Impeding the single-strand annealing pathway of DNA double-strand break repair by withaferin A-mediated FANCA degradation.
ABSTRACT: FANCA is a key player in the canonical Fanconi anemia (FA) repair pathway. We have recently shown that FANCA also plays an important role in the single-strand annealing sub-pathway (SSA) of DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair by biochemically catalyzing single-strand annealing. Here, we report that a steroidal lactone withaferin A (WA) specifically impedes SSA repair by promoting FANCA downregulation at a sub-micromolar concentration range. We find that WA causes FANCA downregulation post-translationally in a proteasome-dependent manner. This WA-mediated downregulation is achieved through HSP90 inhibition and disruption of the FANCA-HSP90 interaction. WA-mediated FANCA degradation significantly reduces cellular SSA repair, abolishes FANCD2 monoubiquitination, elevates sensitivity to mitomycin C, and results in accumulation of DSBs. Importantly, the WA-induced defect in SSA repair is highly dependent on the absence of FANCA protein and overexpression of exogenous WT-FANCA protein in WA-treated cells significantly complements the repair defect.
Project description:FANCA is a component of the Fanconi anemia (FA) core complex that activates DNA interstrand crosslink repair by monoubiquitination of FANCD2. Here, we report that purified FANCA protein catalyzes bidirectional single-strand annealing (SA) and strand exchange (SE) at a level comparable to RAD52, while a disease-causing FANCA mutant, F1263?, is defective in both activities. FANCG, which directly interacts with FANCA, dramatically stimulates its SA and SE activities. Alternatively, FANCB, which does not directly interact with FANCA, does not stimulate this activity. Importantly, five other patient-derived FANCA mutants also exhibit deficient SA and SE, suggesting that the biochemical activities of FANCA are relevant to the etiology of FA. A cell-based DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair assay demonstrates that FANCA plays a direct role in the single-strand annealing sub-pathway (SSA) of DSB repair by catalyzing SA, and this role is independent of the canonical FA pathway and RAD52.
Project description:The repair of chromosomal double-strand breaks (DSBs) is essential to normal cell growth, and homologous recombination is a universal process for DSB repair. We explored DSB repair mechanisms in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae using single-strand oligonucleotides with homology to both sides of a DSB. Oligonucleotide-directed repair occurred exclusively via Rad52- and Rad59-mediated single-strand annealing (SSA). Even the SSA domain of human Rad52 provided partial complementation for a null rad52 mutation. The repair did not involve Rad51-driven strand invasion, and moreover the suppression of strand invasion increased repair with oligonucleotides. A DSB was shown to activate targeting by oligonucleotides homologous to only one side of the break at large distances (at least 20 kb) from the break in a strand-biased manner, suggesting extensive 5' to 3' resection, followed by the restoration of resected DNA to the double-strand state. We conclude that long resected chromosomal DSB ends are repaired by a single-strand DNA oligonucleotide through two rounds of annealing. The repair by single-strand DNA can be conservative and may allow for accurate restoration of chromosomal DNAs with closely spaced DSBs.
Project description:We show evidence that DNA double-strand breaks induced in the Drosophila germ line can be repaired very efficiently by the single-strand annealing (SSA) mechanism. A double-strand break was made between two copies of a 1290-bp direct repeat by mobilizing a P transposon. In >80% of the progeny that acquired this chromosome, repair resulted in loss of the P element and loss of one copy of the repeat, as observed in SSA. The frequency of this repair was much greater than seen for gene conversion using an allelic template, which is only approximately 7%. A similar structure, but with a smaller duplication of only 158 bp, also yielded SSA-like repair events, but at a reduced frequency, and gave rise to some products by repair pathways other than SSA. The 1290-bp repeats carried two sequence polymorphisms that were examined in the products. The allele nearest to a nick in the putative heteroduplex intermediate was lost most often. This bias is predicted by the SSA model, although other models could account for it. We conclude that SSA is the preferred repair pathway in Drosophila for DNA breaks between sequence repeats, and it competes with gene conversion by the synthesis-dependent strand annealing (SDSA) pathway.
Project description:Mycobacteria have two genetically distinct pathways for the homology-directed repair of DNA double-strand breaks: homologous recombination (HR) and single-strand annealing (SSA). HR is abolished by deletion of RecA and reduced in the absence of the AdnAB helicase/nuclease. By contrast, SSA is RecA-independent and requires RecBCD. Here we examine the function of RecO in mycobacterial DNA recombination and repair. Loss of RecO elicits hypersensitivity to DNA damaging agents similar to that caused by deletion of RecA. We show that RecO participates in RecA-dependent HR in a pathway parallel to the AdnAB pathway. We also find that RecO plays a role in the RecA-independent SSA pathway. The mycobacterial RecO protein displays a zinc-dependent DNA binding activity in vitro and accelerates the annealing of SSB-coated single-stranded DNA. These findings establish a role for RecO in two pathways of mycobacterial DNA double-strand break repair and suggest an in vivo function for the DNA annealing activity of RecO proteins, thereby underscoring their similarity to eukaryal Rad52.
Project description:Double-strand breaks (DSBs) must be accurately and efficiently repaired to maintain genome integrity. Depending on the organism receiving the break, the genomic location of the DSB, and the cell-cycle phase in which it occurs, a DSB can be repaired by homologous recombination (HR), nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ), or single-strand annealing (SSA). Two novel DSB repair assays were developed to determine the contributions of these repair pathways and to finely resolve repair event structures in Drosophila melanogaster. Rad51-dependent homologous recombination is the preferred DSB repair pathway in mitotically dividing cells, and the pathway choice between HR and SSA occurs after end resection and before Rad51-dependent strand invasion. HR events are associated with long gene conversion tracts and are both bidirectional and unidirectional, consistent with repair via the synthesis-dependent strand annealing pathway. Additionally, HR between diverged sequences is suppressed in Drosophila, similar to levels reported in human cells. Junction analyses of rare NHEJ events reveal that canonical NHEJ is utilized in this system.
Project description:Intracellular oxidative stress in cells transformed by the BCR-ABL oncogene is associated with increased DNA double-strand breaks. Imprecise repair of these breaks can result in the accumulation of mutations, leading to therapy-related drug resistance and disease progression. Using several BCR-ABL model systems, we found that BCR-ABL specifically promotes the repair of double-strand breaks through single-strand annealing (SSA), a mutagenic pathway that involves sequence repeats. Moreover, our results suggest that mutagenic SSA repair can be regulated through the interplay between BCR-ABL and extrinsic growth factors. Increased SSA activity required Y177 in BCR-ABL, as well as a functional PI3K and Ras pathway downstream of this site. Furthermore, our data hint at a common pathway for DSB repair whereby BCR-ABL, Tel-ABL, Tel-PDGFR, FLT3-ITD, and Jak2V617F all increase mutagenic repair. This increase in SSA may not be sufficiently suppressed by tyrosine kinase inhibitors in the stromal microenvironment. Therefore, drugs that target growth factor receptor signaling represent potential therapeutic agents to combat tyrosine kinase-induced genomic instability.
Project description:Repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by homologous recombination (HR) in haploid cells is generally restricted to S/G2 cell cycle phases, when DNA has been replicated and a sister chromatid is available as a repair template. This cell cycle specificity depends on cyclin-dependent protein kinases (Cdk1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae), which initiate HR by promoting 5'-3' nucleolytic degradation of the DSB ends. Whether Cdk1 regulates other HR steps is unknown. Here we show that yku70? cells, which accumulate single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) at the DSB ends independently of Cdk1 activity, are able to repair a DSB by single-strand annealing (SSA) in the G1 cell cycle phase, when Cdk1 activity is low. This ability to perform SSA depends on DSB resection, because both resection and SSA are enhanced by the lack of Rad9 in yku70? G1 cells. Furthermore, we found that interchromosomal noncrossover recombinants are generated in yku70? and yku70? rad9? G1 cells, indicating that DSB resection bypasses Cdk1 requirement also for carrying out these recombination events. By contrast, yku70? and yku70? rad9? cells are specifically defective in interchromosomal crossover recombination when Cdk1 activity is low. Thus, Cdk1 promotes DSB repair by single-strand annealing and noncrossover recombination by acting mostly at the resection level, whereas additional events require Cdk1-dependent regulation in order to generate crossover outcomes.
Project description:Double-strand breaks (DSBs) are among the most deleterious lesions DNA can endure. Yet, DSBs are programmed at the onset of meiosis, and are required to facilitate appropriate reduction of ploidy in daughter cells. Repair of these breaks is tightly controlled to favor homologous recombination (HR)-the only repair pathway that can form crossovers. However, little is known about how the activities of alternative repair pathways are regulated at these stages. We discovered an unexpected synthetic interaction between the DSB machinery and strand-exchange proteins. Depleting the Caenorhabditis elegans DSB-promoting factors HIM-5 and DSB-2 suppresses the formation of chromosome fusions that arise in the absence of RAD-51 or other strand-exchange mediators. Our investigations reveal that nonhomologous and theta-mediated end joining (c-NHEJ and TMEJ, respectively) and single strand annealing (SSA) function redundantly to repair DSBs when HR is compromised, and that HIM-5 influences the utilization of TMEJ and SSA.
Project description:Mycobacteria encode three DNA double-strand break repair pathways: (i) RecA-dependent homologous recombination (HR), (ii) Ku-dependent nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ), and (iii) RecBCD-dependent single-strand annealing (SSA). Mycobacterial HR has two presynaptic pathway options that rely on the helicase-nuclease AdnAB and the strand annealing protein RecO, respectively. Ablation of adnAB or recO individually causes partial impairment of HR, but loss of adnAB and recO in combination abolishes HR. RecO, which can accelerate annealing of single-stranded DNA in vitro, also participates in the SSA pathway. The functions of RecF and RecR, which, in other model bacteria, function in concert with RecO as mediators of RecA loading, have not been examined in mycobacteria. Here, we present a genetic analysis of recF and recR in mycobacterial recombination. We find that RecF, like RecO, participates in the AdnAB-independent arm of the HR pathway and in SSA. In contrast, RecR is required for all HR in mycobacteria and for SSA. The essentiality of RecR as an agent of HR is yet another distinctive feature of mycobacterial DNA repair.IMPORTANCE This study clarifies the molecular requirements for homologous recombination in mycobacteria. Specifically, we demonstrate that RecF and RecR play important roles in both the RecA-dependent homologous recombination and RecA-independent single-strand annealing pathways. Coupled with our previous findings (R. Gupta, M. Ryzhikov, O. Koroleva, M. Unciuleac, S. Shuman, S. Korolev, and M. S. Glickman, Nucleic Acids Res 41:2284-2295, 2013, http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gks1298), these results revise our view of mycobacterial recombination and place the RecFOR system in a central position in homology-dependent DNA repair.
Project description:Missense substitutions of uncertain clinical significance in the BRCA1 gene are a vexing problem in genetic counseling for women who have a family history of breast cancer. In this study, we evaluated the functions of 29 missense substitutions of BRCA1 in two DNA repair pathways. Repair of double-strand breaks by homology-directed recombination (HDR) had been previously analyzed for 16 of these BRCA1 variants, and 13 more variants were analyzed in this study. All 29 variants were also analyzed for function in double-strand break repair by the single-strand annealing (SSA) pathway. We found that among the pathogenic mutations in BRCA1, all were defective for DNA repair by either pathway. The HDR assay was accurate because all pathogenic mutants were defective for HDR, and all nonpathogenic variants were fully functional for HDR. Repair by SSA accurately identified pathogenic mutants, but several nonpathogenic variants were scored as defective or partially defective. These results indicated that specific amino acid residues of the BRCA1 protein have different effects in the two related DNA repair pathways, and these results validate the HDR assay as highly correlative with BRCA1-associated breast cancer.