Enantiomer-selective magnetization of conglomerates for quantitative chiral separation.
ABSTRACT: Selective crystallization represents one of the most economical and convenient methods to provide large-scale optically pure chiral compounds. Although significant development has been achieved since Pasteur's separation of sodium ammonium tartrate in 1848, this method is still fundamentally low efficient (low transformation ratio or high labor). Herein, we describe an enantiomer-selective-magnetization strategy for quantitatively separating the crystals of conglomerates by using a kind of magnetic nano-splitters. These nano-splitters would be selectively wrapped into the S-crystals, leading to the formation of the crystals with different physical properties from that of R-crystals. As a result of efficient separation under magnetic field, high purity chiral compounds (99.2 ee% for R-crystals, 95.0 ee% for S-crystals) can be obtained in a simple one-step crystallization process with a high separation yield (95.1%). Moreover, the nano-splitters show expandability and excellent recyclability. We foresee their great potential in developing chiral separation methods used on different scales.
Project description:Enantiospecific crystallization of the three amino acids asparagine (Asn), glutamic acid hydrochloride (Glu·HCl) and threonine (Thr), induced by ferromagnetic (FM) substrates, is reported. The FM substrates were prepared by evaporating nickel capped with a thin gold layer on standard silicon wafers. Magnets were positioned underneath the substrate with either their North (N) or South (S) poles pointing up. Asymmetric induction, controlled by the magnetic substrates, was demonstrated for the crystallization of the pure enantiomers and was then extended for the racemic mixtures of Asn and Glu·HCl. In the case of the solution of the pure enantiomers, the l enantiomer was crystallized preferentially at one pole of the magnet and the d enantiomer at the other. Consequently, the racemates of Asn and Glu·HCl undergo separation under the influence of the magnetic substrate. With Thr, however, despite the enantiospecific interactions of the pure enantiomers with the FM, no separation of the emerging crystals could be achieved with the racemates, although they crystallize as conglomerates, implying differences taking place in the crystallization step. The results reported here are not directly related to the magnetic field, but rather to the aligned spins within the ferromagnets. The findings provide a novel method for resolving enantiomers by crystallization and offer a new perspective for a possible role played by magnetic substrates regarding the origin of chirality in nature.
Project description:Chirality plays an important role in science from enantiomeric separation in chemistry to chiral plasmonics in nanotechnology. However, the understanding of chirality amplification from chiral building blocks to ordered helical superstructures remains a challenge. Here, we demonstrate that topological defects, such as screw dislocations, can drive the chirality transfer from particle to supramolecular structure level during the crystallization process. By using a model system of chiral particles, which enables direct imaging of single particle incorporation into growing crystals, we show that the crystallization kinetic pathway is the key parameter for monitoring, via the defects, the chirality amplification of the crystalline structures from racemic to predominantly homohelical. We provide an explanation based on the interplay between geometrical frustration, racemization induced by thermal fluctuations, and particle chirality. Our results demonstrate that screw dislocations not only promote the growth, but also control the chiral morphology and therefore the functionality of crystalline states.
Project description:Chiral control of crystallization has ample precedent in the small-molecule world, but relatively little is known about the role of chirality in protein crystallization. In this study, lysozyme was crystallized in the presence of the chiral additive 2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol (MPD) separately using the R and S enantiomers as well as with a racemic RS mixture. Crystals grown with (R)-MPD had the most order and produced the highest resolution protein structures. This result is consistent with the observation that in the crystals grown with (R)-MPD and (RS)-MPD the crystal contacts are made by (R)-MPD, demonstrating that there is preferential interaction between lysozyme and this enantiomer. These findings suggest that chiral interactions are important in protein crystallization.
Project description:The most reliable method to determine the absolute configuration of chiral molecules is X-ray crystallography, but small molecules can be difficult to crystallize. We report rapid co-crystallization of tetraaryladamantanes with small molecules as different as n-decane to nicotine to produce crystals for X-ray analysis and the assignment of absolute configuration when the molecules are chiral. A screen of 52 diverse compounds gave inclusion in co-crystals for 88?% of all cases and a high-resolution structure in 77?% of cases. Furthermore, starting from three milligrams of analyte, a combination of NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography produced a full structure in less than three days using an adamantane crystallization chaperone that encapsulates the analyte at room temperature.
Project description:Protein crystallization is dependent upon, and sensitive to, the intermolecular contacts that assist in ordering proteins into a three-dimensional lattice. Here we used protein engineering and mutagenesis to affect the crystallization of single chain antibody fragments (scFvs) that recognize the EE epitope (EYMPME) with high affinity. These hypercrystallizable scFvs are under development to assist difficult proteins, such as membrane proteins, in forming crystals, by acting as crystallization chaperones. Guided by analyses of intermolecular crystal lattice contacts, two second-generation anti-EE scFvs were produced, which bind to proteins with installed EE tags. Surprisingly, although noncomplementarity determining region (CDR) lattice residues from the parent scFv framework remained unchanged through the processes of protein engineering and rational design, crystal lattices of the derivative scFvs differ. Comparison of energy calculations and the experimentally-determined lattice interactions for this basis set provides insight into the complexity of the forces driving crystal lattice choice and demonstrates the availability of multiple well-ordered surface features in our scFvs capable of forming versatile crystal contacts.
Project description:Individuals expressing hemoglobin C (beta6 Glu-->Lys) present red blood cells (RBC) with intraerythrocytic crystals that form when hemoglobin (Hb) is oxygenated. Our earlier in vitro liquid-liquid (L-L) phase separation studies demonstrated that liganded HbC exhibits a stronger net intermolecular attraction with a longer range than liganded HbS or HbA, and that L-L phase separation preceded and enhanced crystallization. We now present evidence for the role of phase separation in HbC crystallization in the RBC, and the role of the RBC membrane as a nucleation center. RBC obtained from both human homozygous HbC patients and transgenic mice expressing only human HbC were studied by bright-field and differential interference contrast video-enhanced microscopy. RBC were exposed to hypertonic NaCl solution (1.5-3%) to induce crystallization within an appropriate experimental time frame. L-L phase separation occurred inside the RBC, which in turn enhanced the formation of intraerythrocytic crystals. RBC L-L phase separation and crystallization comply with the thermodynamic and kinetics laws established through in vitro studies of phase transformations. This is the first report, to the best of our knowledge, to capture a temporal view of intraerythrocytic HbC phase separation, crystal formation, and dissolution.
Project description:The molecular recognition process and the ability to form multicomponent supramolecular systems have been investigated for the amide of triphenylacetic acid and l-tyrosine (N-triphenylacetyl-l-tyrosine, TrCOTyr). The presence of several supramolecular synthons within the same amide molecule allows the formation of various multicomponent crystals, where TrCOTyr serves as a chiral host. Isostructural crystals of solvates with methanol and ethanol and a series of binary crystalline molecular complexes with selected organic diamines (1,5-naphthyridine, quinoxaline, 4,4'-bipyridyl, and DABCO) were obtained. The structures of the crystals were planned based on non-covalent interactions (O-H···N or N-H+···O- hydrogen bonds) present in a basic structural motif, which is a heterotrimeric building block consisting of two molecules of the host and one molecule of the guest. The complex of TrCOTyr with DABCO is an exception. The anionic dimers built off the TrCOTyr molecules form a supramolecular gutter, with trityl groups located on the edge and filled by DABCO cationic dimers. Whereas most of the racemic mixtures crystallize as racemic crystals or as conglomerates, the additional tests carried out for racemic N-triphenylacetyl-tyrosine (rac-TrCOTyr) showed that the compound crystallizes as a solid solution of enantiomers.
Project description:The Cu-catalyzed reaction of substituted ?-diazoesters with fluoride gives ?-fluoroesters with ee values of up to 95?%, provided that chiral indane-derived bis(oxazoline) ligands are used that carry bulky benzyl substituents at the bridge and moderately bulky isopropyl groups on their core. The apparently homogeneous solution of CsF in C6 F6 /hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) is the best reaction medium, but CsF in the biphasic mixture CH2 Cl2 /HFIP also provides good results. DFT studies suggest that fluoride initially attacks the Cu- rather than the C-atom of the transient donor/acceptor carbene intermediate. This unusual step is followed by 1,2-fluoride shift; for this migratory insertion to occur, the carbene must rotate about the Cu-C bond to ensure orbital overlap. The directionality of this rotatory movement within the C2 -symmetric binding site determines the sense of induction. This model is in excellent accord with the absolute configuration of the resulting product as determined by X-ray diffraction using single crystals of this a priori wax-like material grown by capillary crystallization.
Project description:While it is not uncommon to form chiral crystals during crystallization, the formation of bulk porous homochiral materials from achiral building units is rare. Reported here is the homochiral crystallization of microporous materials through the chirality induction effect of natural alkaloids. The resulting material possesses permanent microporosity and has a uniform pore size of 9.3 A.
Project description:Large single crystals serve as an ideal platform for investigating intrinsic material properties and optoelectronic applications. Here we develop a method, namely, room-temperature liquid diffused separation induced crystallization that uses silicone oil to separate the solvent from the perovskite precursors, to grow high-quality perovskite single crystals. The growth kinetics of perovskite single crystals using this method is elucidated, and their structural and optoelectronic properties are carefully characterized. The resultant perovskite single crystals, taking CH3NH3PbBr3 as an example, exhibit approximately 1?µs lifetime, a low trap density of 4.4?×?109?cm-3, and high yield of 92%, which are appealing for visible light or X-ray detection. We hope our findings will be of great significance for the continued advancement of high-quality perovskite single crystals, through a better understanding of growth mechanisms and their deployment in various optoelectronics. The diffused separation induced crystallization strategy presents a major step forward for advancing the field on perovskite single crystals.