Informing the management of acute malnutrition in infants aged under 6 months (MAMI): risk factor analysis using nationally-representative demographic & health survey secondary data.
ABSTRACT: Background:Tackling malnutrition is a global health priority, helping children both survive and thrive. Acute malnutrition (wasting) in infants aged under 6 months (u6m) is often neglected. Worldwide, some 8.5 million infants u6m are affected yet recent World Health Organization malnutrition guidelines highlight numerous evidence gaps on how to best manage them. To inform future research, policy and programming, we aimed to identify risk factors associated with infant u6m wasting. Methods:We did secondary data analysis of nationally representative, cross sectional Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in the last 10 years. We compared wasted infants u6m (weight-for-length <-2 z-scores) vs. non-wasted (weight-for-length ?-2 z-score). We used simple and adjusted (for infant age, sex, socio-economic status) logistic regression to calculate odds of wasting associated with risk factors spanning three broad categories: household-related; maternal-related; infant-related. Results:We analysed 16,123 infants u6m from 20 countries. Multiple risk factors were statistically associated with wasting. These included: poverty (Odds ratio, OR 1.22 (95% CI [1.01-1.48], p = 0.04)); low maternal body mass index (adjusted OR 1.53(1.29-1.80, p < 0.001); small infant size at birth (aOR 1.32(1.10-1.58, p < 0.01)); delayed start of breastfeeding (aOR 1.31(1.13-1.51, p < 0.001)); prelacteal feed (aOR 1.34(1.18-1.53, p < 0.001)); recent history of diarrhoea (aOR 1.37(1.12-1.67, p < 0.01)); mother disempowered (experiences violence; does not make decisions about health issues; does not engage with health services such as antenatal care, does not give birth in a health facility). 'Protective' factors associated with significantly decreased odds of infant u6m wasting included: educated mother (OR 0.64(0.54-0.76, p < 0.001)); mother in work (OR 0.82(0.72-0.94, p < 0.01)); currently breastfed (aOR 0.62(0.42-0.91, p = 0.02)), exclusively breastfed (aOR 0.84(0.73-0.97, p = 0.02). Discussion:Infant u6m wasting is a complex, multifactorial problem associated with many risk factors; knowing them will help shape international and national management strategies. Whilst our observational study cannot prove causation, many factors identified are biologically plausible and/or socially important. They should be considered when assessing and managing infants u6m. Although supporting breastfeeding is core to future interventions, this alone is unlikely to be sufficient; strategies should involve multiple sectors, beyond just health and nutrition. By noting our results, future intervention studies could focus resources and maximise chances of achieving impact.
Project description:Early infection from enteropathogens is recognised as both a cause and effect of infant malnutrition. Specifically, evidence demonstrates associations between growth shortfalls and Campylobacter infection, endemic across low-income settings, with poultry a major source. Whilst improvements in water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) should reduce pathogen transmission, interventions show inconsistent effects on infant health. This cross-sectional, formative study aimed to understand relationships between infant Campylobacter prevalence, malnutrition and associated risk factors, including domestic animal husbandry practices, in rural Ethiopia. Thirty-five households were visited in Sidama zone, Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples' region. Infant and poultry faeces and domestic floor surfaces (total = 102) were analysed for presumptive Campylobacter spp. using selective culture. Infant anthropometry and diarrhoeal prevalence, WASH facilities and animal husbandry data were collected. Of the infants, 14.3% were wasted, 31.4% stunted and 31.4% had recent diarrhoea. Presumptive Campylobacter spp. was isolated from 48.6% of infant, 68.6% of poultry and 65.6% of floor surface samples. Compared to non-wasted infants, wasted infants had an increased odds ratio (OR) of 1.41 for a Campylobacter-positive stool and 1.81 for diarrhoea. Positive infant stools showed a significant relationship with wasting (p = 0.026) but not stunting. Significant risk factors for a positive stool included keeping animals inside (p = 0.027, OR 3.5), owning cattle (p = 0.018, OR 6.5) and positive poultry faeces (p<0.001, OR 1.34). Positive floor samples showed a significant correlation with positive infant (p = 0.023), and positive poultry (p = 0.013, OR 2.68) stools. Ownership of improved WASH facilities was not correlated with lower odds of positive stools. This formative study shows a high prevalence of infants positive for Campylobacter in households with free-range animals. Findings reaffirm contaminated floors as an important pathway to infant pathogen ingestion and suggest that simply upgrading household WASH facilities will not reduce infection without addressing the burden of contamination from animals, alongside adequate separation in the home.
Project description:Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) affects ~4 million infants under 6 months (u6m) worldwide, but evidence underpinning their care is "very low" quality. To inform future research and policy, the objectives of our study were to identify risk factors for infant u6m SAM and describe the clinical and anthropometric outcomes of treatment with current management strategies. We conducted a prospective cohort study in infants u6m in Barisal district, Bangladesh. One group of 77 infants had SAM (weight-for-length Z-score [WLZ] <-3 and/or bipedal oedema); 77 others were "non-SAM" (WLZ ?-2 to <+2, no oedema, mid-upper-arm circumference ?125 mm). All were enrolled at 4-8 weeks of age and followed up at 6 months. Maternal education and satisfaction with breastfeeding were among factors associated with SAM. Duration of exclusive breastfeeding was shorter at enrolment (3·9 ± 2.1 vs. 5.7 ± 2.2 weeks, P < 0.0001) and at age 6 months (13.2 ± 8.9 vs. 17.4 ± 7.9 weeks; P = 0.003) among SAM infants. Despite referral, only 13 (17%) reported for inpatient care, and at 6 months, 18 (23%) infants with SAM still had SAM, and 3 (3.9%) died. In the non-SAM group, one child developed SAM, and none died. We conclude that current treatment strategies have limited practical effectiveness: poor uptake of inpatient referral being the main reason. World Health Organization recommendations and other intervention strategies of outpatient-focused care for malnourished but clinically stable infants u6m need to be tested. Breastfeeding support is likely central to future treatment strategies but may be insufficient alone. Better case definitions of nutritionally at-risk infants are also needed.
Project description:Background:Infants under 6 months (U6M) contribute a significant proportion of the burden and mortality of severe malnutrition globally. Evidence of underlying aetiology in this population is sparse, but it is known that the group includes ex-preterm and low birthweight (LBW) infants. They represent a unique population given their dependence on breastmilk or a safe, secure alternative. Nutrition agencies and health providers struggle to make programming decisions on which interventions should be provided to this group based upon the 2013 WHO Guidelines for the 'Management of Severe Acute Malnutrition in Infants and Young Children' since there are no published interventional trial data focussed on this population. Interim guidance for this group might be informed by evidence of safety and efficacy in adjacent population groups. Methodology:A narrative literature review was performed of systematic reviews, meta-analyses and randomised controlled trials of antimicrobial and micronutrient interventions (antibiotics, deworming, vitamin A, vitamin D, iron, zinc, folic acid and oral rehydration solution (ORS) for malnutrition) across the population groups of low birthweight/preterm infants, infants under 6 months, infants and children over 6 months with acute malnutrition or through supplementation to breastfeeding mothers. Outcomes of interest were safety and efficacy, in terms of mortality and morbidity. Results:Ninety-four articles were identified for inclusion within this review. None of these studied interventions exclusively in severely malnourished infants U6M. 64% reported on the safety of studied interventions. Significant heterogeneity was identified in definitions of study populations, interventions provided, and outcomes studied. The evidence for efficacy and safety across population groups is reviewed and presented for the interventions listed. Conclusions:The direct evidence base for medical interventions for severely malnourished infants U6M is sparse. Our review identifies a specific need for accurate micronutrient profiling and interventional studies of micronutrients and oral fluid management of diarrhoea amongst infants U6M meeting anthropometric criteria for severe malnutrition. Indirect evidence presented in this review may help shape interim policy and programming decisions as well as the future research agenda for the management of infants U6M identified as malnourished.
Project description:Given the high prevalence of malnutrition in a malaria-endemic setting, improving nutritional status could serve as a tool to prevent malaria. However, the relationship between the two conditions remains unclear. Therefore, this study assessed the association between under-nutrition and malaria among a cohort of children aged 6 to 59 months old.Two cohorts of children were followed for 89 weeks in a rural Rift Valley area of Ethiopia. In the first approach (malaria-malnutrition), a cohort of 2,330 non-stunted and 4,204 non-wasted children were included to assess under-nutrition (outcome) based on their previous malaria status (exposure). In the second approach (malnutrition-malaria), a cohort of 4,468 children were followed-up to measure malaria (outcome), taking under-nutrition as an exposure. A weekly home visit was carried out to identify malaria cases. Four anthropometry surveys were conducted, and generalized estimating equation (GEE) method was used to measure the association between undernutrition and malaria.The prevalence of stunting was 44.9% in December 2014, 51.5% in August 2015, 50.7% in December 2015 and 48.1% in August 2016. We observed 103 cases with 118 episodes of malaria, 684 new stunting and 239 new wasting cases. The incidence rate per 10,000 weeks of observation was 3.8 for malaria, 50.4 for stunting and 8.2 for wasting. Children with malaria infection, [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 1.9; 95% Confidence Interval (CI), 1.2-2.9)] and younger age (AOR = 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1-1.5) were more likely to be stunted. Furthermore, children with malaria infection (AOR = 8.5; 95% CI, 5.0-14.5) and young age group (AOR = 1.6; 95% CI, 1.2-2.1) were more likely to be wasted. However, stunting and wasting were not risk factors of subsequent malaria illness.Malaria infection was a risk factor for stunting and wasting, but stunting or wasting was not associated with subsequent malaria illness. As our study shows that malaria is a risk factor for stunting and wasting, a close follow-up of the nutritional status of such children may be needed.PACT R2014 11000 882128 (8 September 2014).
Project description:BACKGROUND:This study aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of maternal risk factors, infant risk factors and maternal infant feeding practices among refugees and migrants along the Thailand-Myanmar border. METHODS:This study employed a mixed-methods approach with two components: (1) cross-sectional survey (n?=?390) and (2) focus group discussions (n?=?63). Participants were chosen from one of three clinics providing antenatal and delivery services for Karen and Burman refugees and migrants along the border. Participants were pregnant women and mother-infant dyads. RESULTS:Refugee and migrant mothers demonstrated high rates of suboptimal breastfeeding and low rates of minimum dietary diversity and acceptable diet. Multivariable regression models showed infant stunting (AOR: 2.08, 95% CI: 1.12, 3.84, p?=?0.020) and underweight (AOR: 2.26, 95% CI: 1.17, 4.36, p?=?0.015) to have increased odds among migrants, while each 5?cm increase in maternal height had decreased odds of stunting (AOR: 0.50, 95% CI: 0.38, 0.66, p?<?0.001) and underweight (AOR: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.48, 0.85, p?=?0.002). In addition, small-for-gestational-age adjusted for length of gestation, infant age and gender increased odds of infant's stunting (AOR: 3.42, 95% CI: 1.88, 6.22, p?<?0.001) and underweight (AOR: 4.44, 95% CI: 2.36, 8.34, p?<?0.001). Using the Integrated Behavioural Model, focus group discussions explained the cross-sectional findings in characterising attitudes, perceived norms, and personal agency as they relate to maternal nutrition, infant malnutrition, and infant feeding practices. CONCLUSIONS:Inadequate infant feeding practices are widespread in refugee and migrant communities along the Thailand-Myanmar border. Risk factors particular to maternal nutrition and infant birth should be considered for future programming to reduce the burden of chronic malnutrition in infants.
Project description:Burden and risk factors for wasting in the first 6 months of life among Indian children are not well documented. We used data from India's National Family Health Survey 4 to estimate the prevalence of severe wasting (weight for length < -3 SD) among 18,898 infants under 6 months of age. We also examined the association of severe wasting with household, maternal, and child-related factors using multivariable logistic regression analysis. Prevalence of severe wasting among infants less than 6 months of age was 14.8%, ranging from 3.5 to 21% across states. Low birth weight (<2,500 g; adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.40, 95% CI [1.19, 1.65]), nonutilization of supplementary nutrition by mother during lactation (AOR 1.23, 95% CI [1.05, 1.43]), and anthropometric assessment during summer (AOR 1.37, 95% CI [1.13, 1.65]) and monsoon months (AOR 1.53, 95% CI [1.20, 1.95]) were associated with higher odds of severe wasting. Infants aged 2 to 3 months (AOR 0.78, 95% CI [0.66, 0.93]) and 4 to 5 months (AOR 0.65, 95% CI [0.55, 0.73]) had lower odds of severe wasting as compared with the 0- to 1-month category. This analysis reveals a high burden of severe wasting in infants less than 6 months in India. Preventive interventions must be targeted at reducing low birth weight due to fatal growth restriction and prematurity. Appropriate care practices at facilities and postdischarge with extra attention to those born small and sick can prevent further deterioration in nutritional status.
Project description:Poor growth and malnutrition are frequently reported in children with cerebral palsy in developed countries, but there is limited information from developing countries. We investigated the nutritional status of Ugandan children with cerebral palsy and described the factors associated with poor nutrition.We examined 135 children from two to 12 years with cerebral palsy, who attended Uganda's national referral hospital. A child was considered underweight, wasted, stunted or thin if the standard deviation scores for their weight for age, weight for height, height for age and body mass index for age were ?-2.0 using World Health Organization growth standards. Multivariable logistic regression identified the factors associated with nutritional indicators.Over half (52%) of the children were malnourished, with underweight (42%) being the most common category, followed by stunting (38%), thinness (21%) and wasting (18%). Factors that were independently associated with being malnourished were as follows: presence of cognitive impairment, with an adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of 4.5, being 5 years or older (aOR = 3.4) and feeding difficulties in the perinatal period (aOR = 3.2).Malnutrition was common in Ugandan children with cerebral palsy and more likely if they were 5 years or more or had experienced neonatal complications.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Malnutrition is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in children. The aim of this study was to compare the nutritional status of children under 5 years of teenage and adult mothers in Tamale Metropolis, Ghana. A case-control study involving 300 (150 cases, 150 controls) mother-child pairs was carried out. A questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics of mothers and children and anthropometry was used to assess the nutritional status of children. Anthropometric z-scores derived based on WHO Child Growth Standards were used to determine stunting, wasting and underweight statuses of children. Logistic regression analysis was used to compare the nutritional status of children of teenage and adult mothers. RESULTS:Children of teenage mothers, compared to those of adult mothers, were 8 times more likely to be stunted [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR)?=?7.56; 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.20-13.63], 3 times more likely to be wasted (AOR?=?2.90; 95% CI 1.04-8.04), and 13 times more likely to be underweight (AOR?=?12.78; 95% CI 4.69-34.81) after adjusting for potential confounders. The risk of child malnutrition increases with young maternal age; interventions should be targeted at teenage mothers and their children to reduce the risk of malnutrition.
Project description:Background:About 24 million children across the world live without their parents. In resource-limited countries like Ethiopia, childhood malnutrition is common and intertwined with poverty. It is a leading cause of death for children contributing over half of child mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Nevertheless; little is known about the prevalence of malnutrition and associated factors among under five age orphans, as most of the variable studies were geared towards under five children as wholesome. Method:A community based cross-sectional study design complemented with qualitative methods was conducted collecting data from mothers/caretakers of 367 orphans in Dilla town, Southern Ethiopia from 5, Dec.2017-18, Jan. 2018. Systematic random sampling technique was used, A structured pretested interviewer administered questionnaire complemented by focus group discussions and key informant in-depth interviews" was used. Anthropometric measurements were also carried. Data were entered in to EPi-info version 3.5.4 software and exported to SPSS version 20 for analysis. The prevalence of wasting among Orphans was assessed by calculating the percentages using ENA for SMART 2012 software and analysis was made using WHO Standard cut off point below- 2?S. D using z-scores. All variables with p value of <?0.25 during bivariate logistic regression analysis were entered to a multivariate analysis to identify variables independently associated with the outcome variable at p value 0.05 with 95% CI. For qualitative aspect, thematic framework analysis was employed. Results:11.1% orphans were wasted from which 3.3 are severely wasted. The main associated factors of wasting were found to be number of under-five orphans at home (AOR 1.420; 95% CI 1.094-3.086), duration of breast feeding (AOR 2.039; 95% CI 1.027-4.048), marital status of care givers (AOR 1.482; 95% CI 1.692-3.377), age when complementary meal started (AOR 2.023; 95% CI 1.028-3.980), wealth index (AOR 2.558; 95% CI 1.074-3.515) and access to balanced diet (AOR 2.022; 95% CI 1.026-3.889). Conclusion:The prevalence of wasting is high among under-five orphans; therefore, all concerned bodies should pay a great attention for proposed interventions like Strengthen the social interactions and indigenous institutions to maximize social care for under five orphans and Integrating locally available nutrition support programs to reach under 5 yrs orphans.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Malnutrition is the top cause of global burden of disease, disability and mortality among infants. Over two-thirds of deaths of children globally occur during the first year of life (infancy). Malnutrition among infants is substantially high in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study is aimed to assess determinants of infant nutritional status. METHODS:A community based nested case-control study was conducted from February to June 2013 in Dabat district. A total of 80 cases and 320 controls (1:4 ratios) were studied. Relevant data was extracted from the community based survey data set. Anthroplus software was used to identify cases and controls. Determinants of infant nutritional status were identified using multivariate analysis. RESULTS:Among the total of 80 cases and 320 controls, more than half (52.5%) of the cases and the controls (53.8%) were males and females, respectively. Breast Feeding (BF) was started immediately after birth in only 43.8% of the cases. Nearly 94% of the mothers of the cases had no breast feeding information as part of Ante Natal Care (ANC) follow up. Maternal age (AOR: 0.29; 95% CI: 0.11-0.76), having radio (AOR: 0.43; 95% CI: 0.22-0.82), lack of toilet facility (AOR: 2.24; 95% CI: 1.16-4.33), deprivation of colostrum (AOR: 1.76; 95% CI: 1.01-1.06) and method of complementary feeding (AOR: 2.82; 95% CI: 1.33-5.99) were associated with wasting. CONCLUSIONS:This study has found that inappropriate infant feeding; nutritional information gap and lack of toilet facility as significant predictors of malnutrition. Hence, joint interventions, including counseling of mothers about benefits of colostrum feeding and use of appropriate feeding method, toilet utilization and mass media such as radio possession, are needed to address the problem in Dabat district.