Exosomal transfer of miR-1238 contributes to temozolomide-resistance in glioblastoma.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Although temozolomide (TMZ) resistance is a significant clinical problem in glioblastoma (GBM), its underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, we identified the role of exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs) from TMZ-resistant cells as important mediators of chemoresistance in GBM cells. METHODS:Exosomes were isolated from TMZ-resistant GBM cells and characterized via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Expression levels of miR-1238 in GBM cell lines and their exosomes, clinical tissues, and sera were evaluated by RT-qPCR. In vitro and in vivo experiments were performed to elucidate the function of exosomal miR-1238 in TMZ resistance in GBM cells. Co-immunoprecipitation assays and western blot analysis were used to investigate the potential mechanisms of miR-1238/CAV1 that contribute to TMZ resistance. FINDINGS:MiR-1238 levels were higher in TMZ-resistant GBM cells and their exosomes than in sensitive cells. Higher levels of miR-1238 were found in the sera of GBM patients than in healthy people. The loss of miR-1238 may sensitize resistant GBM cells by directly targeting the CAV1/EGFR pathway. Furthermore, bioactive miR-1238 may be incorporated into the exosomes shed by TMZ-resistant cells and taken up by TMZ-sensitive cells, thus disseminating TMZ resistance. INTERPRETATION:Our findings establish that miR-1238 plays an important role in mediating the acquired chemoresistance of GBM and that exosomal miR-1238 may confer chemoresistance in the tumour microenvironment. These results suggest that circulating miR-1238 serves as a clinical biomarker and a promising therapeutic target for TMZ resistance in GBM. FUND: This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No·81402056, 81472362, and 81772951) and the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (863) (No·2012AA02A508).
Project description:Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a fatal malignancy of the central nervous system, commonly associated with chemoresistance. The alkylating agent Temozolomide (TMZ) is the front-line chemotherapeutic agent and has undergone intense studies on resistance. These studies reported on mismatch repair gene upregulation, ABC-targeted drug efflux, and cell cycle alterations. The mechanism by which TMZ induces cell cycle arrest has not been well-established. TMZ-resistant GBM cells have been linked to microRNA (miRNA) and exosomes. A cell cycle miRNA array identified distinct miRNAs only in exosomes from TMZ-resistant GBM cell lines and primary spheres. We narrowed the miRs to miR-93 and -193 and showed in computational analyses that they could target Cyclin D1. Since Cyclin D1 is a major regulator of cell cycle progression, we performed cause-effect studies and showed a blunting effects of miR-93 and -193 in Cyclin D1 expression. These two miRs also decreased cell cycling quiescence and induced resistance to TMZ. Taken together, our data provide a mechanism by which GBM cells can exhibit TMZ-induced resistance through miRNA targeting of Cyclin D1. The data provide a number of therapeutic approaches to reverse chemoresistance at the miRNA, exosomal and cell cycle points.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Acquired drug resistance is a constraining factor in clinical treatment of glioblastoma (GBM). However, the mechanisms of chemoresponsive tumors acquire therapeutic resistance remain poorly understood. Here, we aim to investigate whether temozolomide (TMZ) resistance of chemoresponsive GBM was enhanced by long non-coding RNA SBF2 antisense RNA 1 (lncRNA SBF2-AS1) enriched exosomes. METHOD:LncSBF2-AS1 level in TMZ-resistance or TMZ-sensitive GBM tissues and cells were analyzed by qRT-PCR and FISH assays. A series of in vitro assay and xenograft tumor models were performed to observe the effect of lncSBF2-AS1 on TMZ-resistance in GBM. CHIP assay were used to investigate the correlation of SBF2-AS1 and transcription factor zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1). Dual-luciferase reporter, RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP), immunofluorescence and western blotting were performed to verify the relation between lncSBF2-AS1, miR-151a-3p and XRCC4. Comet assay and immunoblotting were performed to expound the effect of lncSBF2-AS1 on DNA double-stand break (DSB) repair. A series of in vitro assay and intracranial xenografts tumor model were used to determined the function of exosomal lncSBF2-AS1. RESULT:It was found that SBF2-AS1 was upregulated in TMZ-resistant GBM cells and tissues, and overexpression of SBF2-AS1 led to the promotion of TMZ resistance, whereas its inhibition sensitized resistant GBM cells to TMZ. Transcription factor ZEB1 was found to directly bind to the SBF2-AS1 promoter region to regulate SBF2-AS1 level and affected TMZ resistance in GBM cells. SBF2-AS1 functions as a ceRNA for miR-151a-3p, leading to the disinhibition of its endogenous target, X-ray repair cross complementing 4 (XRCC4), which enhances DSB repair in GBM cells. Exosomes selected from temozolomide-resistant GBM cells had high levels of SBF2-AS1 and spread TMZ resistance to chemoresponsive GBM cells. Clinically, high levels of lncSBF2-AS1 in serum exosomes were associated with poor response to TMZ treatment in GBM patients. CONCLUSION:We can conclude that GBM cells remodel the tumor microenvironment to promote tumor chemotherapy-resistance by secreting the oncogenic lncSBF2-AS1-enriched exosomes. Thus, exosomal lncSBF2-AS1 in human serum may serve as a possible diagnostic marker for therapy-refractory GBM.
Project description:Temozolomide (TMZ) resistance is an important cause of clinical treatment failure and poor prognosis in gliomas. Increasing evidence indicates that cancer-derived exosomes contribute to chemoresistance; however, the specific contribution of glioma-derived exosomes remains unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the role and underlying mechanisms of exosomal macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) on TMZ resistance in gliomas. We first demonstrated that MIF was upregulated in the exosomes of TMZ-resistant cells, engendering the transfer of TMZ resistance to sensitive cells. Our results indicated that exosomal MIF conferred TMZ resistance to sensitive cells through the enhancement of cell proliferation and the repression of cell apoptosis upon TMZ exposure. MIF knockdown enhanced TMZ sensitivity in resistant glioma cells by upregulating Metalloproteinase Inhibitor 3 (TIMP3) and subsequently suppressing the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. Additionally, exosomal MIF promoted tumor growth and TMZ resistance of glioma cells <i>in vivo</i>, while IOS-1 (MIF inhibitor) promotes glioma TMZ sensitive <i>in vivo</i>. Taken together, our study demonstrated that exosome-mediated transfer of MIF enhanced TMZ resistance in glioma through downregulating TIMP3 and further activating the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, highlighting a prognostic biomarker and promising therapeutic target for TMZ treatment in gliomas.
Project description:Chemotherapy with Temozolomide (TMZ), radiation and surgery are the primary methods to treat Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM), the most common adult intracranial tumor with dismal outcome. GBM resistance to therapy is the main reason of poor patient outcomes. Thus, methods to overcome the resistance are an area of extensive research. This highlight focuses on three recently published articles on the mechanism of resistance and possible therapeutic intervention, including RNA treatment with stem cells. We showed a crucial role of the developmental Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) pathway in the acquisition and maintenance of TMZ resistance. SHH signaling caused TMZ resistance in GBM cells through an increase in the multiple drug resistance gene (MDR1). The SHH receptor, Patched-1 (PTCH1), negatively regulate SHH signaling. In GBM, miR-9 suppressed PTCH1 levels, resulting in the activation of SHH pathway. Thus, SHH signaling is independent of the ligand in resistant GBM cells. MiR-9 was also increased in chemoresistance CD133+ GBM cells. A potential method to reverse resistance was tested by delivering the anti-miR in bone marrow-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs). The anti-miR-9 was transferred into the resistant GBM cells through exosomes and gap junctional intercellular communication. We also review on-going clinical trials with inhibitor of SHH signaling, and also discuss drug delivery by cell therapy for GBM. While GBM treatment has proven to be a challenge, there are a number of novel approaches we are currently developing to manage this malignancy.
Project description:Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and lethal tumor of the central nervous system with highly infiltrative and resistant to chemotherapy. Temozolomide (TMZ) is widely used as the first-line treatment for the therapy of GBM. However, a considerable percentage inherent or acquired resistance in GBM accounts for many treatment failures of the TMZ chemotherapy. Therefore, a deeper understanding of the molecular characteristics underlying TMZ resistance and the identification of novel therapeutic target is urgent. Here, we show that MALAT1 was significantly upregulated in TMZ-resistant GBM cells. On the other hand, MALAT1 knockdown reduces TMZ resistance of GBM cells both in vitro and in vivo by inhibiting cell proliferation and promoting apoptosis. We also show that miR-101 overexpression reduced TMZ resistance of GBM cells and played an antagonistic role compared with MALAT1. Importantly, we demonstrate that MALAT1 promoted the chemoresistance through suppressing miR-101 signaling pathway via directly binding it in GBM cells. In conclusion, our study indicates that knockdown of MALAT1 reverses chemoresistance to TMZ via promoting miR-101 regulatory network in GBM and thus offers a novel prognostic marker and potential target for GBM TMZ-based chemotherapy.
Project description:Chemoresistance has been a major challenge in advanced gastric cancer (GC) therapy. Exosomal transfer of oncogenic miRNAs implicates important effects in mediating recipient cell chemoresistance by transmitting active molecules. In this study, we found that microRNA-500a-3p was highly expressed in cisplatin (DDP) resistant GC cells (MGC803/DDP and MKN45/DDP) and their secreted exosomes than that in the corresponding parental cells. MGC803/DDP-derived exosomes enhance DDP resistance and stemness properties of MGC803 recipient cells via exosomal delivery of miR-500a-3p in vitro and in vivo through targeting FBXW7. However, reintroduction of FBXW7 in MGC803 cells reverses miR-500a-3p-mediated DDP resistance as well as stemness properties. Furthermore, elevated miR-500a-3p in the plasma exosomes of GC patients is correlated with DDP resistance and thereby results in poor progression-free prognosis. Our finding highlights the potential of exosomal miR-500a-3p as an potential modality for the prediction and treatment of GC with chemoresistance.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The tumor microenvironment (TME) plays a crucial role in virtually every aspect of tumorigenesis of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). A dysfunctional TME promotes drug resistance, disease recurrence, and distant metastasis. Recent evidence indicates that exosomes released by stromal cells within the TME may promote oncogenic phenotypes via transferring signaling molecules such as cytokines, proteins, and microRNAs. RESULTS:In this study, clinical GBM samples were collected and analyzed. We found that GBM-associated macrophages (GAMs) secreted exosomes which were enriched with oncomiR-21. Coculture of GAMs (and GAM-derived exosomes) and GBM cell lines increased GBM cells' resistance against temozolomide (TMZ) by upregulating the prosurvival gene programmed cell death protein 4 (PDCD4) and stemness markers SRY (sex determining region y)-box 2 (Sox2), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), Nestin, and miR-21-5p and increasing the M2 cytokines interleukin 6 (IL-6) and transforming growth factor beta 1(TGF-?1) secreted by GBM cells, promoting the M2 polarization of GAMs. Subsequently, pacritinib treatment suppressed GBM tumorigenesis and stemness; more importantly, pacritinib-treated GBM cells showed a markedly reduced ability to secret M2 cytokines and reduced miR-21-enriched exosomes secreted by GAMs. Pacritinib-mediated effects were accompanied by a reduction of oncomiR miR-21-5p, by which the tumor suppressor PDCD4 was targeted. We subsequently established patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models where mice bore patient GBM and GAMs. Treatment with pacritinib and the combination of pacritinib and TMZ appeared to significantly reduce the tumorigenesis of GBM/GAM PDX mice as well as overcome TMZ resistance and M2 polarization of GAMs. CONCLUSION:In summation, we showed the potential of pacritinib alone or in combination with TMZ to suppress GBM tumorigenesis via modulating STAT3/miR-21/PDCD4 signaling. Further investigations are warranted for adopting pacritinib for the treatment of TMZ-resistant GBM in clinical settings.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Cisplatin resistance is a major challenge for advanced head and neck cancer (HNC). Understanding the underlying mechanisms and developing effective strategies against cisplatin resistance are highly desired in the clinic. However, how tumor stroma modulates HNC growth and chemoresistance is unclear. RESULTS:We show that cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are intrinsically resistant to cisplatin and have an active role in regulating HNC cell survival and proliferation by delivering functional miR-196a from CAFs to tumor cells via exosomes. Exosomal miR-196a then binds novel targets, CDKN1B and ING5, to endow HNC cells with cisplatin resistance. Exosome or exosomal miR-196a depletion from CAFs functionally restored HNC cisplatin sensitivity. Importantly, we found that miR-196a packaging into CAF-derived exosomes might be mediated by heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNPA1). Moreover, we also found that high levels of plasma exosomal miR-196a are clinically correlated with poor overall survival and chemoresistance. CONCLUSIONS:The present study finds that CAF-derived exosomal miR-196a confers cisplatin resistance in HNC by targeting CDKN1B and ING5, indicating miR-196a may serve as a promising predictor of and potential therapeutic target for cisplatin resistance in HNC.
Project description:The development of multidrug resistance during chemotherapy is the main obstacle for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) treatment. Exosomal transfer of carcinogenic microRNAs (miRNAs) might strengthen chemoresistance in recipient cells. Here, we identified through microarray analysis higher miR-429 expression in multidrug-resistant SKOV3 cells and their secreted exosomes (SKOV3-EXO) than in sensitive A2780 cells and their secreted exosomes. SKOV3-derived exosomes were internalized by A2780 cells, which permitted the transfer of miR-429. Exosomal miR-429 enhanced the proliferation and drug resistance of A2780 cells by targeting calcium-sensing receptor (CASR)/STAT3 pathway in vitro and in vivo. In addition, NF-κB-p65 was predicted to bind to the miR-429 promoter region, and the inhibition of NF-κB reduced the expression of miR-429 and led to the sensitivity of EOC cells. Consistently, A2780 cells co-incubated with SKOV3 pretreated with an NF-κB inhibitor or miR-429 antagomir showed sensitivity to cisplatin and exhibited attenuated cell proliferation. Based on our data, exosomal miR-429 functions as a primary regulator of the chemoresistance and malignant phenotypes of EOC by targeting CASR through a mechanism promoted by NF-κB and might be a therapeutic target for EOC.
Project description:Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most common and lethal tumor of the adult brain, generally shows chemo- and radioresistance. MicroRNAs (miRs) regulate physiological processes, such as resistance of GBM cells to temozolomide (TMZ). Although miRs are attractive targets for cancer therapeutics, the effectiveness of this approach requires targeted delivery. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can migrate to the sites of cancers, including GBM. We report on an increase in miR-9 in TMZ-resistant GBM cells. miR-9 was involved in the expression of the drug efflux transporter, P-glycoprotein. To block miR-9, methods were developed with Cy5-tagged anti-miR-9. Dye-transfer studies indicated intracellular communication between GBM cells and MSCs. This occurred by gap junctional intercellular communication and the release of microvesicles. In both cases, anti-miR-9 was transferred from MSCs to GBM cells. However, the major form of transfer occurred with the microvesicles. The delivery of anti-miR-9 to the resistant GBM cells reversed the expression of the multidrug transporter and sensitized the GBM cells to TMZ, as shown by increased cell death and caspase activity. The data showed a potential role for MSCs in the functional delivery of synthetic anti-miR-9 to reverse the chemoresistance of GBM cells.Molecular Therapy-Nucleic Acids (2013) 2, e126; doi:10.1038/mtna.2013.60; published online 1 October 2013.