Tenuigenin protects dopaminergic neurons from inflammation-mediated damage induced by the lipopolysaccharide.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). AIMS:To study if tenuigenin (TEN), the main active component of Polygala tenuifolia, can protect dopaminergic neurons from inflammation-mediated damage in vivo. METHODS:We observed the effects of TEN on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced PD model by behavioral analysis, high-performance liquid chromatography, immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay, etc. RESULTS:We showed that a single intranigral dose of LPSs (10 ?g) induced microglial activation, reduced the survival ratio of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH-ir) neurons in the SNpc and reduced dopamine (DA) content in the striatum. Treatment with 300 mg/kg TEN once per day over 14 weeks improved the survival rate of TH-ir neurons in the SNpc to 75%, on the non-injected side. Treatment with 200 or 300 mg/kg TEN once per day over 14 weeks significantly improved DA levels in the striatum to 73% and 81% on the non-injected side, respectively. The excessive production of cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and interleukin (IL)-1?, was abolished by TEN administration. CONCLUSION:Our results suggest that TEN may play a role in protecting dopaminergic neurons against inflammatory challenge.
Project description:Olfactory and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deficits are commonly found in untreated subjects with a recent diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Additionally, different studies report declines in olfactory performance during a short period of sleep deprivation. Mechanisms underlying these clinical manifestations are poorly understood, and impairment of dopamine (DA) neurotransmission in the olfactory bulb and the nigrostriatal pathway may have important roles in olfaction and REM sleep disturbances. Therefore, we hypothesized that modulation of the dopaminergic D2 receptors in the olfactory bulb could provide a more comprehensive understanding of the olfactory deficits in PD and REM sleep deprivation (REMSD). We decided to investigate the olfactory, neurochemical, and histological alterations generated through the administration of piribedil (a selective D2 agonist) or raclopride (a selective D2 antagonist) within the glomerular layer of the olfactory bulb, in rats subjected to intranigral rotenone and REMSD. Our findings provide evidence of the occurrence of a negative correlation (r = -0.52, P = 0.04) between the number of periglomerular TH-ir neurons and the bulbar levels of DA in the rotenone, but not sham, groups. A significant positive correlation (r = 0.34, P = 0.03) was observed between nigrostriatal DA levels and olfactory discrimination index (DI) for the sham groups, indicating that increased DA levels in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) are associated with enhanced olfactory discrimination performance. Also, increased levels in bulbar and striatal DA were induced by piribedil in the rotenone control and rotenone REMSD groups, consistent with reductions in the DI. The present evidence reinforce the idea that DA produced by periglomerular neurons, particularly the bulbar dopaminergic D2 receptors, is an essential participant in olfactory discrimination processes, as the SNpc, and the striatum.
Project description:Cell therapy in animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD) is effective after intrastriatal grafting of dopamine (DA) neurons, whereas intranigral transplantation of dopaminergic cells does not cause consistent behavioral recovery. One strategy to promote axonal growth of dopaminergic neurons from the substantia nigra (SN) to the striatum is degradation of inhibitory components such as chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (CSPG). An alternative is the guidance of DA axons by chemotropic agents. Semaphorins 3A and 3C enhance axonal growth of embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived dopaminergic neurons in vitro, while Semaphorin 3C also attracts them. We asked whether intranigral transplantation of DA neurons, combined with either degradation of CSPG or with grafts of Semaphorin 3-expressing cells, towards the striatum, is effective in establishing a new nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway in rats with unilateral depletion of DA neurons. We found depolarization-induced DA release in dorsal striatum, DA axonal projections from SN to striatum, and concomitant behavioral improvement in Semaphorin 3-treated animals. These effects were absent in animals that received intranigral transplants combined with Chondroitinase ABC treatment, although partial degradation of CSPG was observed. These results are evidence that Semaphorin 3-directed long-distance axonal growth of dopaminergic neurons, resulting in behavioral improvement, is possible in adult diseased brains.
Project description:The striatum integrates motor behavior using a well-defined microcircuit whose individual components are independently affected in several neurological diseases. The glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), synthesized by striatal interneurons, and Sonic hedgehog (Shh), produced by the dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra (DA SNpc), are both involved in the nigrostriatal maintenance but the reciprocal neurotrophic relationships among these neurons are only partially understood. To define the postnatal neurotrophic connections among fast-spiking GABAergic interneurons (FS), cholinergic interneurons (ACh), and DA SNpc, we used a genetically induced mouse model of postnatal DA SNpc neurodegeneration and separately eliminated Smoothened (Smo), the obligatory transducer of Shh signaling, in striatal interneurons. We show that FS postnatal survival relies on DA SNpc and is independent of Shh signaling. On the contrary, Shh signaling but not dopaminergic striatal innervation is required to maintain ACh in the postnatal striatum. ACh are required for DA SNpc survival in a GDNF-independent manner. These data demonstrate the existence of three parallel but interdependent neurotrophic relationships between SN and striatal interneurons, partially defined by Shh and GDNF. The definition of these new neurotrophic interactions opens the search for new molecules involved in the striatal modulatory circuit maintenance with potential therapeutic value.
Project description:To study the effects of intranigral injection of different doses of CuSO4.5H2O on dopaminergic neuron in the nigrostriatal system of rats.Wistar rats were divided into four groups, including control group, 10 nmol, 50 nmol and 200 nmol copper injected into left substantia nigra (SN) groups. Seven days after the intranigral injection of copper, dopamine (DA) contents in the striatum (Str) were measured by high performance lipid chromotophotography (HPLC); the density of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) positive axons in the Str was measured by TH staining method; TH and Caspase-3 mRNA expression in the SN were measured by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. We detected the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the lesioned midbrain of rats using biochemical methods.DA and its metabolites contents had no significant difference between control group and low dose (10 nmol) copper group. But from 50 nmol copper group, DA contents in the lesioned sides were reduced with the increase in the copper doses injected, showing a significant linear correlation (F = 34.16, P < 0.01). In the 50 nmol copper group, TH positive axons in the Str decreased compared with those of the control and unlesioned sides (F = 121.9, P < 0.01). In the 50 nmol copper group, TH mRNA expression decreased (t = 3.12, P < 0.01) while Caspase-3 mRNA expression increased (t = 8.96, P < 0.01) in the SN compared with the control. SOD activity decreased in the midbrain of rats treated with 50 nmol copper compared with that of the control (t = 2.33, P < 0.01).Copper could induce damage of dopaminergic neurons in the SN of rats through destroying antioxidant defenses and promoting apoptosis.
Project description:Parkinson disease (PD) is the second leading neurodegenerative disease in the US. As there is no known cause or cure for PD, researchers continue to investigate disease mechanisms and potential new therapies in cell culture and in animal models of PD. In PD, one of the most profoundly affected neuronal populations is the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-expressing dopaminergic (DA) neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). These DA-producing neurons undergo degeneration while neighboring DA-producing cells of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) are largely spared. To aid in these studies, The Michael J. Fox Foundation (MJFF) partnered with Thomas Jefferson University and Taconic Inc. to generate new transgenic rat lines carrying the human TH gene promoter driving EGFP using a 11 kb construct used previously to create a hTH-GFP mouse reporter line. Of the five rat founder lines that were generated, three exhibited high level specific GFP fluorescence in DA brain structures (ie. SN, VTA, striatum, olfactory bulb, hypothalamus). As with the hTH-GFP mouse, none of the rat lines exhibit reporter expression in adrenergic structures like the adrenal gland. Line 12141, with its high levels of GFP in adult DA brain structures and minimal ectopic GFP expression in non-DA structures, was characterized in detail. We show here that this line allows for anatomical visualization and microdissection of the rat midbrain into SNpc and/or VTA, enabling detailed analysis of midbrain DA neurons and axonal projections after toxin treatment in vivo. Moreover, we further show that embryonic SNpc and/or VTA neurons, enriched by microdissection or FACS, can be used in culture or transplant studies of PD. Thus, the hTH-GFP reporter rat should be a valuable tool for Parkinson's disease research.
Project description:Here we study the effects of differentiated embryonic chondrocyte gene 1(DEC1) deficiency on midbrain dopaminergic(DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta(SNpc) through behavioral, histological and molecular analysis. We have found that compared to the age-matched WT mice, DEC1 deficient mice show a decrease in locomotor activity and motor coordination, which shows the main features of Parkinson's disease(PD). But there is no significant difference in spatial learning and memory skills between WT and DEC1 KO mice. Compared to the age-matched WT mice, DEC1 deficient mice exhibit the loss of DA neurons in the SNpc and reduction of dopamine and its metabolites in the striatum. The activated caspase-3 and TH/TUNEL+ cells increase in the SNpc of 6- and 12-month-old DEC1 KO mice compared to those of the age-matched WT mice. But we haven't found any NeuN/TUNEL+ cell increase in the hippocampus of the above two types of mice at the age of 6 months. Furthermore, DEC1 deficiency leads to a significant inhibition of PI3K/Akt/GSK3? signaling pathway. Additionally, LiCl could rescue the DA neuron loss of midbrain in the 6-month-old DEC1 KO mice. Taken together, the loss of DA neurons in the DEC1 deficient mice potentially involves the downregulation of PI3K/Akt/GSK3? signaling.
Project description:AIM: 6-Shogaol [1-(4-hydroxy-methoxyphenyl)-4-decen-one], a pungent compound isolated from ginger, has shown various neurobiological and anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of 6-shogaol on neuroinflammatory-induced damage of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD) models. METHODS: Cultured rat mesencephalic cells were treated with 6-shogaol (0.001 and 0.01 μmol/L) for 1 h, then with MPP(+)(10 μmol/L) for another 23 h. The levels of TNF-α and NO in medium were analyzed spectrophotometrically. C57/BL mice were administered 6-shogaol (10 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1), po) for 3 d, and then MPTP (30 mg/kg, ip) for 5 d. Seven days after the last MPTP injection, behavioral testings were performed. The levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and macrophage antigen (MAC)-1 were determined with immunohistochemistry. The expression of iNOS and COX-2 was measured using RT PCR. RESULTS: In MPP(+)-treated rat mesencephalic cultures, 6-shogaol significantly increased the number of TH-IR neurons and suppressed TNF-α and NO levels. In C57/BL mice, treatment with 6-shogaol reversed MPTP-induced changes in motor coordination and bradykinesia. Furthermore, 6-shogaol reversed MPTP-induced reductions in TH-positive cell number in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and TH-IR fiber intensity in stratum (ST). Moreover, 6-shogaol significantly inhibited the MPTP-induced microglial activation and increases in the levels of TNF-α, NO, iNOS, and COX-2 in both SNpc and ST. CONCLUSION: 6-Shogaol exerts neuroprotective effects on DA neurons in in vitro and in vivo PD models.
Project description:Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease characterized by a significant loss of dopaminergic neurons within the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and a subsequent loss of dopamine (DA) within the striatum. Despite advances in the development of pharmacological therapies that are effective at alleviating the symptoms of PD, the search for therapeutic treatments that halt or slow the underlying nigral degeneration remains a particular challenge. Activin A, a member of the transforming growth factor ? superfamily, has been shown to play a role in the neuroprotection of midbrain neurons against 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in vitro, suggesting that activin A may offer similar neuroprotective effects in in vivo models of PD. Using robust stereological methods, we found that intrastriatal injections of 6-OHDA results in a significant loss of both TH positive and NeuN positive populations in the SNpc at 1, 2, and 3 weeks post-lesioning in drug naïve mice. Exogenous application of activin A for 7 days, beginning the day prior to 6-OHDA administration, resulted in a significant survival of both dopaminergic and total neuron numbers in the SNpc against 6-OHDA-induced toxicity. However, we found no corresponding protection of striatal DA or dopamine transporter (DAT) expression levels in animals receiving activin A compared to vehicle controls. These results provide the first evidence that activin A exerts potent neuroprotection in a mouse model of PD, however this neuroprotection may be localized to the midbrain.
Project description:Mechanisms underlying the selective vulnerability of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) over those in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to degeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD) remain poorly understood. DA neurons of SNpc and VTA are autonomous pacemakers but pacemaking in SNpc but not in VTA is accompanied by calcium influx through L-type calcium channel, CaV1.3 contributing to increased intracellular calcium and hence to cell death. CaV1.342A, an alternatively spliced short variant of CaV1.3 has increased calcium influx. We, therefore studied the role of CaV1.342 (full-length channel) and CaV1.342A in mouse SNpc in PD pathogenesis by quantifying mRNA levels of CaV1.342 and CaV1.342A in SNpc and followed the change in their levels in MPTP induced parkinsonism mouse model. Using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry we observed the localization of mRNA of CaV1.342 and CaV1.342A in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) positive DA neurons. Further, mRNA levels of CaV1.342A were higher in SNpc as compared to the cortex. Upon MPTP treatment, mRNA levels of CaV1.342 and CaV1.342A maintained their levels in SNpc in spite of the loss of ~50% of the DA neurons. This indicates that the expression of CaV1.342 and CaV1.342A is maintained at a robust level during the degenerative process in the parkinsonism model.
Project description:Preferential dysfunction/degeneration of midbrain substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) dopaminergic (DA) neurons contributes to the main movement symptoms manifested in Parkinson's disease (PD). Although the Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) G2019S missense mutation (LRRK2 G2019S) is the most common causative genetic factor linked to PD, the effects of LRRK2 G2019S on the function and survival of SNpc DA neurons are poorly understood. Using a binary gene expression system, we generated transgenic mice expressing either wild-type human LRRK2 (WT mice) or the LRRK2 G2019S mutation (G2019S mice) selectively in the midbrain DA neurons. Here we show that overexpression of LRRK2 G2019S did not induce overt motor abnormalities or substantial SNpc DA neuron loss. However, the LRRK2 G2019S mutation impaired dopamine homeostasis and release in aged mice. This reduction in dopamine content/release coincided with the degeneration of DA axon terminals and decreased expression of DA neuron-enriched genes tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), vesicular monoamine transporter 2, dopamine transporter and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1. These factors are responsible for dopamine synthesis, transport and degradation, and their expression is regulated by transcription factor paired-like homeodomain 3 (PITX3). Levels of Pitx3 mRNA and protein were similarly decreased in the SNpc DA neurons of aged G2019S mice. Together, these findings suggest that PITX3-dependent transcription regulation could be one of the many potential mechanisms by which LRRK2 G2019S acts in SNpc DA neurons, resulting in downregulation of its downstream target genes critical for dopamine homeostasis and release.