Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and homologous recombination deficiency are independently associated with improved survival in ovarian carcinoma.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:The presence of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) and defects in homologous recombination (HR) are each important prognostic factors in ovarian carcinoma (OC). We characterized the association between HR deficiency (HRD) and the presence of TILs in a cohort of OC patients and the relative contribution to overall survival. METHODS:Patients with carcinoma of the ovary, fallopian tube, or peritoneum were prospectively enrolled. Malignant neoplasm and serum samples were collected. Immunohistochemistry for CD3+ T cells and CD68+ tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) was performed on specimens collected at primary surgery. Damaging germline and somatic mutations in genes in the HR-mediated repair (HRR) pathway were identified using BROCA sequencing. HRD was defined as a damaging mutation in one of 12 genes in the HRR pathway or promoter hypermethylation in BRCA1 or RAD51C. RESULTS:Ninety-eight of 250 patients included in the analysis had HRD OC (39.2%). HRD OC were enriched for CD3+ TILs and CD68+ TAMs. High CD3+ TIL was present in 65.3% of HRD OC compared to 43.4% of non-HRD OC (P?=?0.001). High CD68+ TAM was present in 66.3% of HRD OC compared to 50.7% of non-HRD OC (P?=?0.015). Patients with HRD OC and high CD3+ TILs had the longest median overall survival compared to non-HRD OC with low CD3+ TILs (70.9 vs. 35.8?months, adjusted HR 0.38, 95% CI (0.25-0.59)). CONCLUSIONS:Patients that have both CD3+ TILs and HRD OC are afforded the greatest improvement in overall survival. This finding may have therapeutic implications for OC patients treated with emerging immunotherapies.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Tumor-infiltrating immune cells are present in various malignant tumors, but their clinical significance in gastric cancer (GC) remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the prognostic significance of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). METHODS:Using a prospective database containing 401 cases of GC, we evaluated TIL (cluster of differentiation 8 (CD8) expression) and TAM (cluster of differentiation 68 (CD68) expression) statuses via immunohistochemical staining. RESULTS:Compared with CD8+ TIL-negative cases (n?=?196, 48.6%), CD8+ TIL-positive cases (n?=?205, 51.1%) showed significantly better recurrence-free survival (RFS) [log-rank p<0.001; multivariate HR: 0.372; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.239-0.579, p<0.001]. In contrast, compared with CD68+ TAM-negative cases (n?=?217, 54.1%), CD68+ TAM-positive cases (n?=?184, 45.9%) had significantly poor RFS [log-rank p<0.001; multivariate HR: 2.182; 95% CI: 1.435-3.318, p<0.001]. Thus, patients with a positive CD8+ TIL and negative CD68+ TAM status exhibited significantly increased RFS. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that CD8+ TILs and CD68+ TAMs may serve as independent prognostic markers for RFS. Incorporating CD8+ TIL and CD68+ TAM statuses into the AJCC TNM system generated a predictive model with better predictive accuracy for RFS. More importantly, patients with a positive TIL and negative TAM status showed a tendency of improved RFS after postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy (PAC). Similar results were obtained by overall survival (OS) analysis. CONCLUSIONS:CD8+ TIL and CD68+ TAM statuses were identified as independent prognostic factors that may be integrated into the current TNM staging system to refine risk stratification and to better predict the survival benefit from PAC in patients with GC. TRIAL REGISTRATION:The current controlled trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (ID: NCT02327481 ) on December 30, 2014.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) are described as an important immune modulator in the tumor microenvironment and are associated with breast cancer (BC) outcome. The spatial analysis of TILs and TIL subtype distribution at the invasive tumor front (ITF) and the tumor center (TC) might provide further insights into tumor progression. METHODS:We analyzed core biopsies from 87 pre-therapeutic BC patients for total TILs and the following subtypes: CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD20+ and CD68+ cells in correlation to clinicopathological parameters and disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) in the bone marrow. RESULTS:TILs and TIL subtypes showed significantly different spatial distribution among both tumor areas. TILs, especially CD3+ T cells were associated with the tumor status and tumor grading. BC patients responding to neoadjuvant chemotherapy had significantly more TILs and CD3+ T cells at the TC. The presence of DTCs after NACT was related to CD4+ infiltration at the TC. CONCLUSION:The dissimilar spatial association of TILs and TIL subtypes with clinicopathological parameters, NACT response and minimal residual disease underlines the necessity of detailed TIL analysis for a better understanding of immune modulatory processes.
Project description:Background:Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) are involved in the antitumor immune response. The association between prognosis in patients with TILs and high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) remains obscure, with some studies reporting conflicting results. Methods:We conducted an extensive literature search of electronic databases and retrieved prognostic data of each selected subtype of TILs, including CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD103+, and PD-1+ TILs. The fixed-effects model was applied to derive the pooled hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of these markers. Results:The systematic review process yielded 19 eligible studies comprising 6004 patients with HGSOC. We compared TIL-positive and TIL-negative patients, and the pooled HRs from the multivariate analysis revealed that intraepithelial CD8+ TILs were positively correlated with progression-free survival (PFS, HR 0.46, 95% CI 0.25-0.67) and overall survival (OS, HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.86-0.9); stromal CD8+ TILs were positively correlated with OS (HR 0.61, 95% CI 0.36-0.87). Furthermore, the pooled HRs from univariate analysis demonstrated that intraepithelial CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, and CD103+ TILs were positively associated with OS (HR 0.58, 95% CI 0.44-0.72; HR 0.37, 95% CI 0.16-0.59; HR 0.51, 95% CI 0.42-0.60, and HR 0.59, 95% CI 0.44-0.74, respectively); stromal CD4+ and CD8+ TILs were significantly associated with OS (HR 0.63, 95% CI 0.32-0.94 and HR 0.78, 95% CI 0.58-0.97, respectively). However, the pooled HR from the multivariate analysis revealed that PD-1+ TILs were not associated with the OS of patients with HGSOC (HR 0.97, 95% CI 0.90-1.04). Conclusion:This meta-analysis provided evidence of the association of CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, and CD103+ TILs with the survival benefits (OS and PFS) of patients with HGSOC.
Project description:The immunoscore (IS), an index based on the density of CD3+ and CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in the tumor center (CT) and invasive margin (IM), has gained considerable attention as a prognostic marker. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) have also been reported to have prognostic value. However, its clinical significance has not been fully clarified in patients with advanced CRC who present with distant metastases.The density of CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, FOXP3+, CD68+, and CD163+ immune cells within CRC tissue procured from three sites-the primary CT, IM, and distant metastasis (DM)-was determined using immunohistochemistry and digital image analyzer (n=196). The IS was obtained by quantifying the densities of CD3+ and CD8+ TILs in the CT and IM. IS-metastatic and IS-macrophage-additional IS models designed in this study-were obtained by adding the score of CD3 and CD8 in DM and the score of CD163 in primary tumors (CT and IM), respectively, to the IS.Higher IS, IS-metastatic, and IS-macrophage values were significantly correlated with better prognosis (p=0.020, p?0.001, and p=0.005, respectively). Multivariate analysis revealed that only IS-metastatic was an independent prognostic marker (p=0.012). No significant correlation was observed between KRAS mutation and three IS models. However, in the subgroup analysis, IS-metastatic showed a prognostic association regardless of the KRAS mutational status.IS is a reproducible method for predicting the survival of patients with advanced CRC. Additionally, an IS including the CD3+ and CD8+ TIL densities at DM could be a strong prognostic marker for advanced CRC.
Project description:The prognostic value of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in ovarian cancer is still in controversial. This study is aimed to assess the impact of different TIL subsets on the progression free survival (PFS)/disease free survival (DSS) and overall survival (OS)/disease specific survival (DSS) in ovarian cancer. A comprehensive literature search in PubMed, ISI Web of Science, and Medline was performed to identify relevant studies evaluating the prognostic value of TILs in ovarian cancer. Reviews of each study were conducted and data were extracted. The main outcomes analyzed were PFS/DFS and OS/DSS. A total of 21 eligible studies enrolling 2903 ovarian cancer patients were included for the meta-analysis. The overall analysis revealed that intraepithelial CD3+ and CD8+ TILs were strongly associated with improved PFS/DFS (HR=0.53, for CD3+ TILs; and HR=0.50, for CD8+ TILs). Intraepithelial CD8+/Foxp3+ ratios appeared to be associated with improved PFS, though without reaching statistical significance (HR=0.73). Moreover, intraepithelial CD3+, CD8+, and CD103+ TILs were clearly associated with increased OS/DSS (HR=0.50, for CD3+ TILs; HR=0.62, for CD8+ TILs; HR=0.54, for CD103+ TILs). However, intraepithelial FoxP3+ TILs, CD8+/FoxP3+ ratios, CD8+/CD4+ ratios, and stromal TILs had no impact on the OS/DSS (HR=0.98, for FoxP3+ TILs; HR=0.69, for CD8+/FoxP3+ ratios; HR=0.48, for CD8+/CD4+ ratios; HR=0.82, for stromal TILs). In conclusion, the present meta-analysis supports the hypothesis that intraepithelial TILs are predictive biomarkers for the prognosis of ovarian cancer patients. Future randomized studies are needed to verify these observations.
Project description:The immune microenvironment of the brain differs from that of other organs and the role of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in brain metastases (BM), one of the most common and devastating complication of cancer, is unclear. We investigated TIL subsets and their prognostic impact in 116 BM specimens using immunohistochemistry for CD3, CD8, CD45RO, FOXP3, PD1 and PD-L1. The Immunoscore was calculated as published previously. Overall, we found TIL infiltration in 115/116 (99.1%) BM specimens. PD-L1 expression was evident in 19/67 (28.4%) BM specimens and showed no correlation with TIL density (p > 0.05). TIL density was not associated with corticosteroid administration (p > 0.05). A significant difference in infiltration density according to TIL subtype was present (p < 0.001; Chi Square); high infiltration was most frequently observed for CD3+ TILs (95/116; 81.9%) and least frequently for PD1+ TILs (18/116; 15.5%; p < 0.001). Highest TIL density was observed in melanoma, followed by renal cell cancer and lung cancer BM (p < 0.001). The density of CD8(+) TILs correlated positively with the extent of peritumoral edema seen on pre-operative magnetic resonance imaging (p = 0.031). The density of CD3+ (15 vs. 6 mo; p = 0.015), CD8(+) (15 vs. 11 mo; p = 0.030) and CD45RO+ TILs (18 vs. 8 mo; p = 0.006) showed a positive correlation with favorable median OS times. Immunoscore showed significant correlation with survival prognosis (27 vs. 10 mo; p < 0.001). The prognostic impact of Immunoscore was independent from established prognostic parameters at multivariable analysis (HR 0.612, p < 0.001). In conclusion, our data indicate that dense TILs infiltrates are common in BM and correlate with the amount of peritumoral brain edema and survival prognosis, thus identifying the immune system as potential biomarker for cancer patients with CNS affection. Further studies are needed to substantiate our findings.
Project description:Background:Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) contribute significantly to the development of immunosuppressive properties of a tumor. In this study, we performed immunohistochemical analysis of immune cells of esophageal tumors stroma. Methods:Paraffin-embedded tissue specimens from 48 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients were retrospectively collected for immunohistochemical analysis of stromal cells. For staining of macrophages, CD68, CD163, CD206, PU.1, and iNOS were used. For T cell detection, CD8, CD3, and FOXP3 were used. Also, we performed staining for PD-L1 that can be expressed on TAMs and tumor cells. Clinicopathological and survival data were collected and analyzed using the ? 2 and Fisher exact tests, Kaplan-Meier curves, and the log-rank test. The correlation analysis was performed with Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. Results:We found that FOXP3 expression was associated with age (p = 0.042) and iNOS expression was associated with the disease stage (p = 0.044). In addition, FOXP3 and CD163 appeared to be markers of good prognosis (HR = 0.4420, p = 0.0325, and HR = 0.4447, p = 0.0456, respectively). Significant association between PU.1+ and CD68+ macrophages (r = 0.833; p ? 0.001) and between PU.1+ and CD163+ macrophages (r = 0.500; p ? 0.001) was established; positive association between PU.1 and CD206 expression was also observed (r = 0.250; p = 0.043). Conclusions:Large amounts of CD163+ macrophages and FOXP3+ ? cells appear to be markers of good prognosis of ESCC. The number of PU.1+ macrophages strongly correlates with the number of CD68+ macrophages; therefore, usage of PU.1 as a potential macrophage marker can be recommended for esophageal tumors.
Project description:PURPOSE:In colorectal cancer (CRC), whether the immune score can be used to predict the clinical prognosis of the patient has not been completely established. Besides, the prognostic values of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in different anatomical locations, counting sites, and subtypes have been controversial. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to analyze and determine the prognostic value of TILs indices including TIL subsets, infiltrating sites, and anatomical sites. METHODS:Relevant literature was obtained by searching PubMed and Google Scholar. The pooled hazard ratio (HR) of the overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), and cancer-specific survival (CSS) was computed to investigate the prognostic significance of CD3+, CD8+, CD45RO+, and FOXP3+ T cells. RESULTS:A total of 22 studies involving 5108 patients were included in the meta-analysis. In CC, based on T cell subtypes analysis, the final results indicated that CD8+ and FOXP3+ infiltrating cells, but not CD3+ T cells were prognostic markers for DFS and OS. In addition, with regard to the counting location of TILs, subgroup analysis revealed that only high FOXP3+ infiltrates in the tumor stroma (ST) were significantly associated with OS (HR = 0.38, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.22-0.67, P = 0.0007), whereas in invasive margin (IM), high density of CD3+ infiltrating cells indicated increased DFS (HR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.62-0.93, P = 0.008). At the tumor center (TC), high CD8+ T cells infiltration was associated with improved DFS (HR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.38-0.65, P < 0.00001). In RC, whether CSS or OS, high-density TIL was associated with improved prognosis. CONCLUSION:In a single counting site, high-density TILs reflect favorable prognostic value in CC or RC. For CC, more prospective studies are needed to verify whether different anatomical sites affect the distribution of TILs and thus the prognosis of patients. For RC, further studies should analyze the prognostic value of the immune score.
Project description:The prognostic potential of anti-tumor immune responses is becoming increasingly important in adenocarcinoma of the gastroesophageal junction and stomach (AGE/S) especially regarding the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors. This study analyzes for the first time the prognostic impact of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and checkpoint inhibitors in a large Caucasian cohort in patients with AGE/S. We screened tissue samples from 438 therapy-naïve patients with AGE/S undergoing surgery between 1992 and 2005, examined in a tissue microarray (TMA) and stained against human CD3, CD4, CD8, PD-1, and PD-L1. Out of 438 tissue samples, 210 were eligible for multivariate analysis. This revealed that high infiltration with CD3+, CD4+, or CD8+ TILs was associated with an increased overall survival in AGE/S patients, which could only be confirmed in multivariate analysis for CD3 (HR: 0.326; p = .023). Independent improved survival was limited to gastric cancer patients and to early tumor stages as long as TILs did not express PD-1 (HR: 1.522; p = .021). Subgroup analyses indicate that TIL-dependent anti-tumor immune response is only effective in gastric cancer patients in early stages of disease in PD-1 negative TILs. Combined analysis of PD-1 and CD3 could serve as a prognostic marker for the clinical outcome of gastric cancer patients and could also be of interest for immunotherapy.
Project description:Aim:To investigate the correlation between clinicopathological features and risk stratification in cervical cancer patients, and evaluate the feasibility of tumor-infiltrating immune cells as prognostic biomarkers in clinical practice. Methods:CD3+ tumor infiltrating T cells (TILs), CD45RO+ TILs, CD4+ TILs, CD8+ TILs, FOXP3+ TILs (regulatory T cells, Tregs), CD68+ tumor associated macrophages (TAMs), CD163+ TAMs, and PD-L1+ tumor cells were immunostained in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (PPFE) tissues from 96 cervical cancer patients. Immunostaining density and other clinicopathological features such as age, FIGO stage, histopathologic type, Ki67 index, HPV status, lymhovasular invasion status (LVI), lymph node metastasis, tumor size, stromal invasion status, surgical margin status, and parametrial invasion, were evaluated for their roles in risk stratification of cervical cancer patients. Results:The results showed that significant differences of lymph node metastasis (p = 0.003), surgical margin status (p = 0.020), and stromal invasion status (p = 0.004) existed between lVI(-) and LVI(+) patients. CD3+ TILs in the central tumor area (p = 0.010), CD4+ TILs in the central tumor area (p = 0.045), CD8 + TILs in the central tumor area (p = 0.033), and CD8+ TILs in the invasive margin area (p = 0.004) showed significant differences between lVI(-) and LVI(+) patients. When patients were grouped by status of lymph node metastasis, significant differences of FIGO stage (p = 0.005), LVI status (p = 0.003), CD3+ TILs in the central tumor area (p = 0.045), CD45RO+ TILs in the central tumor area (p = 0.033), and CD45RO+ TILs in the invasive margin area (p = 0.028) were also observed. After the patients were stratified into low-, intermediate-, and high risk groups, significant differences of FIGO stage (p = 0.018), status of lymph node metastasis (p = 0.000), LVI status (p = 0.000), parametrial invasion status (p=0.012), stromal invasion status (p = 0.000), tumor growth pattern (p = 0.015) and tumor size (p = 0.000) were identified among 3 groups of patients, while only CD45RO+ TILs in the invasive margin area (p = 0.018) and FOXP3+ TILs in the central tumor area (p = 0.009) were statistically different among three groups of patients. Spearman's correlation analysis demonstrated that FIGO stage, LVI status, status of lymph node metastasis, parametrial invasion, stromal invasion status, and tumor size positively correlated with risk stratification (P = 0.005, 0.020, 0.000, 0.022, 0.000, and 0.000 respectively), while CD45RO+ TILs in the invasive margin area and FOXP3+ TILs in the central tumor area showed statistically negative correlation with risk stratification (P = 0.031, 0.009 respectively). Conclusion:Our study suggested that CD45RO+ TILs in the invasive margin area and FOXP3+ TILs in the central tumor area might be useful biomarkers for risk stratification in cervical cancer patients. Large cohort studies of cervical cancer patients are required to validate our hypothesis.