Low skeletal muscle mass is associated with the risk of all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
ABSTRACT: Background:Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have an increased risk of muscle mass reduction. However, the association between muscle mass and mortality in T2DM remains unknown. Methods:This was a historical cohort study with the endpoint of all-cause mortality. This study included 163 Japanese men and 141 postmenopausal women with T2DM whose body compositions were evaluated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Low muscle mass was defined as a skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) of <7.0?kg/m2 for men and <5.4?kg/m2 for women. Results:During the 6-year follow-up period, 32 men and 14 women died. In a Cox regression analysis adjusted for age, T2DM duration, glycated hemoglobin, serum creatinine, fasting C-peptide, body mass index, and lean body mass were associated with the risk of mortality in men [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.00-3.28 per standard deviation (SD) decrease, p = 0.049] and women (HR = 4.53, 95% CI = 1.14-17.96 per SD decrease, p = 0.032). Neither fat mass nor bone mineral content was associated with mortality. Low SMI was associated with increased mortality in women (HR = 5.97, 95% CI = 1.04-34.37, p = 0.045), while the association between low SMI and mortality was marginal in men (HR = 2.38, 95% CI = 0.92-6.14, p = 0.074). Conclusions:Low muscle mass was independently associated with all-cause mortality in patients with T2DM. The preservation of skeletal muscle mass is important to protect patients with T2DM from increased mortality risk.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Preoperative sarcopenia is associated with a poor long-term prognosis in patients with gastric cancer (GC). Most GC patients rapidly lose muscle mass after gastrectomy. This retrospective cohort study analysed the effect of postoperative muscle loss and surgery-induced sarcopenia on the long-term outcomes of patients with GC.<h4>Methods</h4>Preoperative and postoperative 1 year abdominal computed tomography scans were available for 1801 GC patients who underwent curative gastrectomy between January 2009 and December 2013 at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital. The patients were categorized into normal, presarcopenia, and sarcopenia groups according to the skeletal muscle index (SMI) measured on computed tomography scans. Patients who were not sarcopenic prior to gastrectomy but became sarcopenic after surgery were defined as the surgery-induced sarcopenia group.<h4>Results</h4>There were 1227 men and 574 women included in the study. The mean age of the patients was 59.5 ± 12.3 years. Multivariable Cox-regression analyses showed that preoperative SMI was not associated with overall survival (OS). However, postoperative sarcopenia was associated with significantly worse OS only in men [hazard ratio (HR), 1.75; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.08-2.85]. SMI loss was an independent risk factor for OS in the entire cohort and in men (HR, 1.01; 95% CI, 1.00-1.02, for the entire cohort; HR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01-1.04, for men). The surgery-induced sarcopenia group was associated with significantly higher mortality (HR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.16-2.90, for the cohort; HR, 2.73; 95% CI, 1.54-4.82, for men), although SMI loss and surgery-induced sarcopenia were not risk factors in women. Similar results were obtained for relapse-free survival.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Postoperative muscle mass loss and surgery-induced sarcopenia are prognostic factors for survival in patients with GC. Impact of postoperative muscle mass loss and surgery-induced sarcopenia on survival outcomes is dependent on the sex.
Project description:BACKGROUND:We examined the association between sarcopenia and post-transplant mortality in acutely ill inpatients with cirrhosis who underwent urgent liver transplantation. METHODS:Included were inpatients at 4 centers who were urgently listed as nonstatus 1 and transplanted from 2005 to 2017 with an abdominal computed tomography scan <90 days before transplantation. Skeletal muscle index (SMI) = total skeletal muscle cross-sectional area at the L3 vertebral level, normalized to height. Cox regression associated SMI with post-transplant mortality. Optimal search identified SMI cutoffs to detect survival. RESULTS:Of 126 inpatients, 63% were male patients, model for end-stage liver disease (MELDNa) was 32, and follow up was 5.1 years. Among men, 23% died. Median SMI was lower in men who died versus survived (45 versus 51?cm/m). SMI was associated with post-transplant mortality (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.96 per cm/m, 95% CI 0.92-0.99). Patients with SMI ? 48?cm/m versus >48?cm/m experienced higher rates of death at 1 year (86% versus 95%) and 3 years (73% versus 95%) (Log-rank P = 0.01). In MELD-adjusted analysis, sarcopenia was strongly associated with post-transplant mortality (HR = 4.39, 95% CI 1.49-12.97). Among women, 35% died. Median SMI was similar in women who died versus survived (45 versus 44?cm/m). SMI was not associated with post-transplant mortality (HR = 1.02, 95% CI 0.96-1.09). Optimal search did not identify any SMI cutoff that predicted post-transplant mortality. CONCLUSIONS:Among patients who underwent urgent inpatient evaluation and liver transplantation, we identified an SMI cutoff value of 48?cm/m to predict post-transplant mortality in men. Our data support the use of SMI as a tool to capture the impact of muscle depletion on post-transplant mortality in acutely ill men with cirrhosis undergoing urgent liver transplantation.
Project description:Low muscle mass (sarcopenia) is a prevalent and major concern in the aging population as well as in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We hypothesized that sarcopenia is an independent predictor of incident and progressive CKD and increased mortality in older men and women (?65 years) from the Cardiovascular Health Study. Sarcopenia was defined by bioimpedance-estimated skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) as a continuous variable and categorically (normal, class I, and class II). Cox regression hazard ratios (HRs) estimated the risk of incident and prevalent CKD and mortality in individuals with and without CKD. Low SMI was associated with increased prevalence of CKD in men (p<0.001), but lower prevalence of CKD in women (p=0.03). Low muscle mass was not associated with incident CKD or rapid CKD progression (>3 ml/minute/1.73m2/year decline in eGFR) in men, but was associated with lower risk of incident CKD in women ([adjusted RR=0.69, 95% (0.51,0.94)]. Low muscle mass (class II) was independently associated with higher mortality only in men [(adjusted HR=1.26, 95% (1.05,1.50)]. Neither definition of sarcopenia was associated with mortality in men or women with CKD. Further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms by which sarcopenia contributes to higher mortality in aging men.
Project description:This cohort study aimed to identify the associations of dairy protein intake with the risk of developing a low muscle mass during a 12-year follow-up period, using data from 4412 middle-aged Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study participants with a normal baseline muscle mass. Dairy protein intake at baseline was assessed using a semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire. Skeletal muscle mass index (SMI), defined as the weight-adjusted skeletal muscle mass, was measured biennially using multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analyses. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to calculate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Overall, 395 subjects developed a low SMI (%) during an average follow-up of 141 (19-152) months. The average consumption of milk and other dairy products was 73.6 and 104.1 g/day, respectively. In men, a higher dairy protein intake was associated with a decreased risk of developing a low SMI (tertile 3 [T3] vs. T1, HR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.42, 0.94; p for trend = 0.029). In a stratified analysis according to a total protein intake, this association was stronger in the lower-protein intake group (HR: 0.59; 95% CI: 0.35, 0.99; p for trend = 0.036) but not detected in the higher-protein intake group. Men who consumed milk ?1 time/day had a significantly lower risk of developing a low SMI (HR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.39, 0.98; p for trend = 0.023). No significant associations were observed in women. In summary, dairy consumption appears to be beneficial for decreasing the risk of developing a low muscle mass in middle-aged Korean men.
Project description:Background To determine whether differences in body composition contribute to sex differences in cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality, we investigated the relationship between components of body composition and CVD mortality in healthy men and women. Methods and Results Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry body composition data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004 and CVD mortality data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2014 were evaluated in 11 463 individuals 20 years of age and older. Individuals were divided into 4 body composition groups (low muscle mass-low fat mass-the referent; low muscle-high fat; high muscle-low fat, and high muscle-high fat), and adjusted competing risks analyses were performed for CVD versus non-CVD mortality. In women, high muscle/high fat mass was associated with a significantly lower adjusted CVD mortality rate (hazard ratio [HR], 0.58; 95% CI, 0.39-0.86; <i>P</i>=0.01), but high muscle/low fat mass was not. In men, both high muscle-high fat (HR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.53-1.04; <i>P</i>=0.08) and high muscle-low fat mass (HR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.21-0.77; <i>P</i>=0.01) were associated with lower CVD. Further, in adjusted competing risks analyses stratified by sex, the CVD rate in women tends to significantly decrease as normalized total fat increase (total fat fourth quartile: HR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.34-0.94; <i>P</i><0.03), whereas this is not noted in men. Conclusions Higher muscle mass is associated with lower CVD and mortality in men and women. However, in women, high fat, regardless of muscle mass level, appears to be associated with lower CVD mortality risk. This finding highlights the importance of muscle mass in healthy men and women for CVD risk prevention, while suggesting sexual dimorphism with respect to the CVD risk associated with fat mass.
Project description:BACKGROUND & AIMS:Low muscle mass impacts on morbidity and mortality in cirrhosis. The skeletal-muscle index (SMI) is a well-validated tool to diagnose muscle wasting, but requires specialized radiologic software and expertise. Thus, we compared different Computed tomography (CT)-based evaluation methods for muscle wasting and their prognostic value in cirrhosis. METHODS:Consecutive cirrhotic patients included in a prospective registry undergoing abdominal CT scans were analysed. SMI, transversal psoas muscle thickness (TPMT), total psoas volume (TPV) and paraspinal muscle index (PSMI) were measured. Sarcopenia was defined using SMI as a reference method by applying sex-specific cut-offs (males: <52.4 cm2 /m2 ; females: <38.5 cm2 /m2 ). RESULTS:One hundred and nine patients (71.6% male) of age 57 ± 11 years, MELD 16 (8-26) and alcoholic liver disease (63.3%) as the main aetiology were included. According to established SMI cut-offs, low muscle mass was present in 69 patients (63.3%) who also presented with higher MELD (17 vs 14 points; P = .025). The following optimal sex-specific cut-offs (men/women) for diagnosing low muscle mass were determined: TPMT: <10.7/ <7.8 mm/m, TPV: <194.9/ <99.2 cm3 and PSMI <26.3/ <20.8 cm2 /m2 . Thirty (27.5%) patients died during a follow-up of 15 (0.3-45.7) months. Univariate competing risks analyses showed a significant risk for mortality according to SMI (aSHR:2.52, 95% CI: 1.03-6.21, P = .043), TPMT (aSHR: 3.87, 95% CI: 1.4-8.09, P = .007) and PSMI (aSHR: 2.7, 95% CI: 1.17-6.23, P = .02), but not TPV (P = .18) derived low muscle mass cut-offs. In multivariate analysis only TPMT (aSHR: 2.82, 95% CI: 1.20-6.67, P = .018) was associated with mortality, SMI (aSHR: 1.93, 95% CI: 0.72-5.16, P = .19) and PSMI (aSHR: 1.93, 95% CI: 0.79-4.75, P = .15) were not. CONCLUSION:Low muscle mass was highly prevalent in our cohort of patients with cirrhosis. Gender-specific TPMT, SMI and PSMI cut-offs for low muscle mass can help identify patients with an increased risk for mortality. Importantly, only TPMT emerged as an independent risk factor for mortality in patients with cirrhosis.
Project description:Objective This study assessed gender-specific associations between low muscle mass (LMM) and albuminuria. Methods Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011 were employed. The study consisted of 1,087 subjects (?50 years old). Skeletal muscle index (SMI) was defined as the weight-adjusted appendicular skeletal muscle mass. Mild LMM and severe LMM were defined as SMI that were 1-2 and >2 standard deviations below the sex-specific mean appendicular skeletal muscle mass of young adults, respectively. Increased albuminuria was defined as albumin-to-creatinine ratio ?30mg/g Results Men with mild and severe LMM were significantly more likely to have increased albuminuria (15.2% and 45.45%, respectively) than men with normal SMI (9.86%, P<0.0001), but not women. Severe LMM associated independently with increased albuminuria in men (OR=7.661, 95% CI=2.72-21.579) but not women. Severe LMM was an independent predictor of increased albuminuria in hypertensive males (OR=11.449, 95% CI=3.037-43.156), non-diabetic males (OR=8.782, 95% CI=3.046-25.322), and males without metabolic syndrome (MetS) (OR=8.183, 95% CI=1.539-43.156). This was not observed in males without hypertension, males with diabetes or MetS, and all female subgroups. Conclusion Severe LMM associated with increased albuminuria in men, especially those with hypertension and without diabetes or MetS.
Project description:<h4>Background and aims</h4>Maintenance of muscle mass is important for sarcopenia prevention. However, the effect of eating speed, especially fast, normal, or slow speed, on muscle mass changes remains unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this prospective study was to investigate the effect of eating speed on muscle mass changes in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM).<h4>Methods</h4>This study included 284 patients with T2DM. Based on a self-reported questionnaire, participants were classified into three groups: fast-, normal-, and slow-speed eating. Muscle mass was assessed using a multifrequency impedance body composition analyzer, and skeletal muscle mass (SMI) decrease (kg/m<sup>2</sup>/year) was defined as [baseline SMI (kg/m<sup>2</sup>)-follow-up SMI (kg/m<sup>2</sup>)] ÷ follow-up duration (year). The rate of SMI decrease (%) was defined as [SMI decrease (kg/m<sup>2</sup>/year) ÷ baseline SMI (kg/m<sup>2</sup>)] × 100.<h4>Results</h4>The proportions of patients with fast-, normal-, and slow-speed eating were, respectively, 50.5%, 42.9%, and 6.6% among those aged <65 years and 40.4%, 38.3%, and 21.3% among those aged ≥65 years. In patients aged ≥65 years, the rate of SMI decrease in the normal (0.85 [95% confidence interval, CI: -0.66 to 2.35]) and slow (0.93 [95% CI -0.61 to 2.46]) speed eating groups was higher than that in the fast speed eating group (-1.08 [95% CI -2.52 to 0.36]). On the contrary, there was no difference in the rate of SMI decrease among the groups in patients aged <65 years. Compared with slow speed eating, the adjusted odds ratios of incident muscle loss [defined as rate of SMI decrease (%) ≥0.5%] due to fast- and normal-speed eating were 0.42 (95% CI 0.18 to 0.98) and 0.82 (95% CI 0.36 to 2.03), respectively.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Slow-speed eating is associated with a higher risk of muscle mass loss in older patients with T2DM.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Skeletal muscle mass (SMM) is inversely associated with cardiometabolic health and the ageing process. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the relation between SMM and 10?year cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence, among CVD-free adults 45+ years?old. METHODS:ATTICA is a prospective, population-based study that recruited 3042 adults without pre-existing CVD from the Greek general population (Caucasians; age ?18 years; 1514 men). The 10?year study follow-up (2011-2012) captured the fatal/non-fatal CVD incidence in 2020 participants (50% men). The working sample consisted of 1019 participants, 45+ years?old (men: n=534; women: n=485). A skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) was created to reflect SMM, using appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) standardised by body mass index (BMI). ASM and SMI were calculated with specific indirect population formulas. RESULTS:The 10?year CVD incidence increased significantly across the baseline SMI tertiles (p<0.001). Baseline SMM showed a significant inverse association with the 10?year CVD incidence (HR 0.06, 95%?CI 0.005 to 0.78), even after adjusting for various confounders. Additionally, participants in the highest SMM tertile had 81% (95% CI 0.04 to 0.85) lower risk for a CVD event as compared with those in the lowest SMM tertile. CONCLUSIONS:The presented findings support the importance of SMM evaluation in the prediction of long-term CVD risk among adults 45+ years old without pre-existing CVD. Preservation of SMM may contribute to CVD health.
Project description:Sarcopenia and functional impairment are common and lethal extrahepatic manifestations of cirrhosis. We aimed to determine the association between computed tomography (CT)-based measures of muscle mass and quality (sarcopenia) and performance-based measures of muscle function.Adults listed for liver transplant underwent testing of muscle function (grip strength, Short Physical Performance Battery [SPPB]) within 3 months of abdominal CT. Muscle mass (cm/m) = total cross-sectional area of psoas, paraspinal, and abdominal wall muscles at L3 on CT, normalized for height. Muscle quality = mean Hounsfield units for total skeletal muscle area at L3.Among 292 candidates, median grip strength was 31 kg, SPPB score was 11, muscle mass was 49 cm/m, and muscle quality was 35 Hounsfield units. Grip strength weakly correlated with muscle mass (? = 0.26, P < 0.001) and quality (? = 0.27, P < 0.001) in men, and muscle quality (? = 0.23, P = 0.02), but not muscle mass, in women. Short Physical Performance Battery correlated weakly with muscle quality in men (? = 0.38, P < 0.001) and women (? = 0.25, P = 0.02), however, did not correlate with muscle mass in men or women. After adjustment for sex, model for end-stage liver disease (MELD)-Na, hepatocellular carcinoma, and body mass index, grip strength (hazard ratio [HR], 0.74; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.59-0.92; P = 0.008), SPPB (HR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.82-0.97; P = 0.01), and muscle quality (HR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.63-0.95; P = 0.02) were associated with waitlist mortality, but muscle mass was not (HR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.75-1.11; P = 0.35).Performance-based tests of muscle function are only modestly associated with CT-based muscle measures. Given that they predict waitlist mortality and can be conducted quickly and economically, tests of muscle function may have greater clinical utility than CT-based measures of sarcopenia.