Rate of Muscle Contraction Is Associated With Cognition in Women, Not in Men.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:In older persons, lower hand grip strength is associated with poorer cognition. Little is known about how the rate of muscle contraction relates to cognition and upper extremity motor function, and sex differences are understudied. METHODS:Linear regression, adjusting for age, race, education, body mass index, appendicular lean mass, and knee pain, assessed sex-specific cross-sectional associations of peak torque, rate of torque development (RTD), and rate of velocity development (RVD) with cognition and upper extremity motor function. RESULTS:In men (n = 447), higher rate-adjusted peak torque and a greater RVD were associated with faster simple finger tapping speed, and a greater RVD was associated with higher nondominant pegboard performance. In women (n = 447), higher peak torque was not associated with any measures, but a greater RTD was associated with faster simple tapping speed and higher language performance, and a greater RVD was associated with higher executive function, attention, memory, and nondominant pegboard performance. In women with low isokinetic peak torque, RVD was associated with attention and memory. CONCLUSIONS:RVD capacity may reflect neural health, especially in women with low muscle strength.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>With aging, the ability to generate muscle force decreases, contributing to declines in physical functions such as walking. While most studies assess muscle force by peak torque, the rate of torque development (RTD) reflects a dynamic component of muscle performance that is important for physical function. Using data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, we assessed whether RTD adds significantly to peak torque in associations with lower extremity performance. If so, RTD may help identify weak older adults for screening and intervention.<h4>Methods</h4>We assessed associations of RTD and peak torque with physical performance independent of demographics, BMI, body composition, and each other in 1089 Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging participants (49.7% women; aged 26 to 96 years; women, 64.0 ± 13.8 years; men, 68.4 ± 14.4 years). Peak torque was assessed by isometric and 30 deg/s isokinetic knee extension tests. Peak RTD was operationalized as the maximum torque-time slope among successive 50 ms epochs over the first 3 s of a test of knee extension isometric strength, with the knee joint positioned at 120 deg of flexion. A battery of lower extremity performance tests included gait speed during a 6 m walk at usual and fast pace (6 m usual and fast), time to complete a 400 m walk at fast pace (400 m), distance covered in a 2.5 min walk at normal pace (2.5 min), time to complete 5 and 10 chair stands, and two summary tests of lower extremity performance. Sex-stratified generalized linear regression models were adjusted for age, race, BMI, appendicular lean mass, and whole body fat mass.<h4>Results</h4>In men, independent of either measure of peak torque and cofactors, RTD was a significant (P < 0.05) predictor of all lower extremity performance tests except the 400 m and 2.5 min walks. In women, independent of peak torque, RTD was only a significant independent correlate of the 6 m fast walk (P < 0.001).<h4>Conclusions</h4>RTD independently contributes to physical functions in men but less in women. The mechanisms underlying the sex difference are unclear and require further study.
Project description:Background:Atrophy and fatty infiltration of muscle with aging are associated with fractures and falls, however, their direct associations with muscle function are not well described. It was hypothesized that participants with lower quadriceps muscle attenuation, area, and greater intramuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) will exhibit slower rates of torque development (RTD) and lower peak knee extension torques. Methods:Data from 4,842 participants (2,041 men, 2,801 women) from the Age Gene/Environment Susceptibility Reykjavik Study (mean age 76 ± 0.1 years) with complete thigh computed tomography and isometric knee testing. Regression models were adjusted for health, behavior, and comorbidities. Muscle attenuation was further adjusted for muscle area and IMAT; muscle area adjusted for IMAT and attenuation; and IMAT adjusted for muscle area and attenuation. Standardized betas (β) indicate association effect sizes. Results:In the fully-adjusted models, attenuation (men β = 0.06, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.11; women β = 0.07, 95% CI: 0.03, 0.11) and muscle area (men β = 0.13, 95% CI: 0.07, 0.19; women β = 0.10, 95% CI: 0.06, 0.15) were associated with knee RTD. Attenuation (men β = 0.12, 95% CI: 0.08, 0.16; women β = 0.12, 95% CI: 0.09, 0.16) and muscle area (men β = 0.38, 95% CI: 0.33, 0.43; women β = 0.33, 95% CI: 0.29, 0.37) were associated with peak torque. Conclusions:These data suggest that muscle attenuation and area are independently associated with RTD and peak torque; and that area and attenuation demonstrate similar contributions to RTD.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to understand how stretch-related sensory feedback from an antagonist muscle affects agonist muscle output at different contraction levels in healthy adults. Ten young (25.3 ± 2.4 years), healthy subjects performed constant isometric knee flexion contractions (agonist) at 6 torque levels: 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 30%, and 40% of their maximal voluntary contraction. For half of the trials, subjects received patellar tendon taps (antagonist sensory feedback) during the contraction. We compared error in targeted knee flexion torque and hamstring muscle activity, with and without patellar tendon tapping, across the 6 torque levels. At lower torque levels (5%, 10%, and 15%), subjects produced greater knee torque error following tendon tapping compared with the same torque levels without tendon tapping. In contrast, we did not find any difference in torque output at higher target levels (20%, 30%, and 40%) between trials with and without tendon tapping. We also observed a load-dependent increase in the magnitude of agonist muscle activity after tendon taps, with no associated load-dependent increase in agonist and antagonist co-activation, or reflex inhibition from the antagonist tapping. The findings suggest that at relatively low muscle activity there is a deficiency in the ability to correct motor output after sensory disturbances, and cortical centers (versus sub-cortical) are likely involved.
Project description:Welding-generated metallic fumes contain a substantial amount of manganese (Mn), making welders susceptible to Mn toxicity. Although overt Mn toxicity manifests as a type of parkinsonism, the consequences of chronic, low-level Mn exposure are unknown. To explore region-specific Mn accumulation and its potential functional consequences at subclinical levels of Mn exposure, we studied seven welders without obvious neurological deficits and seven age- and gender-matched controls. Mn exposure for welders was estimated by an occupational questionnaire. High-resolution brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), Grooved Pegboard performance of both hands, Trail making, and olfactory function tests were obtained from all subjects. Compared with controls, the welders had a significantly higher T1 relaxation rate (R1) in the olfactory bulb (OB, p = 0.02), mean T1-weighted intensity at frontal white matter (FWM; p = 0.01), bilateral globus pallidus (GP; p = 0.03), and putamen (p = 0.03). The welders scored worse than the controls on the Grooved Pegboard test for both dominant (p = 0.06) and nondominant hand (p = 0.03). The dominant hand Grooved Pegboard scores correlated best with mean MRI intensity of FWM (R² = 0.51, p = 0.004), GP (R² = 0.51, p = 0.004), putamen (R² = 0.49, p= 0.006), and frontal gray matter (R² = 0.42, p = 0.01), whereas the nondominant hand scores correlated best with intensity of FWM (R² = 0.37, p = 0.02) and GP (R² = 0.28, p = 0.05). No statistical differences were observed in either the Trail-making test or the olfactory test between the two groups. This study suggests that Mn accumulates in OB and multiple other brain regions in "asymptomatic" welders and that MRI abnormalities correlate with fine motor but not cognitive deficits. Further investigations of subclinical Mn exposure are warranted.
Project description:In two concurrent studies, we aimed to a) confirm the acute effect of 0.3 g·kg-1 body weight (BW) sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) supplementation on central and peripheral mechanisms associated with explosive power (Study 1) and b) determine whether chronic NaHCO3 supplementation would improve the adaptive response of the neuromuscular system during a 10-week resistance training program (Study 2).Eight resistance trained participants volunteered after providing written consent. The experimental design consisted of a week of baseline testing, followed by ten weeks of training with progress measures performed in Week 5. Study 1 involved neuromuscular measurements before and after the leg extension portion of a power based training session performed in Week 1. Changes in maximal torque (MVT) and rates of torque development (RTD), along with other variables derived from femoral nerve stimulation (e.g. voluntary activation, neural recruitment) were analysed to determine the extent of fatigue under NaHCO3 or placebo conditions. Changes in these same variables, coupled with functional 1-repetition maximum leg extension strength, were measured in Study 2 from baseline (Week 0) to Week 5, and again at Week 10.In Study 1, we observed a decline after the leg extension task in both MVT (~ 30%) and rates of torque production (RTD) irrespective of acid-base status, however the decline in maximal RTD (RTDMAX) was nearly 20% less in the NaHCO3 condition when compared to placebo (mean difference of 294.8 ± 133.4 Nm·s-1 (95% CI -583.1 to -6.5 Nm, p < 0.05)). The primary finding in Study 2, however, suggests that introducing NaHCO3 repeatedly during a 10-week RT program does not confer any additional benefit to the mechanisms (and subsequent adaptive processes) related to explosive power production.
Project description:Right ventricular (RV) dysfunction (RVD) is a poor prognostic factor in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). The physiological perturbations associated with RVD or RV function indexed to load (RV-pulmonary arterial [PA] coupling) in HFpEF have not been defined. HFpEF patients with marked impairment in RV-PA coupling may be uniquely sensitive to sildenafil.In a subset of HFpEF patients enrolled in the Phosphodiesteas-5 Inhibition to Improve Clinical Status And Exercise Capacity in Diastolic Heart Failure (RELAX) trial, physiological variables and therapeutic effect of sildenafil were examined relative to the severity of RVD (tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion [TAPSE]) and according to impairment in RV-PA coupling (TAPSE/pulmonary artery systolic pressure) ratio. The prevalence of atrial fibrillation and diuretic use, n-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide levels, renal dysfunction, neurohumoral activation, myocardial necrosis and fibrosis biomarkers, and the severity of diastolic dysfunction all increased with severity of RVD. Peak oxygen consumption decreased and ventilatory inefficiency (VE/VCO2 slope) increased with increasing severity of RVD. Many but not all physiological derangements were more closely associated with the TAPSE/pulmonary artery systolic pressure ratio. Compared with placebo, at 24 weeks, TAPSE decreased, and peak oxygen consumption and VE/CO2 slope were unchanged with sildenafil. There was no interaction between RV-PA coupling and treatment effect, and sildenafil did not improve TAPSE, peak oxygen consumption, or VE/VCO2 in patients with pulmonary hypertension and RVD.HFpEF patients with RVD and impaired RV-PA coupling have more advanced heart failure. In RELAX patients with RVD and impaired RV-PA coupling, sildenafil did not improve RV function, exercise capacity, or ventilatory efficiency.URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00763867.
Project description:The increase and decrease in steady-state isometric force following active muscle lengthening and shortening are referred to as residual force enhancement (RFE) and force depression (FD), respectively. The RFE and FD states are associated with decreased (activation reduction; AR) and increased (activation increase; AI) neuromuscular activity, respectively. Although the mechanisms have been discussed over the last 60 years, no studies have systematically investigated the modifiability of RFE and FD with training. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether RFE and FD could be modulated through eccentric and concentric biased resistance training. Fifteen healthy young adult men (age: 24?±?2 yr, weight: 77?±?8 kg, height: 178?±?5 cm) underwent 4 wk of isokinetic dorsiflexion training, in which one leg was trained eccentrically (-25°/s) and the other concentrically (+25°/s) over a 50° ankle excursion. Maximal and submaximal (40% maximum voluntary contraction) steady-state isometric torque and EMG values following active lengthening and shortening were compared to purely isometric values at the same joint angles and torque levels. Residual torque enhancement (rTE) decreased by ~36% after eccentric training ( P < 0.05) and increased by ~89% after concentric training ( P < 0.05), whereas residual torque depression (rTD), AR, AI, and optimal angles for torque production were not significantly altered by resistance training ( P ? 0.05). It appears that rTE, but not rTD, for the human ankle dorsiflexors is differentially modifiable through contraction type-dependent resistance training. NEW & NOTEWORTHY The history dependence of force production is a property of muscle unexplained by current cross bridge and sliding filament theories. Whether a muscle is actively lengthened (residual force enhancement; RFE) or shortened (force depression) to a given length, the isometric force should be equal to a purely isometric contraction-but it is not! In this study we show that eccentric training decreased RFE, whereas concentric training increased RFE and converted all nonresponders (i.e., not exhibiting RFE) into responders.
Project description:The aims of this study were to explore the effect of high-altitude (HA) exposure on the incidence, determinants, and impacts of right ventricular dyssynchrony (RVD). In our study, 108 healthy young men were enrolled, and physiological and echocardiographic variables were recorded at both sea level and 4,100 m. By using two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography, RVD was evaluated by calculating the R-R interval-corrected standard deviation of the time-to-peak systolic strain for the four mid-basal RV segments (RVSD4) and defined by RVSD4 > 18.7 ms. After HA exposure, RVSD4 was significantly increased, and the incidence of RVD was approximately 32.4%. Subjects with RVD showed lower oxygen saturation (SaO2) and RV global longitudinal strain and higher systolic pulmonary artery pressure than those without RVD. Moreover, myocardial acceleration during isovolumic contraction was increased in all subjects and those without RVD, but not in those with RVD. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that SaO2 is an independent determinant of RVD at HA (odds ratio: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.56-0.92; P = 0.009). However, the mean pulmonary artery pressure was linearly correlated with the magnitude of RVD in the presence of Notch. No changes were found in RV fractional area change, tricuspid annular motion, or tricuspid s' velocity between subjects with and without RVD. Collectively, we demonstrated for the first time that HA exposure could induce RVD in healthy subjects, which may be mainly attributed to the decline in SaO2 as well as RV overload; the incidence of RVD was associated with reduced RV regional function and blunted myocardial acceleration.
Project description:Although motor tasks at most times do not require much attention, there are findings that attention can alter neuronal activity not only in higher motor areas but also within the primary sensorimotor cortex. However, these findings are equivocal as attention effects were investigated only in either the dominant or the nondominant hand; attention was operationalized either as concentration (i.e., attention directed to motor task) or as distraction (i.e., attention directed away from motor task), the complexity of motor tasks varied and almost no left-handers were studied. Therefore, in this study, both right- and left-handers were investigated with an externally paced button press task in which subjects typed with the index finger of the dominant, nondominant, or both hands. We introduced four different attention levels: attention-modulation-free, distraction (counting backward), concentration on the moving finger, and divided concentration during bimanual movement. We found that distraction reduced neuronal activity in both contra- and ipsilateral primary sensorimotor cortex when the nondominant hand was tapping in both handedness groups. At the same time, distraction activated the dorsal frontoparietal attention network and deactivated the ventral default network. We conclude that difficulty and training status of both the motor and cognitive task, as well as usage of the dominant versus the nondominant hand, are crucial for the presence and magnitude of attention effects on sensorimotor cortex activity. In the case of a very simple button press task, attention modulation is seen for the nondominant hand under distraction and in both handedness groups.
Project description:The manifestation of cognitive and physical impairment in stroke patients before the acute event suggests accumulating subclinical vascular pathology in the brain. We investigated whether impairments in cognitive and physical functioning were associated with an increased stroke risk. Between 2002 and 2008, 8,519 stroke-free non-demented participants from the population-based Rotterdam Study underwent cognition and physical assessments including Mini-Mental State Examination, 15-word learning test, Stroop test, letter-digit substitution test, verbal fluency test, Purdue pegboard test and questionnaires on basic and instrumental activities of daily living (BADL; IADL). Principal component analysis was used to derive global cognition (G-factor). Incident stroke was assessed through continuous monitoring of medical records until 2016. Among 8,519 persons (mean age 66.0 years; 57.8% women), 489 suffered a stroke during mean follow-up of 8.7 years (SD: 2.9). Worse G-factor was associated with higher stroke risk (Hazard Ratio 1.21, 95% CI: 1.06-1.38), largely driven by unspecified stroke. Likewise, worse scores on 15-word learning test, Stroop test, Purdue pegboard test, IADL, and BADL were associated with higher risk of stroke. Thus both worse cognitive and physical functioning were associated with a higher stroke risk, in particular unspecified stroke and persons with worse memory, information processing, executive function, and motor function.