Personal Values and Innovative Behavior of Employees.
ABSTRACT: Innovations are based on the good ideas of individuals; therefore, it is very important to better understand the role that individuals and their personal characteristics play in innovative initiatives. The aim of the current study was to test the relationships between employees' personal values and their innovative behavior. It was hypothesized that these relationships are mediated by an employee's job autonomy. We integrated Schwartz's basic human values theory with the notion that job autonomy is an important job characteristic that can be redesigned to better fit employees' preferences. The study results (obtained from 263 employees in different branches) showed that openness to change and self-enhancement values are positively related to job autonomy, whereas conservation and self-transcendence values are negatively related to job autonomy, which confirms that personal values are important in explaining autonomy in the workplace. In addition, employees' self-enhancement values are positively related to their innovative behavior, while conservation and self-transcendence values are negatively related to innovative behavior. Mediation analysis with a bias-corrected bootstrapping method showed that job autonomy is a significant mediator of the relationships between employees' personal values (except for openness to change) and their innovative behavior. Our research extends the theory of basic human values, showing that values serve as a personal basis for innovative behavior. Our results also contribute to the innovation research by demonstrating the importance of personal values and job autonomy for innovative behavior in organizations.
Project description:The increasing availability of large cross-national datasets enables researchers to integrate micro and macro levels of relations between human values and behavior. Particularly interesting are interactions between personal and cultural levels which can demonstrate to what extent a specific behavior is affected by individual values and cultural context. In this study, we aimed to shed light on this issue by analyzing data on basic values and drinking behavior from 21 national representative samples of the European Social Survey (2014). The results of multilevel regressions showed that country-level effects of Openness to Change (vs. Conservation) or Self-Transcendence (vs. Self-Enhancement) were not significantly related to frequency of drinking. As expected, individual-level Openness to Change (vs. Conservation) was consistently positively related to drinking frequency, whereas Self-Transcendence (vs. Self-Enhancement) was not. Contrary to our hypothesis, there was a positive association between personal Self-Transcendence (vs. Self-Enhancement) values and frequency of drinking in countries putting higher importance on extrinsic motivations (i.e., Conservation or Self-Enhancement values), while this link was less positive or even negative in countries valuing intrinsic motivations (i.e., Openness to Change or Self-Transcendence values). Moreover, a marginally significant interaction between individual- and country-level Openness to Change (vs. Conservation) values supported the same counter-intuitive result. These findings challenge the widespread idea that more conservative societies attenuate the link between personal values and behavior. In contrast, self-affirmation and cultural rewards theories, as well as culture-specific value instantiations, may explain these results. This study shows that the value-behavior link differs across cultures, yet in a more complex way than was assumed so far. This opens up new possibilities for research on values and behavior in a cross-cultural context.
Project description:Self-objectification occurs when individuals treat themselves as objects to be viewed and evaluated based upon appearance. Literature has largely elucidated links between self-objectification and damaging outcomes in both men and women. The purpose of the present study was to extend past research on the antecedents of self-objectification. We were interested in the role played by specific ideological components, i.e., higher order personal values (self-enhancement, conservation, self-transcendence, and openness to change), in influencing the degree to which individuals internalize the objectifying perspective of the Western cultural milieu, i.e., self-objectify. Undergraduate participants (N = 371, 76.8% women) completed measures of self-objectification (i.e., body surveillance and body shame), and endorsement of higher order values. Regression analyses demonstrated that self-enhancement is linked to higher self-objectification in both men and women, whereas conservation is related only to women's body surveillance. Self-transcendence seemed to act as a buffer against men's body surveillance, whereas openness to change resulted as a buffer against women's body surveillance. Implications are discusses.
Project description:Vitality refers to the experience of having energy available to one's self. Vital employees are full of positive energy when they work, and feel mentally and physically strong. Such employees often show higher job performance and lower stress than their less vital colleagues. Despite the importance of vitality, few public administration studies have studied vitality. More generally, by focusing on vitality, we aim to bring a "positive psychology" perspective into the domain of public administration. We analyze whether two important job characteristics (leader's task communication and job autonomy) affect vitality. We use a multi-method design. A large-scale survey (N = 1,502) shows that leader's task communication and job autonomy are positively related to vitality. A lab experiment (N = 102) replicated these findings, showing cause-and-effect relationships. In conclusion, public organizations can potentially increase employee vitality (a) by increased task communication from leaders and (b) by providing employees with greater job autonomy.
Project description:The appearance of a new coronavirus (Covid-19) and its rapid expansion throughout the world has forced all countries to establish regulations based on social confinement. In the early days of a pandemic, the adherence to regulations is crucial to be able to block its spread. This research aims to analyse the relationship between motivational variables associated with physical distancing and self-interested consumption behaviours in the first 10 days of confinement in Spain. A total of 1,324 people participated throughout the country (mean age 28.92 years). Participants answered an online survey about socio-demographic, motivational variables, which included a) risk information seeking, b) confidence in self- and collective efficacy in coping with the pandemic, and c) the four higher-order personal values ?conservation (security, conformity, and tradition), self-transcendence (universalism and benevolence), openness (self-direction actions and stimulation), and self-improvement (hedonism and power) ? and the aforementioned behaviours in coping with Covid-19. Results showed a positive association between self- and collective efficacy and both coping behaviours analysed: a protective role of conservation values on normative behaviours; and a negative relationship between self-transcendence values and self-interested consumption. Additionally, risk information seeking was positively associated with the development of physical distancing behaviour.
Project description:In environments experiencing fast technological change in which innovative performance is expected, work design research has found that the degree of autonomy positively predicts behavioral and attitudinal work outcomes. Because extant work design research has tended to examine the direct and mediating effects of autonomy on work outcomes such as job satisfaction, examinations of more situational elements and the degree to which the organizational context strengthens or weakens this relationship has been neglected. This study, therefore, takes a context-contingent perspective to investigate the degree to which psychological climate dimensions such as supervisor support, organizational structure and organizational innovation moderate the effects of autonomy (work scheduling autonomy, work methods autonomy, decision-making autonomy) on employee perceived innovative work behavior (IWB). Using a conjoint experiment based on 9,440 assessments nested within 1,180 employees, it was found that all autonomy dimensions had a significant direct effect on employee perceived IWB. Contrary to the Hypotheses, the multi-level analysis did not reveal any moderating effect of the climate dimensions on the relationship between autonomy and employee IWB. This study provides a context-contingent view for the features of work design and gives a more detailed analysis of autonomy, which has previously been seen primarily as a unidimensional construct.
Project description:<b>Background:</b> Based on the refined theory of basic individual values and transformational leadership theory, this study focuses on the associations between coaches' value priorities and their transformational leadership behaviors, exploring the potential mediation versus moderation effect of two alternative variables in this relationship: perceived club pressure or an autonomy supportive environment. <b>Methods:</b> Participants were 266 basketball coaches (85.7% men) from 17 to 66 years old (<i>M</i> = 32.82, <i>SD</i> = 9.2) from 119 different Spanish clubs. On average, they had worked for their current sport clubs for 5.02 years, and they had a mean of 11.10 years of experience. The coaches were all Spanish speakers, and they trained players at different levels of competition. <b>Results:</b> The stronger the importance of the coaches' self-transcendent values (i.e., universalism and benevolence), the more they displayed transformational behaviors (i.e., individual consideration, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, and fostering acceptance of group goals) toward the basketball players and perceived a more autonomy supportive environment and lower pressure from the club. Coaches who held conservation values (i.e., humility and face) displayed inspirational motivation behaviors. When coaches held openness to change values (i.e., stimulation and self-direction thought), they tended to display inspirational motivation and intellectual stimulation. Finally, coaches who held beliefs in self-enhancement values (i.e., power) displayed lower transformational behaviors (intellectual stimulation and fostering acceptance of group goals) toward their basketball players, and they perceived higher pressure from the club and a less autonomy supportive environment. Moreover, the club's autonomy supportive environment played a mediator role between self-transcendence values and some transformational behaviors; however, moderator effects were not significant, with the exception of coaches with self-enhancement values, who tended to avoid intellectual stimulation to a larger extent when they perceived high levels of pressure at the club. <b>Conclusion:</b> These results highlight the importance of identifying the value base on which to develop transformational leadership programs in order to enhance positive experiences in the sport domain.
Project description:Work stress-related productivity losses represent a substantial economic burden. In this study, we estimate the effects of social and task-related stressors and resources at work on health-related productivity losses caused by absenteeism and presenteeism. We also explore the interaction effects between job stressors, job resources and personal resources and estimate the costs of work stress. Work stress is defined as exposure to an unfavorable combination of high job stressors and low job resources. The study is based on a repeated survey assessing work productivity and workplace characteristics among Swiss employees. We use a representative cross-sectional data set and a longitudinal data set and apply both OLS and fixed effects models. We find that an increase in task-related and social job stressors increases health-related productivity losses, whereas an increase in social job resources and personal resources (measured by occupational self-efficacy) reduces these losses. Moreover, we find that job stressors have a stronger effect on health-related productivity losses for employees lacking personal and job resources, and that employees with high levels of job stressors and low personal resources will profit the most from an increase in job resources. Productivity losses due to absenteeism and presenteeism attributable to work stress are estimated at 195 Swiss francs per person and month. Our study has implications for interventions aiming to reduce health absenteeism and presenteeism.
Project description:In recent decades, the working world has changed dramatically and rising demands on flexibility make the coordination of personal and professional life more difficult. Therefore, it is important that the incumbents are in possession of all necessary information concerning their job. This might be a key issue to remain satisfied. Simultaneously, atypical forms of employment have substantially increased in the labor market; one such form is holding more than one job. While the motives might differ from needing an additional income to broadening job opportunities, practicing several jobs requires coordination and thus, being informed. Building on research regarding organizational constraints and role ambiguity, we hypothesize that the paucity of information is negatively related to (dimensions of) job satisfaction. This effect should be stronger for multiple as compared to single jobbers; specifically when considering the job satisfaction with the social climate, given that being informed by others is an important factor in the coordination of several jobs. Data taken from the BiBB/BAuA-Employment-Survey provide a sample of 17,782 German employees (54% women), including 1,084 multiple jobbers (59% women). Job satisfaction was measured as employees global satisfaction and their satisfaction with facets dimensions: the social climate, structural working conditions, personal growth opportunities, and material incentives they receive for their work. Paucity of information was measured by the frequency of lacked information. Our study indicated that paucity of information was negatively related to both, global and all facets dimensions of job satisfaction. Multiple regression analyses further revealed interaction effects of paucity of information and form of employment. Specifically, the negative correlation of paucity of information with global as well as satisfaction with the social climate was stronger for employees' holding more than one job. These results were independent of age, gender, organizational tenure, working hours, socioeconomic occupational status, as well as important working conditions (workload and autonomy). Incumbents with less paucity of necessary job-related information are more satisfied, especially when they hold multiple jobs. Supervisors and colleagues are advised to provide all necessary information and to ensure that employees retain it.
Project description:Little research has tested the parasite-stress theory of sociality based on a well-framed model of personal values using a multilevel analysis conducted on multinational samples. To robustly examined the validity of this novel theory of cultural evolution, this study used multilevel data of European Social Survey (from 2002 to 2016, 32 countries, <i>N</i> = 374,730) and World Values Survey (from 2005 to 2014, 80 countries, <i>N</i> = 173,540) to investigate the relationships between pathogen prevalence and the conflicting values dimensions (Conservation versus Openness to change; Self-enhancement versus Self-transcendence) of the circular model of human values, accounting for the micro- (age, sex, religious belief, education, and income) and macro-level predictors (modernization and cultural similarity). Results did not support the parasite-stress theory at both the country and individual levels when controlling for a composite index of modernization. Across all analyses, modernization remained a significant predictor of values even when controlling for cultural similarity. No conclusions changed when using an alternative parasite stress estimate. These findings support the modernization theory of value-change but challenge the roles of infectious diseases in cultural evolution.
Project description:<h4>Aim</h4>To determine the level of job satisfaction of nursing professionals in Slovenian hospitals and factors influencing job satisfaction in nursing.<h4>Methods</h4>The study included 4 hospitals selected from the hospital list comprising 26 hospitals in Slovenia. The employees of these hospitals represent 29.8% and 509 employees included in the study represent 6% of all employees in nursing in Slovenian hospitals. One structured survey questionnaire was administered to the leaders and the other to employees, both consisting 154 items evaluated on a 5 point Likert-type scale. We examined the correlation between independent variables (age, number of years of employment, behavior of leaders, personal characteristics of leaders, and managerial competencies of leaders) and the dependent variable (job satisfaction - satisfaction with the work, coworkers, management, pay, etc) by applying correlation analysis and multivariate regression analysis. In addition, factor analysis was used to establish characteristic components of the variables measured.<h4>Results</h4>We found a medium level of job satisfaction in both leaders (3.49±0.5) and employees (3.19±0.6), however, there was a significant difference between their estimates (t=3.237; P=lt;0.001). Job satisfaction was explained by age (Plt;0.05; ?=0.091), years of employment (Plt;0.05; ?=0.193), personal characteristics of leaders (Plt;0.001; ?=0.158), and managerial competencies of leaders (Plt;0.000; ?=0.634) in 46% of cases. The factor analysis yielded four factors explaining 64% of the total job satisfaction variance.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Satisfied employees play a crucial role in an organization's success, so health care organizations must be aware of the importance of employees' job satisfaction. It is recommended to monitor employees' job satisfaction levels on an annual basis.