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Effects of triacylglycerol on the structural remodeling of human plasma very low- and low-density lipoproteins.


ABSTRACT: Very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) is the main plasma carrier of triacylglycerol that is elevated in pathological conditions such as diabetes, metabolic syndrome, obesity and dyslipidemia. How variations in triacylglycerol levels influence structural stability and remodeling of VLDL and its metabolic product, low-density lipoproteins (LDL), is unknown. We applied a biochemical and biophysical approach using lipoprotein remodeling by lipoprotein lipase and cholesterol ester transfer protein, along with thermal denaturation that mimics key aspects of lipoprotein remodeling in vivo. The results revealed that increasing the triacylglycerol content in VLDL promotes changes in the lipoprotein size and release of the exchangeable apolipoproteins. Similarly, increased triacylglycerol content in LDL promotes lipoprotein remodeling and fusion. These effects were observed in single-donor lipoproteins from healthy subjects enriched in exogenous triolein, in single-donor lipoproteins from healthy subjects with naturally occurring differences in endogenous triacylglycerol, and in LDL and VLDL from pooled plasma of diabetic and normolipidemic patients. Consequently, triacylglycerol-induced destabilization is a general property of plasma lipoproteins. This destabilization reflects a direct effect of triacylglycerol on lipoproteins. Moreover, we show that TG can act indirectly by increasing lipoprotein susceptibility to oxidation and lipolysis and thereby promoting the generation of free fatty acids that augment fusion. These in vitro findings are relevant to lipoprotein remodeling and fusion in vivo. In fact, fusion of LDL and VLDL enhances their retention in the arterial wall and, according to the response-to-retention hypothesis, triggers atherosclerosis. Therefore, enhanced fusion of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins suggests a new causative link between elevated plasma triacylglycerol and atherosclerosis.

PROVIDER: S-EPMC6482102 | BioStudies |

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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