Adenosine receptor agonism protects against NETosis and thrombosis in antiphospholipid syndrome.
ABSTRACT: Potentiation of neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) release is one mechanism by which antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL Abs) effect thrombotic events in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). Surface adenosine receptors trigger cyclic AMP (cAMP) formation in neutrophils, and this mechanism has been proposed to regulate NETosis in some contexts. Here we report that selective agonism of the adenosine A2A receptor (CGS21680) suppresses aPL Ab-mediated NETosis in protein kinase A-dependent fashion. CGS21680 also reduces thrombosis in the inferior vena cavae of both control mice and mice administered aPL Abs. The antithrombotic medication dipyridamole is known to potentiate adenosine signaling by increasing extracellular concentrations of adenosine and interfering with the breakdown of cAMP. Like CGS21680, dipyridamole suppresses aPL Ab-mediated NETosis via the adenosine A2A receptor and mitigates venous thrombosis in mice. In summary, these data suggest an anti-inflammatory therapeutic paradigm in APS, which may extend to thrombotic disease in the general population.
Project description:International consensus criteria for antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) require persistently positive antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) and medium or high titers in association with clinical manifestations. However, the clinical relevance of persistence and titers of aPL in patients with stroke has not been identified. We aimed to investigate the risk of subsequent thrombotic events in patients with ischemic stroke with aPL positivity in terms of aPL status.We reviewed the medical records of 99 patients with ischemic stroke with at least one or more aPL-positivity (i.e., positivity for aCL, anti-?2-glycoprotein-1, and/or lupus anticoagulants). The patients were divided into two groups: "definite APS" who fulfilled the laboratory criteria and "indefinite APS" who fell short of the criteria. We compared the risk of subsequent thrombotic events between the two groups. Cox proportional hazards model and Kaplan-Meier survival curves were used for the analyses.Of the 99 patients, 46 (46%) were classified as having definite APS and 53 (54%) as having indefinite APS. The mean follow-up was 51.6 months. Overall event numbers were 14 (30.4%) in definite APS and 16 (30.2%) in indefinite APS. Increased subsequent thrombotic events (hazard ratio 1.039; 95% confidence interval 0.449-2.404; p=0.930) and decreased time to thrombotic events (log-rank p=0.321) were not associated with aPL status.There was no increased risk of subsequent thrombotic events in ischemic stroke patients with definite APS, compared with those with indefinite APS.
Project description:Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a systemic autoimmune disease, characterized by thrombosis, obstetric complications and the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL), which drive endothelial injury and thrombophilia. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been implicated in endothelial and thrombotic pathologies. Here, we characterized the quantity, cellular origin and the surface expression of biologically active molecules in small EVs (sEVs) isolated from the plasma of thrombotic APS patients (n = 14), aPL-negative patients with idiopathic thrombosis (aPL-neg IT, n = 5) and healthy blood donors (HBD, n = 7). Nanoparticle tracking analysis showed similar sEV sizes (110-170 nm) between the groups, with an increased quantity of sEVs in patients with APS and aPL-neg IT compared to HBD. MACSPlex analysis of 37 different sEV surface markers showed endothelial (CD31), platelet (CD41b and CD42a), leukocyte (CD45), CD8 lymphocyte and APC (HLA-ABC) cell-derived sEVs. Except for CD8, these molecules were comparably expressed in all study groups. sEVs from APS patients were specifically enriched in surface expression of CD62P, suggesting endothelial and platelet activation in APS. Additionally, APS patients exhibited increased CD133/1 expression compared to aPL-neg IT, suggesting endothelial damage in APS patients. These findings demonstrate enhanced shedding, and distinct biological properties of sEVs in thrombotic APS.
Project description:Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an acquired autoimmune condition characterized by thrombotic events, pregnancy morbidity, and laboratory evidence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL). Management of these patients includes the prevention of a first thrombotic episode in at-risk patients (primary prevention) and preventing recurrent thrombotic complications in patients with a history of thrombosis (secondary prevention). Assessment of thrombotic risk in these patients, balanced against estimated bleeding risks associated with antithrombotic therapy could assist clinicians in determining whether antithrombotic therapy is warranted. Thrombotic risk can be assessed by evaluating a patient's aPL profile and additional thrombotic risk factors. Although antithrombotic options for secondary prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE) have been evaluated in clinical trials, studies in primary prevention of asymptomatic aPL-positive patients are needed. Primary prevention with aspirin may be considered in asymptomatic patients who have a high-risk aPL profile, particularly if additional risk factors are present. Secondary prevention with long-term anticoagulation is recommended based on estimated risks of VTE recurrence, although routine evaluation of thrombotic risk can assist in determining whether ongoing anticoagulation is warranted. Studies that stratify thrombotic risk in aPL-positive patients, and patients with APS evaluating antithrombotic and non-antithrombotic therapies will be useful in optimizing the management of these patients.
Project description:Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by arterial and venous thrombotic manifestations and/or pregnancy-related complications in patients with persistently high antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL), the most common being represented by anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL), anti-beta 2 glycoprotein-I (a?2GPI), and lupus anticoagulant (LAC). A growing number of studies have showed that, in some cases, patients may present with clinical features of APS but with temporary positive or persistently negative titers of aPL. For these patients, the definition of seronegative APS (SN-APS) has been proposed. Nevertheless, the negativity to classic aPL criteria does not imply that other antibodies may be present or involved in the onset of thrombosis. The diagnosis of SN-APS is usually made by exclusion, but its recognition is important to adopt the most appropriate anti-thrombotic strategy to reduce the rate of recurrences. This research is in continuous development as the clinical relevance of these antibodies is far from being completely clarified. The most studied antibodies are those against phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinositol, vimentin/cardiolipin complex, and annexin A5. Moreover, the assays to measure the levels of these antibodies have not yet been standardized. In this review, we will summarize the evidence on the most studied non-criteria aPL, their potential clinical relevance, and the antithrombotic therapeutic strategies available in the setting of APS and SN-APS.
Project description:Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is characterized by thrombosis (arterial, venous, small vessel) and/or pregnancy morbidity occurring in patients with persistently positive antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL). Catastrophic APS is the most severe form of the disease, characterized by multiple organ thromboses occurring in a short period and commonly associated with thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA). Similar to patients with complement regulatory gene mutations developing TMA, increased complement activation on endothelial cells plays a role in hypercoagulability in aPL-positive patients. In mouse models of APS, activation of the complement is required and interaction of complement (C) 5a with its receptor C5aR leads to aPL-induced inflammation, placental insufficiency, and thrombosis. Anti-C5 antibody and C5aR antagonist peptides prevent aPL-mediated pregnancy loss and thrombosis in these experimental models. Clinical studies of anti-C5 monoclonal antibody in aPL-positive patients are limited to a small number of case reports. Ongoing and future clinical studies of complement inhibitors will help determine the role of complement inhibition in the management of aPL-positive patients.
Project description:The antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is characterized by thrombosis and pregnancy morbidity in the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL). Complement is a system of enzymes and regulatory proteins of the innate immune system that plays a key role in the inflammatory response to pathogenic stimuli. The complement and coagulation pathways are closely linked, and expanding data indicate that complement may be activated in patients with aPL and function as a cofactor in the pathogenesis of aPL-associated clinical events. Complement activation by aPL generates C5a, which induces neutrophil tissue factor-dependent procoagulant activity. Beta-2-glycoprotein I, the primary antigen for pathogenic aPL, has complement regulatory effects in vitro. Moreover, aPL induce fetal loss in wild-type mice but not in mice deficient in specific complement components (C3, C5). Antiphospholipid antibodies also induce thrombosis in wild type mice and this effect is attenuated in C3 or C6 deficient mice, or in the presence of a C5 inhibitor. Increased levels of complement activation products have been demonstrated in sera of patients with aPL, though the association with clinical events remains unclear. Eculizumab, a terminal complement inhibitor, has successfully been used to treat catastrophic APS and prevent APS-related thrombotic microangiopathy in the setting of renal transplant. However, the mechanisms of complement activation in APS, its role in the pathogenesis of aPL related complications in humans, and the potential of complement inhibition as a therapeutic target in APS require further study.
Project description:Promoting bone regeneration and repair of bone defects is a need that has not been well met to date. We have previously found that adenosine, acting via A2A receptors (A2AR) promotes wound healing and inhibits inflammatory osteolysis and hypothesized that A2AR might be a novel target to promote bone regeneration. Therefore, we determined whether direct A2AR stimulation or increasing endogenous adenosine concentrations via purine transport blockade with dipyridamole regulates bone formation. We determined whether coverage of a 3 mm trephine defect in a mouse skull with a collagen scaffold soaked in saline, bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2; 200 ng), 1 ?M CGS21680 (A2AR agonist, EC50 = 160 nM), or 1 ?M dipyridamole (EC50 = 32 nM) promoted bone regeneration. Microcomputed tomography examination demonstrated that CGS21680 and dipyridamole markedly enhanced bone regeneration as well as BMP-2 8 wk after surgery (60 ± 2%, 79 ± 2%, and 75 ± 1% bone regeneration, respectively, vs. 32 ± 2% in control, P < 0.001). Blockade by a selective A2AR antagonist (ZM241385, 1 ?M) or deletion of A2AR abrogated the effect of CGS21680 and dipyridamole on bone regeneration. Both CGS21680 and dipyridamole treatment increased alkaline phosphatase-positive osteoblasts and diminished tartrate resistance acid phosphatase-positive osteoclasts in the defects. In vivo imaging with a fluorescent dye for new bone formation revealed a strong fluorescent signal in treated animals that was equivalent to BMP-2. In conclusion, stimulation of A2AR by specific agonists or by increasing endogenous adenosine levels stimulates new bone formation as well as BMP-2 and represents a novel approach to stimulating bone regeneration.
Project description:Background: Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an acquired autoimmune disorder defined by the presence of both clinical (thromboembolic events or pregnancy morbidity) and laboratory (antiphospholipid antibodies, aPL) manifestations. Despite their importance, several clinical manifestations strongly associated with APS such as livedo reticularis (LR), thrombocytopenia, sicca-ophthalmic(sicca), heart, or neurological manifestations are not included in the APS clinical classification criteria. Circulating immune complexes (CIC) formed by Beta-2-glycoprotein I (B2GPI) and aPL (B2-CIC) have been described and their presence has been related with thrombotic events. Methods: Cross-sectional and observational cohort study in APS patients with thrombotic symptomatology. Setting and Participants: Fifty-seven patients from the University Hospital Center Bezanijska Kosa (Belgrade, Serbia) who met the APS classification criteria (35 with primary APS and 22 with APS associated to systemic lupus erythematosus). This study aimed to determine the prevalence of B2-CIC in APS patients and to evaluate their association with clinical manifestations of APS not included in the classification criteria. Results: B2-CIC prevalence in APS patients was 19.3%. The presence of thrombocytopenia (OR:5.7), livedo reticularis (OR:5.6), sicca (OR:12.6), and leukopenia (OR:5.6) was significantly higher in patients with B2-CIC than in the rest of APS patients. C3 and C4 complement factor levels were significantly lower in B2-CIC positive patients, which suggests a greater consumption of complement. Patients with quadruple aPL positivity (triple aPL-positivity plus the presence of B2-CIC) showed a higher prevalence of thrombocytopenia, leucopenia and LR than those with single/double aPL-positivity. No significant differences were found in the frequencies observed in patients with triple-only vs. single/double aPL-positivity. There were no significant differences between patients with primary APS and lupus-associated APS regarding the prevalence of B2-CIC and outcomes. Conclusions: Presence of B2-CIC is strongly associated with several non-criteria clinical manifestations related to APS and to higher complement consumption. More studies are required to better understand the clinical significance of B2-CIC.
Project description:Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune antibody-mediated condition characterized by thrombotic events and/or pregnancy morbidity in association with persistent positivity to antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL). The nervous system is frequently affected, as intracranial vessels are the most frequent site of arterial pathology. Over the course of years, many other neurological conditions not included in the diagnostic criteria, have been associated with APS. The pathogenic mechanisms behind the syndrome are complex and not fully elucidated. aPL enhance thrombosis, interfering with different pathways. Nevertheless, ischemic injury is not always sufficient to explain clinical features of the syndrome and immune-mediated damage has been advocated. This may be particularly relevant in the context of neurological complications. The reason why only a subgroup of patients develop non-criteria nervous system disorders and what determines the clinical phenotype are questions that remain open. The double nature, thrombotic and immunologic, of APS is also reflected by therapeutic strategies. In this review we summarize known neurological manifestations of APS, revisiting pathogenesis and current treatment options.
Project description:Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is defined by clinical manifestations that include thrombosis and/or fetal loss or pregnancy morbidity in patients with antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL). Antiphospholipid antibodies are among the most common causes of acquired thrombophilia, but unlike most of the genetic thrombophilias are associated with both venous and arterial thrombosis. Despite an abundance of clinical and basic research on aPL, a unified mechanism that explains their prothrombotic activity has not been defined; this may reflect the heterogeneity of aPL and/or the fact that they may influence multiple pro- and/or antithrombotic pathways. Antiphospholipid antibodies are directed primarily toward phospholipid binding proteins rather than phospholipid per se, with the most common antigenic target being ?2-glycoprotein 1 (?2GPI) although antibodies against other targets such as prothrombin are well described. Laboratory diagnosis of aPL depends upon the detection of a lupus anticoagulant (LA), which prolongs phospholipid-dependent anticoagulation tests, and/or anticardiolipin and anti-?2-glycoprotein 1 antibodies. Indefinite anticoagulation remains the mainstay of therapy for thrombotic APS, although new strategies that may improve outcomes are emerging. Preliminary reports suggest caution in the use of direct oral anticoagulants in patients with APS-associated thrombosis. Based on somewhat limited evidence, aspirin and low molecular weight heparin are recommended for obstetrical APS. There remains a pressing need for better understanding of the pathogenesis of APS in humans, for identification of clinical and laboratory parameters that define patients at greatest risk for APS-related events, and for targeted treatment of this common yet enigmatic disorder.