An immunologically relevant rodent model demonstrates safety of therapy using a tumour-specific IgE.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Designing biologically informative models for assessing the safety of novel agents, especially for cancer immunotherapy, carries substantial challenges. The choice of an in vivo system for studies on IgE antibodies represents a major impediment to their clinical translation, especially with respect to class-specific immunological functions and safety. Fcε receptor expression and structure are different in humans and mice, so that the murine system is not informative when studying human IgE biology. By contrast, FcεRI expression and cellular distribution in rats mirror that of humans. METHODS:We are developing MOv18 IgE, a human chimeric antibody recognizing the tumour-associated antigen folate receptor alpha. We created an immunologically congruent surrogate rat model likely to recapitulate human IgE-FcεR interactions and engineered a surrogate rat IgE equivalent to MOv18. Employing this model, we examined in vivo safety and efficacy of antitumour IgE antibodies. RESULTS:In immunocompetent rats, rodent IgE restricted growth of syngeneic tumours in the absence of clinical, histopathological or metabolic signs associated with obvious toxicity. No physiological or immunological evidence of a "cytokine storm" or allergic response was seen, even at 50 mg/kg weekly doses. IgE treatment was associated with elevated serum concentrations of TNFα, a mediator previously linked with IgE-mediated antitumour and antiparasitic functions, alongside evidence of substantially elevated tumoural immune cell infiltration and immunological pathway activation in tumour-bearing lungs. CONCLUSION:Our findings indicate safety of MOv18 IgE, in conjunction with efficacy and immune activation, supporting the translation of this therapeutic approach to the clinical arena.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Antibody Fc-driven engagement of macrophages is critical for evoking cellular activation and effector functions and influencing tumour-associated macrophage (TAM) recruitment. We previously reported that IgE class antibodies promote restriction of cancer growth in rodent models associated with significant TAM infiltration. However, the human macrophage-associated IgE-Fc Receptor (FcεR) axis remains unexplored. We investigated the effects of anti-tumour IgE stimulation on human macrophage activation. METHODS:Human blood monocyte-differentiated quiescent (M0), classically-(M1) and alternatively-(M2) activated macrophages were crosslinked with IgE and polyclonal antibodies to mimic immune complex formation. We examined surface marker expression, cytokine secretion, protein kinase phosphorylation and gene expression in IgE-stimulated macrophages and IgE antibody-dependent macrophage-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) against tumour cells. FINDINGS:A proportion (40%) of M2 and (<20%) M0 and M1 macrophages expressed the high-affinity IgE receptor FcεRI. IgE crosslinking triggered upregulation of co-stimulatory CD80, increased TNFα, IFNγ, IL-1β, IL-12, IL-10, IL-13, CXCL9, CXCL11 and RANTES secretion by M0 and M2 and additionally enhanced MCP-1 by M2 macrophages. IgE-stimulated M1 macrophages retained secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. IgE crosslinking enhanced the FcεRI-dependent signalling pathway, including phosphorylation of the Lyn kinase, ERK1/2 and p38 in M2 macrophages and upregulated Lyn gene expression by M1 and M2 macrophages. Anti-tumour IgE engendered ADCC of cancer cells by all macrophage subsets. INTERPRETATION:IgE can engage and re-educate alternatively-activated macrophages towards pro-inflammatory phenotypes and prime all subsets to mediate anti-tumour functions. This points to IgE-mediated cascades with potential to activate immune stroma and may be significant in the clinical development of strategies targeting tumour-resident macrophages.
Project description:Anti-IgE therapeutics interfere with the ability of IgE to bind to its receptors on effector cells. Here we report the crystal structure of an anti-IgE single-domain antibody in complex with an IgE Fc fragment, revealing how the antibody inhibits interactions between IgE and the two receptors FcεRI and CD23. The epitope overlaps only slightly with the FcεRI-binding site but significantly with the CD23-binding site. Solution scattering studies of the IgE Fc reveal that antibody binding induces a half-bent conformation in between the well-known bent and extended IgE Fc conformations. The antibody acts as functional homolog of CD23 and induces a closed conformation of IgE Fc incompatible with FcεRI binding. Notably the antibody displaces IgE from both CD23 and FcεRI, and abrogates allergen-mediated basophil activation and facilitated allergen binding. The inhibitory mechanism might facilitate strategies for the future development of anti-IgE therapeutics for treatment of allergic diseases.
Project description:Immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies play a central role in the allergic response: interaction with FcεRI on mast cells and basophils leads to immediate hypersensitivity reactions upon allergen challenge, while interaction with CD23/FcεRII, expressed on a variety of cells, regulates IgE synthesis among other activities. The receptor-binding IgE-Fc region has recently been found to display remarkable flexibility, from acutely bent to extended conformations, with allosteric communication between the distant FcεRI and CD23 binding sites. We report the structure of an anti-IgE antibody Fab (8D6) bound to IgE-Fc through a mixed protein-carbohydrate epitope, revealing further flexibility and a novel extended conformation with potential relevance to that of membrane-bound IgE in the B cell receptor for antigen. Unlike the earlier, clinically approved anti-IgE antibody omalizumab, 8D6 inhibits binding to FcεRI but not CD23; the structure reveals how this discrimination is achieved through both orthosteric and allosteric mechanisms, supporting therapeutic strategies that retain the benefits of CD23 binding.
Project description:Allergic rhinitis is associated with elevated serum IgE levels. IgE response is mediated by the high-affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI), which is polymorphic. Studies analyzing the association between allergic rhinitis and FcεRI variants have been conducted with controversial results. The objective of this study is to analyze, in 1,041 individuals, the putative clinical association of allergic rhinitis with common polymorphisms in FcεRI subunits genes. These SNPs included FECR1A rs2494262, rs2427837 and rs2251746; FECR1B rs1441586, rs569108 and rs512555; FCER1G rs11587213, rs2070901 and rs11421. Statistically significant differences were observed for the FCER1B rs569108 and rs512555 polymorphisms frequencies when comparing patients with allergic rhinitis without asthma and controls. The OR (95% CI) value for the 237Gly allele (rs569108) is equal to 0.26 (0.08-0.86, P = 0.017) and for the G allele (rs512555) it is equal to 0.27 (0.08-0.88, P = 0.020). These two SNPs are linked (D' = 1.0, LOD = 56.05). Also observed was a statistically significant trend towards lower IgE values among allergic rhinitis patients with variant alleles for both SNPs. In conclusion, in patients with allergic rhinitis without asthma, the FCER1B rs569108 and rs512555 polymorphisms are associated with increased risk of developing allergic rhinitis and with lower IgE levels.
Project description:Cross linking of the IgE receptor (FcεRI) on mast cells plays a critical role in IgE-dependent allergy including allergic rhinitis, asthma, anaphylaxis, and delayed type hypersensitivity reactions. The Ca2+ activated K+ channel, KCa3.1, plays a critical role in IgE-stimulated Ca2+ entry and degranulation in mast cells by helping to maintain a negative membrane potential, which provides an electrochemical gradient to drive Ca2+ influx. Of the 3 classes of PI3K, the class II PI3Ks are the least studied and little is known about the roles for class II PI3Ks in vivo in the context of the whole organism under normal and pathological conditions. Studying bone marrow derived mast cells (BMMC) isolated from PI3KC2β-/- mice, we now show that the class II PI3KC2β is critical for FcεRI stimulated KCa3.1 channel activation and the subsequent activation of mast cells. We found FcεRI-stimulated Ca2+ entry, cytokine production, and degranulation are decreased in BMMC isolated from PI3KC2β-/- mice. In addition, PI3KC2β-/- mice are markedly resistant to both passive cutaneous and passive systemic anaphylaxis. These findings identify PI3KC2β as a new pharmacologic target to treat IgE-mediated disease.
Project description:Cross-linking of mast cell (MC) IgE receptors (FcεRI) triggers degranulation of secretory granules (SGs) and the release of many allergic and inflammatory mediators. Although degranulation depends crucially on microtubule dynamics, the molecular machinery that couples SGs to microtubule-dependent transport is poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrate that mice lacking Kif5b (the heavy chain of kinesin-1) in hematopoietic cells are less sensitive to IgE-mediated, passive, systemic anaphylaxis. After IgE-induced stimulation, bone marrow-derived MCs from Kif5b knockout mice exhibited a marked reduction in SG translocation toward the secretion site. In contrast, a lack of Kif5b did not affect cytokine secretion, early FcεRI-initiated signaling pathways, or microtubule reorganization upon FcεRI stimulation. We identified Slp3 as the critical effector linking kinesin-1 to Rab27b-associated SGs. Kinesin-1 recruitment to the Slp3/Rab27b effector complex was independent of microtubule reorganization but occurred only upon stimulation requiring phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activity. Our findings demonstrate that PI3K-dependent formation of a kinesin-1/Slp3/Rab27b complex is critical for the microtubule-dependent movement of SGs required for MC degranulation.
Project description:A majority of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) develops in the setting of persistent chronic inflammation as immunological mechanisms have been shown to play a vital role in the initiation, growth and progression of tumours. The index review has been intended to highlight ongoing immunological changes in the hepatic parenchyma responsible for the genesis and progression of HCC. The in-situ vaccine effect of radiofrequency (RF) is through generation tumour-associated antigens (TAAs), following necrosis and apoptosis of tumour cells, which not only re-activates the antitumour immune response but can also act in synergism with checkpoint inhibitors to generate a superlative effect with intent to treat primary cancer and distant metastasis. An improved understanding of oncogenic responses of immune cells and their integration into signaling pathways of the tumour microenvironment will help in modulating the antitumour immune response. Finally, we analyzed contemporary literature and summarised the recent advances made in the field of targeted immunotherapy involving checkpoint inhibitors along with RF application with the intent to reinstate antitumour immunity and outline future directives in very early and early stages of HCC.
Project description:Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is the antibody that plays a central role in the mechanisms of allergic diseases such as asthma. Interactions with its receptors, FcεRI on mast cells and CD23 on B cells, are mediated by the Fc region, a dimer of the Cε2, Cε3 and Cε4 domains. A sub-fragment lacking the Cε2 domains, Fcε3-4, also binds to both receptors, although receptor binding almost exclusively involves the Cε3 domains. This domain also contains the N-linked glycosylation site conserved in other isotypes. We report here the crystal structures of IgE-Fc and Fcε3-4 at the highest resolutions yet determined, 1.75Å and 2.0Å respectively, revealing unprecedented detail regarding the carbohydrate and its interactions with protein domains. Analysis of the crystallographic B-factors of these, together with all earlier IgE-Fc and Fcε3-4 structures, shows that the Cε3 domains exhibit the greatest intrinsic flexibility and quaternary structural variation within IgE-Fc. Intriguingly, both well-ordered carbohydrate and disordered polypeptide can be seen within the same Cε3 domain. A simplified method for comparing the quaternary structures of the Cε3 domains in free and receptor-bound IgE-Fc structures is presented, which clearly delineates the FcεRI and CD23 bound states. Importantly, differential scanning fluorimetric analysis of IgE-Fc and Fcε3-4 identifies Cε3 as the domain most susceptible to thermally-induced unfolding, and responsible for the characteristically low melting temperature of IgE.
Project description:AZD8055 is a potent orally available mTOR kinase inhibitor with in vitro and in vivo antitumour activity against a range of tumour types. Preclinical studies showed that AZD8055 induced a dose-dependent pharmacodynamic effect in xenograft models in vivo, but a lack of understanding of the relative contributions of the maximum inhibition of the biomarkers and the duration of inhibition to the antitumour effect, limited the rational design of experiments to optimize the dose and schedules of treatment.In this study, a mathematical modelling approach was developed to relate pharmacodynamics and antitumour activity using preclinical data generated in mice bearing U87-MG xenografts.Refinement and validation of the model was carried out in a panel of additional human tumour xenograft models with different growth rates and different sensitivity to AZD8055 (from partial growth inhibition to regression). Finally, the model was applied to accurately predict the efficacy of high, intermittent dosing schedules of AZD8055.Overall, this new model linking pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamic biomarkers and efficacy across several tumour xenografts with different sensitivity to AZD8055 was able to identify the optimal dose and route of administration to maximize the antitumour efficacy in preclinical models and its potential for translation into man.
Project description:There is growing evidence that tumour neoantigens have important roles in generating spontaneous antitumour immune responses and predicting clinical responses to immunotherapies1,2. Despite the presence of numerous neoantigens in patients, complete tumour elimination is rare, owing to failures in mounting a sufficient and lasting antitumour immune response3,4. Here we show that durable neoantigen-specific immunity is regulated by mRNA N6-methyadenosine (m6A) methylation through the m6A-binding protein YTHDF15. In contrast to wild-type mice, Ythdf1-deficient mice show an elevated antigen-specific CD8+ T cell antitumour response. Loss of YTHDF1 in classical dendritic cells enhanced the cross-presentation of tumour antigens and the cross-priming of CD8+ T cells in vivo. Mechanistically, transcripts encoding lysosomal proteases are marked by m6A and recognized by YTHDF1. Binding of YTHDF1 to these transcripts increases the translation of lysosomal cathepsins in dendritic cells, and inhibition of cathepsins markedly enhances cross-presentation of wild-type dendritic cells. Furthermore, the therapeutic efficacy of PD-L1 checkpoint blockade is enhanced in Ythdf1-/- mice, implicating YTHDF1 as a potential therapeutic target in anticancer immunotherapy.