Impact of social complexity on outcomes in cystic fibrosis after transfer to adult care.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:This study evaluates the roles of medical and social complexity in health care use outcomes in cystic fibrosis (CF) after transfer from pediatric to adult care. METHODS:Retrospective cohort design included patients with CF who were transitioned into adult care at Indiana University from 2005 to 2015. Predictor variables included demographic and comorbidity data, age at transition, treatment complexity score (TCS), and an objective scoring measure of their social complexity (Bob's Level of Social Support, BLSS). Outcome variables included outpatient visit rates and hospitalization rates. Pearson's correlations and linear regression were used to analyze the data. RESULTS:The median age of the patients (N?=?133) at the time of transition was 20 (IQR 19-23) years. The mean FEV1 % predicted at transition was 69?±?24%. TCS correlated with outpatient visit rates (r?=?0.3, P?=?0.003), as well as hospitalization rates (r?=?0.4, P?
Project description:BACKGROUND:Ambulatory care-sensitive condition (ACSC) hospitalizations are used to evaluate physicians' performance in Medicare value-based payment programs. However, these measures may disadvantage physicians caring for vulnerable populations because they omit social, cognitive, and functional factors that may be important determinants of hospitalization. OBJECTIVE:To determine whether social, cognitive, and functional risk factors are associated with ACSC hospitalization rates and whether adjusting for them changes outpatient safety-net providers' performance. DESIGN:Using data from the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey, we conducted patient-level multivariable regression to estimate the association (as incidence rate ratios (IRRs)) between patient-reported social, cognitive, and functional risk factors and ACSC hospitalizations. We compared outpatient safety-net and non-safety-net providers' performance after adjusting for clinical comorbidities alone and after additional adjustment for social, cognitive, and functional factors captured in survey data. SETTING:Safety-net and non-safety-net clinics. PARTICIPANTS:Community-dwelling Medicare beneficiaries contributing 38,616 person-years from 2006 to 2013. MEASUREMENTS:Acute and chronic ACSC hospitalizations. RESULTS:After adjusting for clinical comorbidities, Alzheimer's/dementia (IRR 1.30, 95% CI 1.02-1.65), difficulty with 3-6 activities of daily living (ADLs) (IRR 1.43, 95% CI 1.05-1.94), difficulty with 1-2 instrumental ADLs (IADLs, IRR 1.54, 95% CI 1.26-1.90), and 3-6 IADLs (IRR 1.90, 95% CI 1.49-2.43) were associated with acute ACSC hospitalization. Low income (IRR 1.28, 95% CI 1.03-1.58), lack of educational attainment (IRR 1.33, 95% CI 1.04-1.69), being unmarried (IRR 1.18, 95% CI 1.01-1.36), difficulty with 1-2 IADLs (IRR 1.30, 95% CI 1.05-1.60), and 3-6 IADLs (IRR 1.44, 95% CI 1.16-1.80) were associated with chronic ACSC hospitalization. Adding these factors to standard Medicare risk adjustment eliminated outpatient safety-net providers' performance gap (p?<?.05) on ACSC hospitalization rates relative to non-safety-net providers. CONCLUSIONS:Social, cognitive, and functional risk factors are independently associated with ACSC hospitalizations. Failure to account for them may penalize outpatient safety-net providers for factors that are beyond their control.
Project description:The burden of medically-attended acute gastro-enteritis (MA-AGE) that can be attributed to norovirus is not well established in Japan. Using a nationwide database of medical care insurance claims, we estimated the incidence of medically-attended norovirus-attributable gastroenteritis (MA-NGE) in Japan.The incidences of MA-NGE outpatient consultations or hospitalization in Japan were modelled on seasonal patterns of MA-AGE for unspecified causes derived from the Japan Medical Data Center (JMDC) database for the period July 2007 to June 2015.Mean age-adjusted annual incidence rates (per 10,000 person-years) of MA-NGE associated with outpatient care or hospitalization were 389 (95% CI 269-558) and 13 (95% CI 9-20), respectively. Highest rates were in children under 5 years of age: 1,569 (95% CI 1,325-1,792) for outpatient consultations and 48 (95% CI 39-56) for hospitalizations. Of all gastroenteritis episodes associated with outpatient care or hospitalization, 29% and 31% were attributed to norovirus, respectively. Norovirus was estimated to be responsible for 4,964,000 outpatient visits (95% CI 3,435,000-7,123,000) and 171,000 hospitalizations (95% CI 110,000-251,000) per year across Japan.Incidence rates of MA-AGE are high in Japan, and norovirus-attributable disease is at least as high as in some other developed countries.
Project description:Eating Disorders (ED) are defined as abnormal eating behaviors, stemming from an obsession with food, body weight, or body shape. EDs affect 10 million men and 20 million women in the US, with an estimated 15% lifetime prevalence among women. An ED diagnosis is often accompanied with a host of adverse physical and mental health outcomes, including a heightened risk for suicidality. Given the complex comorbidities associated with EDs, treatment occurs in inpatient and outpatient settings. This study used linked administrative and health records from the Utah Population Database to create a cohort of women n = 4183 and men n = 423 who had a known diagnosis of ED between 1995 and 2015. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to model ED-related hospitalization trajectories, including subsequent risk for suicidality/self-injurious behavior-related hospitalization. To better estimate the risk profiles associated with different health care utilization patterns, models explored how family-related life course events (childbirth, marriage transitions) and sociodemographic characteristics (race, sex, and median income at census-block) modify hospitalization trajectories following initial diagnosis. Results suggested that increased outpatient treatment was associated with reduced risk of initial ED-related hospitalization, but higher risk for subsequent ED-related hospital readmission. In addition, transition to marriage (i.e., getting married) was associated with reduced risk of ED-related and suicidality/self-injurious behavior-related hospitalizations (initial hospitalization and subsequent readmission). Increased number of children was only associated with reduced risk of initial ED-hospitalization, but not readmission. When assessing individuals' risk for ED-related hospitalizations, social and health services researchers should contextualize treatment trajectories within the individual's life experiences, particularly marital transitions, while simultaneously considering sociodemographic characteristics and utilization of outpatient care. Future research should further examine whether marriage represents an important turning point in the health trajectories of individuals with EDs.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Access to neurology specialty care can influence outcomes in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS), but may vary based on patient sociodemographic characteristics, including immigration status. OBJECTIVE:To compare health services utilization in the year of MS diagnosis, one year before diagnosis and two years after diagnosis in immigrants versus long-term residents in Ontario, Canada. METHODS:We identified incident cases of MS among adults aged 20-65 years by applying a validated algorithm to health administrative data in Ontario, Canada, a region with universal health insurance and comprehensive coverage. We separately assessed hospitalizations, emergency department (ED) visits, outpatient neurology visits, other outpatient specialty visits, and primary care visits. We compared rates of health service use in immigrants versus long-term residents using negative binomial regression models with generalized estimating equations adjusted for age, sex, socioeconomic status, urban/rural residence, MS diagnosis calendar year, and comorbidity burden. RESULTS:From 2003 to 2014, there were 13,028 incident MS cases in Ontario, of whom 1,070 (8.2%) were immigrants. As compared to long-term residents, rates of hospitalization were similar (Adjusted rate ratio (ARR) 0.86; 95% CI: 0.73-1.01) in immigrants the year before MS diagnosis, but outpatient neurology visits (ARR 0.93; 95% CI: 0.87-0.99) were slightly less frequent. However, immigrants had higher rates of hospitalization during the diagnosis year (ARR 1.20, 95% CI: 1.04-1.39), and had greater use of outpatient neurology (ARR 1.17, 95% CI: 1.12-1.23) but fewer ED visits (ARR 0.86; 95% CI: 0.78-0.96). In the first post-diagnosis year, immigrants continued to have greater numbers of outpatient neurology visits (ARR 1.16; 95% CI: 1.10-1.23), but had fewer hospitalizations (ARR 0.79; 95% CI: 0.67-0.94). CONCLUSIONS:Overall, our findings were reassuring concerning health services access for immigrants with MS in Ontario, a publicly funded health care system. However, immigrants were more likely to be hospitalized despite greater use of outpatient neurology care in the year of MS diagnosis. Reasons for this may include more severe disease presentation or lack of social support among immigrants and warrant further investigation.
Project description:BACKGROUND: A relationship between quality of primary health care and preventable hospitalizations has been described in the US, especially among the elderly. In Europe, there has been a recent increase in the evaluation of Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions (ACSC) as an indicator of health care quality, but evidence is still limited. The aim of this study was to determine whether income level is associated with higher hospitalization rates for ACSC in adults in a country with universal health care coverage. METHODS: From the hospital registries in four Italian cities (Turin, Milan, Bologna, Rome), we identified 9384 hospital admissions for six chronic conditions (diabetes, hypertension, congestive heart failure, angina pectoris, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and asthma) among 20-64 year-olds in 2000. Case definition was based on the ICD-9-CM coding algorithm suggested by the Agency for Health Research and Quality - Prevention Quality Indicators. An area-based (census block) income index was used for each individual. All hospitalization rates were directly standardised for gender and age using the Italian population. Poisson regression analysis was performed to assess the relationship between income level (quintiles) and hospitalization rates (RR, 95% CI) separately for the selected conditions controlling for age, gender and city of residence. RESULTS: Overall, the ACSC age-standardized rate was 26.1 per 10.000 inhabitants. All conditions showed a statistically significant socioeconomic gradient, with low income people being more likely to be hospitalized than their well off counterparts. The association was particularly strong for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (level V low income vs. level I high income RR = 4.23 95%CI 3.37-5.31) and for congestive heart failure (RR = 3.78, 95% CI = 3.09-4.62). With the exception of asthma, males were more vulnerable to ACSC hospitalizations than females. The risks were higher among 45-64 year olds than in younger people. CONCLUSIONS: The socioeconomic gradient in ACSC hospitalization rates confirms the gap in health status between social groups in our country. Insufficient or ineffective primary care is suggested as a plausible additional factor aggravating inequality. This finding highlights the need for improving outpatient care programmes to reduce the excess of unnecessary hospitalizations among poor people.
Project description:Because the real-world impact of new vaccines cannot be known before they are implemented in national programs, post-implementation studies at the population level are critical. Studies based on analysis of hospitalization rates of vaccine-preventable outcomes are typically used for this purpose. However, estimates of vaccine impact based on hospitalization data are particularly prone to confounding, as hospitalization rates are tightly linked to changes in the quality, access and use of the healthcare system, which often occur simultaneously with introduction of new vaccines. Here we illustrate how changes in healthcare delivery coincident with vaccine introduction can influence estimates of vaccine impact, using as an example reductions in infant pneumonia hospitalizations after introduction of the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) in Brazil. To this end, we explore the effect of changes in several metrics of quality and access to public healthcare on trends in hospitalization rates before (2008-09) and after (2011-12) PCV10 introduction in 2010. Changes in infant pneumonia hospitalization rates following vaccine introduction were significantly associated with concomitant changes in hospital capacity and the fraction of the population using public hospitals. Importantly, reduction of pneumonia hospitalization rates after PCV10 were also associated with the expansion of outpatient services in several Brazilian states, falling more sharply where primary care coverage and the number of health units offering basic and emergency care increased more. We show that adjustments for unrelated (non-vaccine) trends commonly employed by impact studies, such as use of single control outcomes, are not always sufficient for accurate impact assessment. We discuss several ways to identify and overcome such biases, including sensitivity analyses using different denominators to calculate hospitalizations rates and methods that track changes in the outpatient setting. Employing these practices can improve the accuracy of vaccine impact estimates, particularly in evolving healthcare settings typical of low- and middle-income countries.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Psychiatric hospitalizations and emergency department (ED) visits occur more frequently for youths with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). One mechanism that may reduce the likelihood of these events is utilization of home and community-based care. Using commercial claims data and a rigorous analytical framework, this retrospective study examined whether spending on outpatient services for ASD, including occupational, physical, and speech therapies and other behavioral interventions, reduced the likelihood of psychiatric hospitalizations and ED visits. METHODS:The study sample was composed of >100,000 children and young adults with ASD and commercial insurance from every state between 2008 and 2012. The authors estimated maximum-likelihood complementary log-log link survival models with robust standard errors. The outcomes of interest were a hospitalization or an ED visit with an associated psychiatric diagnosis code (ICD-9-CM 290 through 319) in a given week. RESULTS:An increase of $125 in weekly spending on ASD-specific outpatient services in the 7 to 14 weeks prior to a given week reduced the likelihood of a psychiatric hospitalization in that week by 2%. ASD-specific outpatient spending during the 6 weeks prior to a psychiatric hospitalization did not decrease risk of hospitalization. Spending on ASD-specific outpatient services did not reduce the likelihood of a psychiatric ED visit. CONCLUSIONS:The financial burden associated with ASD is extensive, and psychiatric hospitalizations remain the most expensive type of care, costing more than $4,000 per week on average. Identifying the mechanisms by which psychiatric hospitalizations occur may reduce the likelihood of these events.
Project description:Schizophrenia is a chronic mental health disorder associated with increased hospital admissions and excessive utilization of outpatient services and long-term care. This analysis examined health care resource utilization from a 24-month observational study of patients with schizophrenia initiated on risperidone long-acting therapy (RLAT).Schizophrenia Outcomes Utilization Relapse and Clinical Evaluation (SOURCE) was a 24-month observational study designed to examine real-world treatment outcomes by prospectively following patients with schizophrenia initiated on RLAT. At baseline visit, prior hospitalization and ER visit dates were obtained for the previous 12 months and subsequent hospitalization visit dates were obtained at 3-month visits, if available. The health care resource utilization outcomes measures observed in this analysis were hospitalizations for any reason, psychiatric-related hospitalizations, and emergency room (ER) visits. Incidence density analysis was used to assess pre-event and postevent rates per person-year (PY).The primary medical resource utilization analysis included 435 patients who had a baseline visit, ?1 postbaseline visits after RLAT initiation, and valid hospitalization dates. The number of hospitalizations and ER visits per PY declined significantly (p < .0001) after initiation with RLAT. A 41% decrease (difference of -0.29 hospitalizations per PY [95% CI: -0.39 to -0.18] from baseline) in hospitalizations for any reason, a 56% decrease (a difference of -0.35 hospitalizations per PY [95% CI: -0.44 to -0.26] from baseline) in psychiatric-related hospitalizations, and a 40% decrease (-0.26 hospitalizations per PY [95% CI: -0.44 to -0.10] from baseline) in ER visits were observed after the baseline period. The percentage of psychiatric-related hospitalizations decreased significantly after RLAT initiation, and patients had fewer inpatient hospitalizations and ER visits (all p < .0001).The results suggest that treatment with RLAT may result in decreased hospitalizations for patients with schizophrenia.ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00246194.
Project description:Background:American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) may be uniquely vulnerable to coccidioidomycosis given the large population residing in the Southwestern United States. We describe coccidioidomycosis-associated hospitalizations and outpatient visits during 2001-2014 in the Indian Health Service (IHS) system and compare hospitalizations with data from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's National (Nationwide) Inpatient Sample (NIS). Methods:We identified hospitalizations in the IHS and the NIS and outpatient visits in the IHS using International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes 114.0-114.9. We calculated average annual hospitalization and outpatient visit rates per 1 000 000 population and used Poisson regression to calculate rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We used multivariable logistic regression to assess factors associated with IHS hospitalization. Results:AI/ANs had the highest average annual hospitalization rate (58.0; 95% CI, 49.5-66.6) of any racial/ethnic group in the NIS, compared with 13.4 (95% CI, 12.7-14.2) for non-Hispanic whites. IHS data showed a hospitalization rate of 37.0; the median length of stay (interquartile range) was 6 (3-10) days. The average annual outpatient visit rate in IHS was 764.2, and it increased from 529.9 in 2001 to 845.9 in 2014. Male sex, age ?65 years, diabetes, and extrapulmonary or progressive coccidioidomycosis were independently associated with increased risk for hospitalization. Twenty-four percent of patients had ICD-9-CM codes for community-acquired pneumonia in the 3 months before coccidioidomycosis diagnosis. Conclusions:AI/ANs experience high coccidioidomycosis-associated hospitalization rates, high morbidity, and possible missed opportunities for earlier diagnosis. Yearly trends in IHS data were similar to the general increase in hospitalizations and reported cases nationwide in the same period.
Project description:To evaluate how receipt and timing of nursing home (NH) palliative care consultations (primarily by nurse practitioners with palliative care expertise) are associated with end-of-life care transitions and acute care use DESIGN: Propensity score-matched retrospective cohort study.Forty-six NHs in two states.Nursing home residents who died from 2006 to 2010 stratified according to days between initial consultation and death (?7, 8-30, 31-60, 61-180). Propensity score matching identified three controls (n = 1,174) according to strata for each consultation recipient (n = 477).Outcomes were hospitalizations in the last 7, 30, and 60 days of life; emergency department (ED) visits in the last 30 and 60 days; and any potentially burdensome care transition, defined as hospitalization or hospice admission within 3 days of death or two or more hospitalizations or ED visits within 30 days. Weighted multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate outcomes.Residents with consultations had lower rates of hospitalization than controls, with rates lowest when initial consultations were furthest from death. For instance, in residents with initial consultations 8 to 30 days before death, the adjusted hospitalization rate in the last 7 days of life was 11.1% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 9.8-12.4%), vs 22.0% (95% CI = 20.6-23.4%) in controls, although in those with initial consultations 61 to 180 days before death, rates were 6.9% (95% CI = 5.5-8.4%), vs 22.9% (95% CI = 20.5-25.4%). Potentially burdensome transition rates were lower when consultations were 61 to 180 days before death (16.2%, 95% CI = 13.7-18.6%), vs 28.2% (95% CI = 25.8-30.6%) for controls.Palliative care consultations improve end-of-life NH care by reducing acute care use and potentially burdensome care transitions.