Catalyst-Free Deaminative Functionalizations of Primary Amines by Photoinduced Single-Electron Transfer.
ABSTRACT: The use of pyridinium-activated primary amines as photoactive functional groups for deaminative generation of alkyl radicals under catalyst-free conditions is described. By taking advantage of the visible light absorptivity of electron donor-acceptor complexes between Katritzky pyridinium salts and either Hantzsch ester or Et3 N, photoinduced single-electron transfer could be initiated in the absence of a photocatalyst. This general reactivity platform has been applied to deaminative alkylation (Giese), allylation, vinylation, alkynylation, thioetherification, and hydrodeamination reactions. The mild conditions are amenable to a diverse range of primary and secondary alkyl pyridiniums and demonstrate broad functional group tolerance.
Project description:Described is a cross-electrophilic, deaminative coupling strategy harnessing Katritzky salts as a new species of electrophile in Ni/photoredox dual catalytic reductive cross-coupling reactions. Distinguishing features of this arylation protocol include its mild reaction conditions, high chemoselectivity, and adaptability to a variety of complex substrates [i.e., pyridinium salts derived from amines and partners derived from (hetero)aryl bromides].
Project description:A Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling of ?-pyridinium esters and arylboroxines has been developed. Combined with formation of the pyridinium salts from amino acid derivatives, this method enables amino acid derivatives to be efficiently transformed into ?-aryl esters and amides. Under the mild conditions, broad functional group tolerance on both the amino acid derivatives and the arylboroxine are observed, including protic functional groups. Mechanistic studies support an alkyl radical intermediate, similar to other cross-couplings of alkylpyridinium salts.
Project description:A Negishi cross-coupling of alkylpyridinium salts and alkylzinc halides has been developed. This is the first example of alkyl-alkyl bond formation via cross-coupling of an alkyl amine derivative with an unactivated alkyl group, and allows both primary and secondary alkylpyridinium salts to react with primary alkylzinc halides with high functional group tolerance. When combined with formation of the pyridinium salts from primary amines, this method enables the noncanonical transformation of NH2 groups into a wide range of alkyl substituents with broad functional group tolerance.
Project description:The reductive cross-coupling of sp3-hybridized carbon centers represents great synthetic values and insurmountable challenges. In this work, we report a nickel-catalyzed deaminative cross-electrophile coupling reaction to construct C(sp)─C(sp3), C(sp2)─C(sp3), and C(sp3)─C(sp3) bonds. A wide range of coupling partners including aryl iodides, bromoalkynes, or alkyl bromides are stitched with alkylpyridinium salts that derived from the corresponding primary amines. The advantages of this methodology are showcased in the two-step synthesis of the key lactonic moiety of (+)-compactin and (+)-mevinolin. The one-pot procedure without isolation of alkylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate salt is also proven to be successful. This cross-coupling strategy of two electrophiles provides a highly valuable vista for the convenient installation of alkyl substituents and late functionalizations of sp3 carbons.
Project description:A ruthenium-catalyzed photoredox coupling of substituted N-aryltetrahydroisoquinolines (THIQs) and different bench-stable pyridinium salts was successfully developed to give fast access to 1-benzyl-THIQs. Furthermore, secondary alkyl and allyl groups were also successfully introduced via the same method. Additionally, the typically applied N-phenyl group in the THIQ substrate could be replaced by the cleavable p-methoxyphenyl (PMP) group and successful N-deprotection was demonstrated.
Project description:Tin-free Giese reactions, employing primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl iodides as radical precursors, ethyl acrylate as a radical trap, and sodium cyanoborohydride as a radical mediator, were examined in a continuous flow system. With the use of an automated flow microreactor, flow reaction conditions for the Giese reaction were quickly optimized, and it was found that a reaction temperature of 70 °C in combination with a residence time of 10-15 minutes gave good yields of the desired addition products.
Project description:We report a simple protocol for the photochemical Giese addition of C(sp3 )-centered radicals to a variety of electron-poor olefins. The chemistry does not require external photoredox catalysts. Instead, it harnesses the excited-state reactivity of 4-alkyl-1,4-dihydropyridines (4-alkyl-DHPs) to generate alkyl radicals. Crucial for reactivity is the use of a catalytic amount of Ni(bpy)3 2+ (bpy=2,2'-bipyridyl), which acts as an electron mediator to facilitate the redox processes involving fleeting and highly reactive intermediates.
Project description:The catalytic hydrogenation of amides is an atom economical method to synthesize amines. Previously, it was serendipitously discovered that the combination of a secondary amide co-catalyst with (iPrPNP)Fe(H)(CO) (iPrPNP = N[CH2CH2(PiPr2)]2 -), results in a highly active base metal system for deaminative amide hydrogenation. Here, we use DFT to develop an improved co-catalyst for amide hydrogenation. Initially, we computationally evaluated the ability of a series of co-catalysts to accelerate the turnover-limiting proton transfer during C-N bond cleavage and poison the (iPrPNP)Fe(H)(CO) catalyst through a side reaction. TBD (triazabicyclodecene) was identified as the leading co-catalyst. It was experimentally confirmed that when TBD is combined with (iPrPNP)Fe(H)(CO) a remarkably active system for amide hydrogenation is generated. TBD also enhances the activity of other catalysts for amide hydrogenation and our results provide guidelines for the rational design of future co-catalysts.
Project description:Hypervalent alkylsilicates represent new and readily accessible precursors for the generation of alkyl radicals under photoredox conditions. Alkyl radicals generated from such silicates serve as effective hydrogen atom abstractors from thiols, furnishing thiyl radicals. The reactive sulfur species generated in this manner can be funneled into a nickel-mediated cross-coupling cycle employing aromatic bromides to furnish thioethers. The serendipitous discovery of this reaction and its utilization for the thioetherification of various aryl and heteroaryl bromides with a diverse array of thiols is described. The S-H selective H atom abstraction event enables a wide range of functional groups, including those bearing protic moieties, to be tolerated.
Project description:A transformation analogous in simplicity and functional group tolerance to the venerable Suzuki cross-coupling between alkyl-carboxylic acids and boronic acids is described. This Ni-catalyzed reaction relies upon the activation of alkyl carboxylic acids as their redox-active ester derivatives, specifically N-hydroxy-tetrachlorophthalimide (TCNHPI), and proceeds in a practical and scalable fashion. The inexpensive nature of the reaction components (NiCl2 ?6?H2 O-$9.5?mol(-1) , Et3 N) coupled to the virtually unlimited commercial catalog of available starting materials bodes well for its rapid adoption.