Harnessing Noncovalent Interactions in Dual-Catalytic Enantioselective Heck-Matsuda Arylation.
ABSTRACT: The use of more than one catalyst in one-pot reaction conditions has become a rapidly evolving protocol in the development of asymmetric catalysis. The lack of molecular insights on the mechanism and enantioselectivity in dual-catalytic reactions motivated the present study focusing on an important catalytic asymmetric Heck-Matsuda cross-coupling. A comprehensive density functional theory (M06 and B3LYP-D3) investigation of the coupling between a spirocyclic cyclopentene and 4-fluorophenyl diazonium species under a dual-catalytic condition involving Pd2(dba)3 (dba = trans, trans-dibenzylideneacetone) and chiral 2,2'-binaphthyl diamine (BINAM)-derived phosphoric acids (BDPA, 2,2'-binaphthyl diamine-derived phosphoric acids) is presented. Among various mechanistic possibilities examined, the pathway with explicit inclusion of the base (in situ generated sodium bicarbonate/sodium biphosphate) is found to be energetically more preferred over the analogous base-free routes. The chiral phosphate generated by the action of sodium carbonate on BDPA is found to remain associated with the reaction site as a counterion. The initial oxidative addition of Pd(0) to the aryl diazonium bond gives rise to a Pd-aryl intermediate, which then goes through the enantiocontrolling migratory insertion to the cyclic alkene, leading to an arylated cycloalkene intermediate. Insights on how a series of noncovalent interactions, such as C-H···O, C-H···N, C-H···F, C-H···?, lp···?, O-H···?, and C-F···?, in the enantiocontrolling transition state (TS) render the migration of the Pd-aryl to the si prochiral face of the cyclic alkene more preferred over that to the re face are utilized for modulating the enantioselectivity. Aided by molecular insights on the enantiocontrolling transition states, we predicted improved enantioselectivity from 37% to 89% by changes in the N-aryl substituents of the catalyst. Subsequent experiments in our laboratory offered very good agreement with the predicted enantioselectivities.
Project description:A mild, asymmetric Heck-Matsuda reaction of five-, six- and seven-membered ring alkenes and aryl diazonium salts is presented. High yields and enantioselectivities were achieved using Pd0 and chiral anion co-catalysts, the latter functioning as a chiral anion phase-transfer (CAPT) reagent. For certain substrate classes, the chiral anion catalysts were modulated to minimize the formation of undesired by-products. More specifically, BINAM-derived phosphoric acid catalysts were shown to prevent alkene isomerization in cyclopentene and cycloheptene starting materials. DFT(B3LYP-D3) computations revealed that increased product selectivity resulted from a chiral anion dependent lowering of the activation barrier for the desired pathway.
Project description:The condensation cyclization between isatins and 5-methoxy tryptamine catalyzed by chiral phosphoric acids provides spirooxindole tetrahydro-?-carboline products in excellent yields (up to 99%) and enantioselectivity (up to 98:2 er). A comparison of catalysts provides insight for the substrate scope and factors responsible for efficient catalytic activity and selectivity in the spirocyclization. Chiral phosphoric acids with different 3,3'-substitution on the binaphthyl system and opposite axial chirality afford the spiroindolone product with the same absolute configuration.
Project description:An F10BINOL-derived chiral phosphoric acid was shown to be an effective catalyst for an enantioselective carbonyl-ene reaction of 1,1-disubstituted olefins with ethyl glyoxylate as the common enophile. The perfluoro-binaphthyl skeleton is beneficial not only for adopting high catalytic activity but also for creating an effective chiral environment for enantioselective transformations. Indeed, the reaction afforded enantio-enriched homoallylic alcohols in high yields with high enantioselectivities. Theoretical studies identified that the multi-point C-H···O hydrogen bonds and the π interactions between the substrates and the 6-methoxy-2-naphthyl substituents at the 3,3'-positions of the F10BINOL skeleton play a crucial role in determining the stereochemical outcomes. The significance of the perfluoro-binaphthyl skeleton in achieving the high enantioselectivity was also evaluated through a structural analysis of the catalysts.
Project description:Enantioselectivity values represent relative rate measurements that are sensitive to the structural features of the substrates and catalysts interacting to produce them. Therefore, well-designed enantioselectivity data sets are information rich and can provide key insights regarding specific molecular interactions. However, if the mechanism for enantioselection varies throughout a data set, these values cannot be easily compared. This premise, which is the crux of free energy relationships, exposes a challenging issue of identifying mechanistic breaks within multivariate correlations. Herein, we describe an approach to addressing this problem in the context of a chiral phosphoric acid catalyzed fluorination of allylic alcohols using aryl boronic acids as transient directing groups. By designing a data set in which both the phosphoric and boronic acid structures were systematically varied, key enantioselectivity outliers were identified and analyzed. A mechanistic study was executed to reveal the structural origins of these outliers, which was consistent with the presence of several mechanistic regimes within the data set. While 2- and 4-substituted aryl boronic acids favored the (R)-enantiomer with most of the studied catalysts, meta-alkoxy substituted aryl boronic acids resulted in the (S)-enantiomer when used in combination with certain (R)-phosphoric acids. We propose that this selectivity reversal is the result of a lone pair-? interaction between the substrate ligated boronic acid and the phosphate. On the basis of this proposal, a catalyst system was identified, capable of producing either enantiomer in high enantioselectivity (77% (R)-2 to 92% (S)-2) using the same chiral catalyst by subtly changing the structure of the achiral boronic acid.
Project description:A one-pot three-step sequence involving Rh-catalyzed alkene hydroacylation, sulfide elimination and Rh-catalyzed aryl boronic acid conjugate addition gave products of traceless chelation-controlled hydroacylation employing alkyl aldehydes. The stereodefined ?-aryl ketones were obtained in good yields with excellent control of enantioselectivity. Good variation of all three reaction components is possible.
Project description:A palladium(II)-catalyzed enantioselective ?-alkylation of azlactones with nonconjugated alkenes is described. The reaction employs a chiral BINOL-derived phosphoric acid as the source of stereoinduction, and a cleavable bidentate directing group appended to the alkene to control the regioselectivity and stabilize the nucleopalladated alkylpalladium(II) intermediate in the catalytic cycle. A wide range of azlactones were found to be compatible under the optimal reaction conditions to afford products bearing ?,?-disubstituted ?-amino-acid derivatives with high yields and high enantioselectivity.
Project description:The synthesis of cyclic sulfamides by enantioselective Pd-catalyzed alkene carboamination reactions between N-allylsulfamides and aryl or alkenyl bromides is described. High levels of asymmetric induction (up to 95:5 e.r.) are achieved using a catalyst composed of [Pd2 (dba)3 ] and (S)-Siphos-PE. Deuterium-labelling studies indicate the reactions proceed through syn-aminopalladation of the alkene and suggest that the control of syn- versus anti-aminopalladation pathways is important for asymmetric induction.
Project description:An enantioselective Pd-catalyzed 6-endo-trig reaction for the synthesis of 2-aryl-chromenes has been developed. A systematic optimization of a TADDOL-derived ligand set resulted in the identification of a novel monodentate phosphoramidite-palladium catalyst that accesses 2-aryl-2H-chromenes with high yield and enantioselectivity under mild conditions. The products obtained from this method can be transformed into biologically active compounds through functionalization of the chromene alkene.
Project description:Asymmetric catalysis using two chiral catalysts in combination using one-pot reaction conditions is in its initial stages of development and understanding. We employ density functional theory (SMD(toluene)/M06/6-31G**,SDD(Ir)) computations to shed light on the action of chiral phosphoric acid and a chiral Cp*Ir(diamine) in stereoinduction in an asymmetric amination reaction of an alcohol. First, the protonation of the Ir-diamine complex by the phosphoric acid forms an ion-pair of the active catalytic dyad. Both chiral catalysts are involved throughout the catalytic cycle, thus constituting an important example of true cooperative catalysis. A borrowing hydrogen mechanism operates, wherein the phosphate abstracts the hydroxyl proton of the alcohol while the electrophilic Ir(iii) simultaneously extracts the ?-hydrogen to form a [Ir]-H species. The ketone thus derived from the alcohol through dehydrogenation condenses with aniline to form an imine. In the diastereocontrolling transition state, the hydride adds to the activated iminium, held in position in the chiral pocket of the catalytic dyad through a network of noncovalent interactions (C-H···?, N-H···O and C-H···O). The enantioselectivity in this DYKAT process is identified as taking place at an earlier stage of the catalytic cycle prior to the diastereo-determining transition state.
Project description:A new method for the enantioselective synthesis of hexahydro-1H-benz[f]indoles is described. This copper-catalyzed enantioselective intramolecular alkene carboamination process can install vicinal tertiary and quaternary carbon stereocenters with high levels of diastereo- and enantioselectivity. The C-C bond-forming component of the reaction constitutes a C-H functionalization and no electronic activation of the aryl ring that undergoes addition is required. A known 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist was synthesized efficiently using this method.