BMDN were significantly higher than those in ICAM-1- BMDN. Following sepsis the ICAM-1+ neutrophils in the lungs showed significantly higher levels of iNOS and NETs compared to ICAM-1- neutrophils. We further revealed that ICAM-1 and NETs were co-localized in the neutrophils treated with rmCIRP. CIRP-/- mice showed significant improvement in their survival outcome (78% survival) over that of WT mice (48% survival) in sepsis. Thus, CIRP could be a novel therapeutic target for regulating iNOS producing and NETs forming ICAM-1+ neutrophils in the lungs during sepsis.
Project description:Cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRP) is a novel inflammatory mediator that stimulates the release of proinflammatory cytokines from macrophages in sepsis. Given the immune dysregulation that characterizes sepsis, the effect of CIRP on other immune cells is an area of increasing interest that has not yet been studied. In the present study, we hypothesized that extracellular CIRP promotes activation of T lymphocytes in the spleen during sepsis. We observed that mice subjected to sepsis by cecal ligation and puncture showed significantly higher expression of the early activation markers CD69 and CD25 at 20?h on CD4<sup>+</sup> splenic T cells, and significantly higher CD69 expression on CD8<sup>+</sup> splenic T cells compared with sham-operated controls. Furthermore, at 20?h after receiving intravenous injection of recombinant murine CIRP (rmCIRP, 5?mg/kg body weight (BW)) or PBS (vehicle), those mice receiving rmCIRP showed significantly increased expression of CD69 and CD25 on both CD4<sup>+</sup> and CD8<sup>+</sup> splenic T cells. This effect, however, was not seen in TLR4-deficient mice after rmCIRP injection. In addition, treatment with CIRP predisposed CD4<sup>+</sup> T cells to a Th1 hyperinflammatory response profile, and influenced CD8<sup>+</sup> T cells toward a cytotoxic profile. Taken together, our findings indicate that CIRP is a proinflammatory mediator that plays an important role in T-cell dysregulation during sepsis in a TLR4-dependent manner.
Project description:Cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRP) is a damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecule which stimulates proinflammatory cytokine release in hemorrhage and sepsis. Under these medical conditions, disruption of endothelial homeostasis and barrier integrity, typically induced by proinflammatory cytokines, is an important factor contributing to morbidity and mortality. However, the role of CIRP in causing endothelial dysfunction has not been investigated. In this study, we show that intravenous injection of recombinant murine CIRP (rmCIRP) in C57BL/6 mice causes lung injury, evidenced by vascular leakage, edema, increased leukocyte infiltration and cytokine production in the lung tissue. The CIRP-induced lung damage is accompanied with endothelial cell (EC) activation marked by upregulation of cell-surface adhesion molecules E-selectin and ICAM-1. Using in vitro primary mouse lung vascular ECs (MLVECs), we demonstrate that rmCIRP treatment directly increases the ICAM-1 protein expression and activates NAD(P)H oxidase in MLVECs. Importantly, CIRP stimulates the assembly and activation of Nlrp3 inflammasome in MLVECs accompanied with caspase-1 activation, IL-1β release and induction of proinflammatory cell death pyroptosis. Finally, our study demonstrates CIRP-induced EC pyroptosis in the lungs of C57BL/6 mice for the first time. Taken together, the released CIRP in shock can directly activate ECs and induce EC pyroptosis to cause lung injury.
Project description:Cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRP), released into the circulation during sepsis, causes lung injury via an as yet unknown mechanism. Since endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is associated with acute lung injury (ALI), we hypothesized that CIRP causes ALI via induction of ER stress. To test this hypothesis, we studied the lungs of wild-type (WT) and CIRP knockout (KO) mice at 20?h after induction of sepsis by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). WT mice had significantly more severe ALI than CIRP KO mice. Lung ER stress markers (BiP, pIRE1?, sXBP1, CHOP, cleaved caspase-12) were increased in septic WT mice, but not in septic CIRP KO mice. Effector pathways downstream from ER stress - apoptosis, NF-?B (p65), proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1?), neutrophil chemoattractants (MIP-2, KC), neutrophil infiltration (MPO activity), lipid peroxidation (4-HNE), and nitric oxide (iNOS) - were significantly increased in WT mice, but only mildly elevated in CIRP KO mice. ER stress markers were increased in the lungs of healthy WT mice treated with recombinant murine CIRP, but not in the lungs of TLR4 KO mice. This suggests CIRP directly induces ER stress via TLR4 activation. In summary, CIRP induces lung ER stress and downstream responses to cause sepsis-associated ALI.
Project description:<b>Background: </b>Neonatal sepsis and the associated myocardial dysfunction remain a leading cause of infant mortality. Extracellular cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (eCIRP) acts as a ligand of triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1). M3 is a small CIRP-derived peptide that inhibits the eCIRP/TREM-1 interaction. We hypothesize that the eCIRP/TREM-1 interaction in cardiomyocytes contributes to sepsis-induced cardiac dysfunction in neonatal sepsis, while M3 is cardioprotective.<br><br><b>Methods: </b>Serum was collected from neonates in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). 5-7-day old C57BL/6 mouse pups were used in this study. Primary murine neonatal cardiomyocytes were stimulated with recombinant murine (rm) CIRP with M3. TREM-1 mRNA and supernatant cytokine levels were assayed. Mitochondrial oxidative stress, ROS, and membrane potential were assayed. Neonatal mice were injected with rmCIRP and speckle-tracking echocardiography was conducted to measure cardiac strain. Sepsis was induced by i.p. cecal slurry. Mouse pups were treated with M3 or vehicle. After 16 h, echocardiography was performed followed by euthanasia for tissue analysis. A 7-day survival study was conducted.<br><br><b>Results: </b>Serum eCIRP levels were elevated in septic human neonates. rmCIRP stimulation of cardiomyocytes increased TREM-1 gene expression. Stimulation of cardiomyocytes with rmCIRP upregulated TNF-? and IL-6 in the supernatants, while this upregulation was inhibited by M3. Stimulation of cardiomyocytes with rmCIRP resulted in a reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) while M3 treatment returned MMP to near baseline. rmCIRP caused mitochondrial calcium overload; this was inhibited by M3. rmCIRP injection impaired longitudinal and radial cardiac strain. Sepsis resulted in cardiac dysfunction with a reduction in cardiac output and left ventricular end diastolic diameter. Both were improved by M3 treatment. Treatment with M3 attenuated serum, cardiac, and pulmonary levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines compared to vehicle-treated septic neonates. M3 dramatically increased sepsis survival.<br><br><b>Conclusions: </b>Inhibition of eCIRP/TREM-1 interaction with M3 is cardioprotective, decreases inflammation, and improves survival in neonatal sepsis. Trial registration Retrospectively registered.
Project description:Wound healing is impaired in diabetes, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Neutrophils are the main leukocytes involved in the early phase of healing. As part of their anti-microbial defense, neutrophils form extracellular traps (NETs) by releasing decondensed chromatin lined with cytotoxic proteins. NETs, however, can also induce tissue damage. Here we show that neutrophils isolated from type 1 and type 2 diabetic humans and mice were primed to produce NETs (a process termed NETosis). Expression of peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PAD4, encoded by Padi4 in mice), an enzyme important in chromatin decondensation, was elevated in neutrophils from individuals with diabetes. When subjected to excisional skin wounds, wild-type (WT) mice produced large quantities of NETs in wounds, but this was not observed in Padi4(-/-) mice. In diabetic mice, higher levels of citrullinated histone H3 (H3Cit, a NET marker) were found in their wounds than in normoglycemic mice and healing was delayed. Wound healing was accelerated in Padi4(-/-) mice as compared to WT mice, and it was not compromised by diabetes. DNase 1, which disrupts NETs, accelerated wound healing in diabetic and normoglycemic WT mice. Thus, NETs impair wound healing, particularly in diabetes, in which neutrophils are more susceptible to NETosis. Inhibiting NETosis or cleaving NETs may improve wound healing and reduce NET-driven chronic inflammation in diabetes.
Project description:An exacerbated amount of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) can cause dysfunction of systems during inflammation. However, host proteins and factors that suppress NET formation (NETosis) are not clearly identified. Here we show that an innate immune collectin, pulmonary surfactant protein-D (SP-D), attenuates lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated NETosis in human neutrophils by binding to LPS. SP-D deficiency in mice (<i>Sftpd</i> <sup>-/-</sup>) leads to excess NET formation in the lungs during LPS-mediated inflammation. In the absence of SP-D, NETs inhibit the surface-active properties of lung surfactant, essential to prevent the collapse of alveoli, the air breathing structures of the lungs. SP-D reverses NET-mediated inhibition of surfactant and restores the biophysical properties of surfactant. To the best of our knowledge, this study establishes for the first time that (i) SP-D suppresses LPS-mediated NETosis, (ii) NETs inhibit pulmonary surfactant function in the absence of SP-D, and (iii) SP-D can restore NET-mediated inhibition of the surfactant system.
Project description:Neutrophils are the most abundant innate immune cells and the first line of defense against many pathogenic microbes, including the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans. Among the neutrophils' arsenal of effector functions, neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are thought to be of particular importance for trapping and killing the large fungal filaments by means of their web-like structures that consist of chromatin fibers decorated with proteolytic enzymes and host defense proteins. Peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PAD4)-mediated citrullination of histones in activated neutrophils correlates with chromatin decondensation and extrusion and is widely accepted to act as an integral process of NET induction (NETosis). However, the requirement of PAD4-mediated histone citrullination for NET release during C. albicans infection remains unclear. In this study, we show that although PAD4-dependent neutrophil histone citrullination is readily induced by C. albicans, PAD4 is dispensable for NETosis in response to the fungus and other common NET-inducing stimuli. Moreover, PAD4 is not required for antifungal immunity during mucosal and systemic C. albicans infection. Our results demonstrate that PAD4 is dispensable for C. albicans-induced NETosis, and they highlight the limitations of using histone citrullination as a marker for NETs and PAD4-/- mice as a model of NET-deficiency.
Project description:Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are web-like DNA structures decorated with histones and cytotoxic proteins that are released by activated neutrophils to trap and neutralize pathogens during the innate immune response, but also form in and exacerbate sterile inflammation. Peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PAD4) citrullinates histones and is required for NET formation (NETosis) in mouse neutrophils. While the in vivo impact of NETs is accumulating, the cellular events driving NETosis and the role of PAD4 in these events are unclear. We performed high-resolution time-lapse microscopy of mouse and human neutrophils and differentiated HL-60 neutrophil-like cells (dHL-60) labeled with fluorescent markers of organelles and stimulated with bacterial toxins or Candida albicans to induce NETosis. Upon stimulation, cells exhibited rapid disassembly of the actin cytoskeleton, followed by shedding of plasma membrane microvesicles, disassembly and remodeling of the microtubule and vimentin cytoskeletons, ER vesiculation, chromatin decondensation and nuclear rounding, progressive plasma membrane and nuclear envelope (NE) permeabilization, nuclear lamin meshwork and then NE rupture to release DNA into the cytoplasm, and finally plasma membrane rupture and discharge of extracellular DNA. Inhibition of actin disassembly blocked NET release. Mouse and dHL-60 cells bearing genetic alteration of PAD4 showed that chromatin decondensation, lamin meshwork and NE rupture and extracellular DNA release required the enzymatic and nuclear localization activities of PAD4. Thus, NETosis proceeds by a stepwise sequence of cellular events culminating in the PAD4-mediated expulsion of DNA.
Project description:INTRODUCTION: Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) have recently been implicated in a number of autoimmune conditions, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We examined the underlying signaling pathways triggering enhanced NETosis in RA and ascertained whether the products of NETosis had diagnostic implications or usefulness. METHODS: Neutrophils were isolated from RA patients with active disease and from controls. Spontaneous NET formation from RA and control neutrophils was assessed in vitro with microscopy and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for NETosis-derived products. The analysis of the signal-transduction cascade included reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, myeloperoxidase (MPO), neutrophil elastase (NE), peptidyl arginine deiminase 4 (PAD4), and citrullinated histone 3 (citH3). NET formation was studied in response to serum and synovial fluid and immunoglobulin G (IgG) depleted and reconstituted serum. Serum was analyzed for NETosis-derived products, for which receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves were calculated. RESULTS: Neutrophils from RA cases exhibited increased spontaneous NET formation in vitro, associated with elevated ROS production, enhanced NE and MPO expression, nuclear translocation of PAD4, PAD4-mediated citrullination of H3, and altered nuclear morphology. NET formation in both anti-citrullinated peptide antibody (ACPA)-positive and -negative RA was abolished by IgG depletion, but restored only with ACPA-positive IgG. NETosis-derived products in RA serum demonstrated diagnostic potential, the ROC area under the curve for cell-free nucleosomes being >97%, with a sensitivity of 91% and a specificity of 92%. No significant difference was observed between ACPA-positive and -negative cases. CONCLUSIONS: Signaling elements associated with the extrusion of NETs are significantly enhanced to promote NETosis in RA compared with healthy controls. NETosis depended on the presence of ACPA in ACPA-positive RA serum. The quantitation of NETosis-derived products, such as cell-free nucleosomes in serum, may be a useful complementary tool to discriminate between healthy controls and RA cases.