APOL1 renal risk variants promote cholesterol accumulation in tissues and cultured macrophages from APOL1 transgenic mice.
ABSTRACT: Apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) genetic variants G1 and G2, compared to the common allele G0, are major risk factors for non-diabetic kidney disease in African descent populations. APOL1 is a minor protein component of HDL, as well as being expressed in podocytes and vascular cells. Reverse cholesterol transport involves the transport of cholesterol to HDL by cellular ATP-binding cassette; ABCA1 and ABCG1 with subsequent delivery from peripheral tissues to the liver. With impaired reverse cholesterol transport, lipid accumulation occurs and macrophages morphologically transform into foam cells, releasing inflammatory factors. We asked whether the APOL1 risk variants alter peripheral cholesterol metabolism and specifically affect macrophage cholesterol efflux. Tissues and bone marrow (BM)-derived monocytes were isolated from wild-type mice (WT) and from BAC/APOL1 transgenic (APOL1-G0, APOL1-G1, and APOL1-G2) mice, which carry a bacterial artificial chromosome that contains the human APOL1 genomic region. Monocytes were differentiated into macrophages using M-CSF, and then polarized into M1 and M2 macrophages. Cholesterol content, cholesterol efflux, and ABCA1 and ABCG1 mRNA expression were measured. Kidney, spleen, and bone marrow-derived macrophages from APOL1-G1 and -G2 mice showed increased cholesterol accumulation and decreased ABCA1 and ABCG1 mRNA levels. BM-derived macrophages from APOL1-G1 and -G2 mice showed significantly reduced cholesterol efflux compared to WT or APOL1-G0 macrophages. Taken together, the evidence suggests that APOL1-G1 and -G2 risk variants impaired reverse cholesterol transport through decreased expression of cholesterol efflux transporters suggesting a possible mechanism to promote macrophage foam cell formation, driving inflammation in the glomerulus and renal interstitium.
Project description:People of recent sub-Saharan African ancestry develop kidney failure much more frequently than other groups. A large fraction of this disparity is due to two coding sequence variants in the APOL1 gene. Inheriting two copies of these APOL1 risk variants, known as G1 and G2, causes high rates of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), HIV-associated nephropathy and hypertension-associated end-stage kidney disease. Disease risk follows a recessive mode of inheritance, which is puzzling given the considerable data that G1 and G2 are toxic gain-of-function variants. We developed coisogenic bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) transgenic mice harboring either the wild-type (G0), G1 or G2 forms of human APOL1. Expression of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) via plasmid tail vein injection results in upregulation of APOL1 protein levels together with robust induction of heavy proteinuria and glomerulosclerosis in G1/G1 and G2/G2 but not G0/G0 mice. The disease phenotype was greater in G2/G2 mice. Neither heterozygous (G1/G0 or G2/G0) risk variant mice nor hemizygous (G1/-, G2/-) mice had significant kidney injury in response to IFN-γ, although the heterozygous mice had a greater proteinuric response than the hemizygous mice, suggesting that the lack of significant disease in humans heterozygous for G1 or G2 is not due to G0 rescue of G1 or G2 toxicity. Studies using additional mice (multicopy G2 and a non-isogenic G0 mouse) supported the notion that disease is largely a function of the level of risk variant APOL1 expression. Together, these findings shed light on the recessive nature of APOL1-nephropathy and present an important model for future studies.
Project description:Apolipoprotein L1 ( ApoL1) genetic variants are strongly associated with kidney diseases. We investigated the role of ApoL1 variants in monocyte differentiation and eicosanoid production in macrophages, as activated tissue macrophages in kidney might contribute to kidney injury. In human monocyte THP-1 cells, transient overexpression of ApoL1 (G0, G1, G2) by transfection resulted in a 5- to 11-fold increase in CD14 and CD68 gene expression, similar to that seen with phorbol-12-myristate acetate treatment. All ApoL1 variants caused monocytes to differentiate into atypical M1 macrophages with marked increase in M1 markers CD80, TNF, IL1B, and IL6 and modest increase in the M2 marker CD163 compared with control cells. ApoL1-G1 transfection induced additional CD206 and TGFB1 expression, and ApoL1-G2 transfection induced additional CD204 and TGFB1 expression. Gene expression of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthase and thromboxane synthase and both gene and protein expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were increased by ApoL1-G1 and -G2 variants compared with -G0 transfection. Higher levels of PGE2 and thromboxane B2, a stable metabolite of thromboxane A2, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1 were released into the supernatant of cultured THP-1 cells transfected with ApoL1-G1 and -G2, but not -G0. The increase in PGE2, thromboxane B2, and TGF-?1 was inhibited by COX-2-specific inhibitor CAY10404 but not by COX-1-specific inhibitor SC-560. These results demonstrate a novel role of ApoL1 variants in the regulation of monocyte differentiation and eicosanoid metabolism, which could modify the immune response and promote inflammatory signaling within the local targeted organs and tissues including the kidney.
Project description:Two coding sequence variants (G1 and G2) of Apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) gene have been implicated as a higher risk factor for chronic kidney diseases (CKD) in African Americans when compared with European Americans. Previous studies have suggested that the APOL1 G1 and G2 variant proteins are more toxic to kidney cells than the wild-type APOL1 G0, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. To determine whether endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress contributes to podocyte toxicity, we generated human podocytes (HPs) that stably overexpressed APOL1 G0, G1, or G2 (Vec/HPs, G0/HPs, G1/HPs, and G2/HPs). Propidium iodide staining showed that HP overexpressing the APOL1 G1 or G2 variant exhibited a higher rate of necrosis when compared with those overexpressing the wild-type G0 counterpart. Consistently, the expression levels of nephrin and podocin proteins were significantly decreased in the G1- or G2-overexpressing cells despite the maintenance of their mRNA expressions levels. In contrast, the expression of the 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein ((GRP78), also known as the binding Ig protein, BiP) and the phosphorylation of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 1 (eIF1) were significantly elevated in the G1/HPs and G2/HPs, suggesting a possible occurrence of ER stress in these cells. Furthermore, ER stress inhibitors not only restored nephrin protein expression, but also provided protection against necrosis in G1/HPs and G2/HPs, suggesting that APOL1 risk variants cause podocyte injury partly through enhancing ER stress.
Project description:Apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) wild type (G0) plays a role in the metabolism of sphingolipids, glycosphingolipids, sphingomyelin and ceramide, which constitute bioactive components of the lipid rafts (DRM). We asked whether APOL1 variants (APOL1-Vs) G1 and G2 carry the potential to alter the metabolism of sphingolipids in human podocytes. The sphingolipid pattern in HPs overexpressing either APOL1G0 or APOL1-Vs was analysed by using a thin mono- and bi-dimensional layer chromatography, mass-spectrometry and metabolic labelling with [1-3H]sphingosine. HP G0 and G1/G2-Vs exhibit a comparable decrease in lactosylceramide and an increase in the globotriaosylceramide content. An analysis of the main glycohydrolases activity involved in glycosphingolipid catabolism showed an overall decrease in the activeness of the tested enzymes, irrespective of the type of APOL1-Vs expression. Similarly, the high throughput cell live-based assay showed a comparable increased action of the plasma membrane glycosphingolipid-glycohydrolases in living cells independent of the genetic APOL1 expression profile. Importantly, the most significative modification of the sphingolipid pattern induced by APOL1-Vs occurred in DRM resulted with a drastic reduction of radioactivity associated with sphingolipids. G1/G2-Vs present a decrease amount of globotriaosylceramide and globopentaosylceramide compared to G0. Additionally, ceramide at the DRM site and lactosylceramide in general, showed a greatest fall in G1/G2 in comparison with G0. Additionally, the levels of glucosylceramide decreased only in the DRM of human podocytes overexpressing G1/G2-Vs. These findings suggest that altered sphingolipidsprofiles may contribute to the deranged functionality of the plasma membrane in APOL1 risk milieu.
Project description:Liver X receptor (LXR) activators decrease atherosclerosis in mice. LXR activators (1) directly upregulate genes involved in reverse cholesterol transport and (2) exert anti-inflammatory effects mediated by transrepression of nuclear factor-?B target genes. We investigated whether myeloid cell deficiency of ATP-binding cassette transporters A1 and G1 (ABCA1/G1), principal targets of LXR that promote macrophage cholesterol efflux and initiate reverse cholesterol transport, would abolish the beneficial effects of LXR activation on atherosclerosis.LXR activator T0901317 substantially reduced inflammatory gene expression in macrophages lacking ABCA1/G1. Ldlr(-/-) mice were transplanted with Abca1(-/-)Abcg1(-/-) or wild-type bone marrow (BM) and fed a Western-type diet for 6 weeks with or without T0901317 supplementation. Abca1/g1 BM deficiency increased atherosclerotic lesion complexity and inflammatory cell infiltration into the adventitia and myocardium. T0901317 markedly decreased lesion area, complexity, and inflammatory cell infiltration in the Abca1(-/-)Abcg1(-/-) BM-transplanted mice. To investigate whether this was because of macrophage Abca1/g1 deficiency, Ldlr(-/-) mice were transplanted with LysmCreAbca1(fl/fl)Abcg1(fl/fl) or Abca1(fl/fl)Abcg1(fl/fl) BM and fed Western-type diet with or without the more specific LXR agonist GW3965 for 12 weeks. GW3965 decreased lesion size in both groups, and the decrease was more prominent in the LysmCreAbca1(fl/fl)Abcg1(fl/fl) group.The results suggest that anti-inflammatory effects of LXR activators are of key importance to their antiatherosclerotic effects in vivo independent of cholesterol efflux pathways mediated by macrophage ABCA1/G1. This has implications for the development of LXR activators that lack adverse effects on lipogenic genes while maintaining the ability to transrepress inflammatory genes.
Project description:Lipotoxicity was recently reported in several forms of kidney disease, including focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). Susceptibility to FSGS in African Americans is associated with the presence of genetic variants of the Apolipoprotein L1 gene (APOL1) named G1 and G2. If and how endogenous APOL1 may alter mitochondrial function by the modifying cellular lipid metabolism is unknown. Using transgenic mice expressing the APOL1 variants (G0, G1 or G2) under endogenous promoter, we show that APOL1 risk variant expression in transgenic mice does not impair kidney function at baseline. However, APOL1 G1 expression worsens proteinuria and kidney function in mice characterized by the podocyte inducible expression of nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT), which we have found to cause FSGS. APOL1 G1 expression in this FSGS-model also results in increased triglyceride and cholesterol ester contents in kidney cortices, where lipid accumulation correlated with loss of renal function. In vitro, we show that the expression of endogenous APOL1 G1/G2 in human urinary podocytes is associated with increased cellular triglyceride content and is accompanied by mitochondrial dysfunction in the presence of compensatory oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes elevation. Our findings indicate that APOL1 risk variant expression increases the susceptibility to lipid-dependent podocyte injury, ultimately leading to mitochondrial dysfunction.
Project description:<b>Objective:</b> It has been reported that atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) regulates lipid metabolism by stimulating adipocyte browning, lipolysis, and lipid oxidation, and by impacting the secretion of adipokines. In our previous study, we found that the plasma ANP concentration of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) was significantly increased in comparison to that of normotensive pregnancy patients. Thus, this study's objective was to investigate the lipid profile in patients with HDP and determine the effects of ANP on the cholesterol efflux in THP-1 macrophages. <b>Methods:</b> A total of 265 HDP patients and 178 normotensive women as the control group were recruited. Clinical demographic characteristics and laboratory profile data were collected. Plasma total triglycerides (TGs), total cholesterol (TC), low-density cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density cholesterol (HDL-C) were compared between the two groups. THP-1 monocytes were incubated with different concentrations of ANP. ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) and ATP-binding cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1) mRNA and protein were evaluated. ABCA1- and ABCG1-mediated cholesterol efflux to apolipoprotein A-Ⅰ (apoA-Ⅰ) and HDL, respectively, were measured by green fluorescent labeled NBD cholesterol. Natriuretic peptide receptor A (NPR-A) siRNA and specific agonists of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) and liver X receptor α (LXRα) were studied to investigate the mechanism involved. <b>Results:</b> Plasma TG, TC, LDL-C, and LDL-C/HDL-C were significantly increased, and HDL-C was significantly decreased in the HDP group in comparison to the control (all <i>p</i> < 0.001). ANP inhibited the expression of ABCA1 and ABCG1 at both the mRNA and protein levels in a dose-dependent manner. The functions of ABCA1- and ABCG1-mediated cholesterol efflux to apoA-I and HDL were significantly decreased. NPR-A siRNA further confirmed that ANP binding to its receptor inhibited ABCA1/G1 expression through the PPAR-γ/LXRα pathway. <b>Conclusions:</b> ABCA1/G1 was inhibited by the stimulation of ANP when combined with NPR-A through the PPAR-γ/LXRα pathway in THP-1 macrophages. The ABCA1/G1-mediated cholesterol efflux was also impaired by the stimulation of ANP. This may provide a new explanation for the decreased level of HDL-C in HDP patients.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Plasma high-density lipoproteins have several putative antiatherogenic effects, including preservation of endothelial functions. This is thought to be mediated, in part, by the ability of high-density lipoproteins to promote cholesterol efflux from endothelial cells (ECs). The ATP-binding cassette transporters A1 and G1 (ABCA1 and ABCG1) interact with high-density lipoproteins to promote cholesterol efflux from ECs. To determine the impact of endothelial cholesterol efflux pathways on atherogenesis, we prepared mice with endothelium-specific knockout of Abca1 and Abcg1. APPROACH AND RESULTS:Generation of mice with EC-ABCA1 and ABCG1 deficiency required crossbreeding Abca1(fl/fl)Abcg1(fl/fl)Ldlr(-/-) mice with the Tie2Cre strain, followed by irradiation and transplantation of Abca1(fl/fl)Abcg1(fl/fl) bone marrow to abrogate the effects of macrophage ABCA1 and ABCG1 deficiency induced by Tie2Cre. After 20 to 22 weeks of Western-type diet, both single EC-Abca1 and Abcg1 deficiency increased atherosclerosis in the aortic root and whole aorta. Combined EC-Abca1/g1 deficiency caused a significant further increase in lesion area at both sites. EC-Abca1/g1 deficiency dramatically enhanced macrophage lipid accumulation in the branches of the aorta that are exposed to disturbed blood flow, decreased aortic endothelial NO synthase activity, and increased monocyte infiltration into the atherosclerotic plaque. Abca1/g1 deficiency enhanced lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory gene expression in mouse aortic ECs, which was recapitulated by ABCG1 deficiency in human aortic ECs. CONCLUSIONS:These studies provide direct evidence that endothelial cholesterol efflux pathways mediated by ABCA1 and ABCG1 are nonredundant and atheroprotective, reflecting preservation of endothelial NO synthase activity and suppression of endothelial inflammation, especially in regions of disturbed arterial blood flow.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Apolipoprotein L1 gene (APOL1) G1 and G2 kidney-risk variants (KRVs) cause CKD in African Americans, inducing mitochondrial dysfunction. Modifying factors are required, because a minority of individuals with APOL1 high-risk genotypes develop nephropathy. Given that APOL1 function is pH-sensitive and the pH of the kidney interstitium is <7, we hypothesized the acidic kidney interstitium may facilitate APOL1 KRV-induced mitochondrial dysfunction.<h4>Methods</h4>Human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells conditionally expressing empty vector (EV), APOL1-reference G0, and G1 or G2 KRVs were incubated in media pH 6.8 or 7.4 for 4, 6, or 8 h. Genotype-specific pH effects on mitochondrial length (µm) were assessed using confocal microscopy in live cells and Fiji derivative of ImageJ software with MiNA plug-in. Lower mitochondrial length indicated fragmentation and early dysfunction.<h4>Results</h4>After 6 h doxycycline (Dox) induction in pH 6.8 media, G2-expressing cells had shorter mitochondria (6.54 ± 0.40) than cells expressing EV (7.65 ± 0.72, p = 0.02) or G0 (7.46 ± 0.31, p = 0.003). After 8 h Dox induction in pH 6.8 media, both G1- (6.21 ± 0.26) and G2-expressing cells had shorter mitochondria (6.46 ± 0.34) than cells expressing EV (7.13 ± 0.32, p = 0.002 and p = 0.008, respectively) or G0 (7.22 ± 0.45, p = 0.003 and p = 0.01, respectively). Mitochondrial length in cells incubated in pH 7.4 media were comparable after 8 h Dox induction regardless of genotype. APOL1 mRNA expression and cell viability were comparable regardless of pH or genotype after 8 h Dox induction.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Acidic pH facilitates early mitochondrial dysfunction induced by APOL1 G1 and G2 KRVs in HEK293 cells. We propose that the acidic kidney interstitium may play a role in APOL1-mediated mitochondrial pathophysiology and nephropathy.
Project description:Introduction:APOL1 G1 and G2 nephropathy-risk variants cause mitochondrial dysfunction and contribute to kidney disease. Analyses were performed to determine the genetic regulation of APOL1 and elucidate potential mechanisms in APOL1-nephropathy. Methods:A global gene expression analysis was performed in human primary renal tubule cell lines derived from 50 African American individuals. Follow-up gene knock out, cell-based rescue, and microscopy experiments were performed. Results:APOL1 genotypes did not alter APOL1 expression levels in the global gene expression analysis. Expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analysis in polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly IC)-stimulated renal tubule cells revealed that single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs513349 adjacent to BAK1 was a trans eQTL for APOL1 and a cis eQTL for BAK1; APOL1 and BAK1 were co-expressed in cells. BAK1 knockout in a human podocyte cell line resulted in diminished APOL1 protein, supporting a pivotal effect for BAK1 on APOL1 expression. Because BAK1 is involved in mitochondrial dynamics, mitochondrial morphology was examined in primary renal tubule cells and HEK293 Tet-on cells of various APOL1 genotypes. Mitochondria in APOL1 wild-type (G0G0) tubule cells maintained elongated morphology when stimulated by low-dose poly IC, whereas those with G1G1, G2G2, and G1G2 genotypes appeared to fragment. HEK293 Tet-on cells overexpressing APOL1 G0, G1, and G2 were created; G0 cells appeared to promote mitochondrial fusion, whereas G1 and G2 induced mitochondrial fission. The mitochondrial dynamic regulator Mdivi-1 significantly preserved cell viability and mitochondrial cristae structure and reversed mitochondrial fission induced by overexpression of G1 and G2. Conclusion:Results suggest the mitochondrial fusion/fission pathway may be a therapeutic target in APOL1-nephropathy.