Probing H2O2-mediated Structural Dynamics of the Human 26S Proteasome Using Quantitative Cross-linking Mass Spectrometry (QXL-MS).
ABSTRACT: Cytotoxic protein aggregation-induced impairment of cell function and homeostasis are hallmarks of age-related neurodegenerative pathologies. As proteasomal degradation represents the major clearance pathway for oxidatively damaged proteins, a detailed understanding of the molecular events underlying its stress response is critical for developing strategies to maintain cell viability and function. Although the 26S proteasome has been shown to disassemble during oxidative stress, its conformational dynamics remains unclear. To this end, we have developed a new quantitative cross-linking mass spectrometry (QXL-MS) workflow to explore the structural dynamics of proteasome complexes in response to oxidative stress. This strategy comprises SILAC-based metabolic labeling, HB tag-based affinity purification, a 2-step cross-linking reaction consisting of mild in vivo formaldehyde and on-bead DSSO cross-linking, and multi-stage tandem mass spectrometry (MSn) to identify and quantify cross-links. This integrated workflow has been successfully applied to explore the molecular events underlying oxidative stress-dependent proteasomal regulation by comparative analyses of proteasome complex topologies from treated and untreated cells. Our results show that H2O2 treatment weakens the 19S-20S interaction within the 26S proteasome, along with reorganizations within the 19S and 20S subcomplexes. Altogether, this work sheds light on the mechanistic response of the 26S to acute oxidative stress, suggesting an intermediate proteasomal state(s) before H2O2-mediated dissociation of the 26S. The QXL-MS strategy presented here can be applied to study conformational changes of other protein complexes under different physiological conditions.
Project description:Oxidative stress has been implicated in multiple human neurological and other disorders. Proteasomes are multi-subunit proteases critical for the removal of oxidatively damaged proteins. To understand stress-associated human pathologies, it is important to uncover the molecular events underlying the regulation of proteasomes upon oxidative stress. To this end, we investigated H2O2 stress-induced molecular changes of the human 26S proteasome and determined that stress-induced 26S proteasome disassembly is conserved from yeast to human. Moreover, we developed and employed a new proteomic approach, XAP (in vivo cross-linking-assisted affinity purification), coupled with stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC)-based quantitative MS, to capture and quantify several weakly bound proteasome-interacting proteins and examine their roles in stress-mediated proteasomal remodeling. Our results indicate that the adapter protein Ecm29 is the main proteasome-interacting protein responsible for stress-triggered remodeling of the 26S proteasome in human cells. Importantly, using a disuccinimidyl sulfoxide-based cross-linking MS platform, we mapped the interactions of Ecm29 within itself and with proteasome subunits and determined the architecture of the Ecm29-proteasome complex with integrative structure modeling. These results enabled us to propose a structural model in which Ecm29 intrudes on the interaction between the 20S core particle and the 19S regulatory particle in the 26S proteasome, disrupting the proteasome structure in response to oxidative stress.
Project description:The proteasome plays a pivotal role in the cellular response to oxidative stress. Here, we used biochemical and mass spectrometric methods to investigate structural changes in the 26S proteasomes from yeast and mammalian cells exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H?O?). Oxidative stress induced the dissociation of the 20S core particle from the 19S regulatory particle of the 26S proteasome, which resulted in loss of the activities of the 26S proteasome and accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins. H?O? triggered the increased association of the proteasome-interacting protein Ecm29 with the purified 19S particle. Deletion of ECM29 in yeast cells prevented the disassembly of the 26S proteasome in response to oxidative stress, and ecm29 mutants were more sensitive to H?O? than were wild-type cells, suggesting that separation of the 19S and 20S particles is important for cellular recovery from oxidative stress. The increased amount of free 20S core particles was required to degrade oxidized proteins. The Ecm29-dependent dissociation of the proteasome was independent of Yap1, a transcription factor that is critical for the oxidative stress response in yeast, and thus functions as a parallel defense pathway against H?O?-induced stress.
Project description:The 26S proteasome, composed of the 20S core and the 19S regulatory complex, plays a central role in ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis by catalyzing degradation of polyubiquitinated proteins. In a search for proteins involved in regulation of the proteasome, we affinity purified the 19S regulatory complex from HeLa cells and identified a novel protein of 43 kDa in size as an associated protein. Immunoprecipitation analyses suggested that this protein specifically interacted with the proteasomal ATPases. Hence the protein was named proteasomal ATPase-associated factor 1 (PAAF1). Immunoaffinity purification of PAAF1 confirmed its interaction with the 19S regulatory complex and further showed that the 19S regulatory complex bound with PAAF1 was not stably associated with the 20S core. Overexpression of PAAF1 in HeLa cells decreased the level of the 20S core associated with the 19S complex in a dose-dependent fashion, suggesting that PAAF1 binding to proteasomal ATPases inhibited the assembly of the 26S proteasome. Proteasomal degradation assays using reporters based on green fluorescent protein revealed that overexpression of PAAF1 inhibited the proteasome activity in vivo. Furthermore, the suppression of PAAF1 expression that is mediated by small inhibitory RNA enhanced the proteasome activity. These results suggest that PAAF1 functions as a negative regulator of the proteasome by controlling the assembly/disassembly of the proteasome.
Project description:Oxidatively modified ferritin is selectively recognized and degraded by the 20S proteasome. Concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) higher than 10 micromol/mg of protein are able to prevent proteolytic degradation. Exposure of the protease to high amounts of oxidants (H2O2, peroxynitrite and hypochlorite) inhibits the enzymic activity of the 20S proteasome towards the fluorogenic peptide succinyl-leucine-leucine-valine-tyrosine-methylcoumarylamide (Suc-LLVY-MCA), as well as the proteolytic degradation of normal and oxidant-treated ferritin. Fifty per cent inhibition of the degradation of the protein substrates was achieved using 40 micromol of H2O2/mg of proteasome. No change in the composition of the enzyme was revealed by electrophoretic analysis up to concentrations of 120 micromol of H2O2/mg of proteasome. In further experiments, it was found that the 26S proteasome, the ATP- and ubiquitin-dependent form of the proteasomal system, is much more susceptible to oxidative stress. Whereas degradation of the fluorogenic peptide, Suc-LLVY-MCA, by the 20S proteasome was inhibited by 50% with 12 micromol of H2O2/mg, 3 micromol of H2O2/mg was enough to inhibit ATP-stimulated degradation by the 26S proteasome by 50%. This loss in activity could be followed by the loss of band intensity in the non-denaturing gel. Therefore we concluded that the 20S proteasome was more resistant to oxidative stress than the ATP- and ubiquitin-dependent 26S proteasome. Furthermore, we investigated the activity of both proteases in K562 cells after H2O2 treatment. Lysates from K562 cells are able to degrade oxidized ferritin at a higher rate than non-oxidized ferritin, in an ATP-independent manner. This effect could be followed even after treatment of the cells with H2O2 up to a concentration of 2mM. The lactacystin-sensitive ATP-stimulated degradation of the fluorogenic peptide Suc-LLVY-MCA declined, after treatment of the cells with 1mM H2O2, to the same level as that obtained without ATP stimulation. Therefore, we conclude that the regulation of the 20S proteasome by various regulators takes place during oxidative stress. This provides further evidence for the role of the 20S proteasome in the secondary antioxidative defences of mammalian cells.
Project description:Under oxidative stress 26S proteasomes suffer reversible disassembly into its 20S and 19S subunits, a process mediated by HSP70. This inhibits the degradation of polyubiquitinated proteins by the 26S proteasome and allows the degradation of oxidized proteins by a free 20S proteasome. Low fluxes of antimycin A-stimulated ROS production caused dimerization of mitochondrial peroxiredoxin 3 and cytosolic peroxiredoxin 2, but not peroxiredoxin overoxidation and overall oxidation of cellular protein thiols. This moderate redox imbalance was sufficient to inhibit the ATP stimulation of 26S proteasome activity. This process was dependent on reversible cysteine oxidation. Moreover, our results show that this early inhibition of ATP stimulation occurs previous to particle disassembly, indicating an intermediate step during the redox regulation of the 26S proteasome with special relevance under redox signaling rather than oxidative stress conditions.
Project description:The transition from vegetative growth to multicellular development represents an evolutionary hallmark linked to an oxidative stress signal and controlled protein degradation. We identified the Sem1 proteasome subunit, which connects stress response and cellular differentiation. The sem1 gene encodes the fungal counterpart of the human Sem1 proteasome lid subunit and is essential for fungal cell differentiation and development. A sem1 deletion strain of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans is able to grow vegetatively and expresses an elevated degree of 20S proteasomes with multiplied ATP-independent catalytic activity compared to wildtype. Oxidative stress induces increased transcription of the genes sem1 and rpn11 for the proteasomal deubiquitinating enzyme. Sem1 is required for stabilization of the Rpn11 deubiquitinating enzyme, incorporation of the ubiquitin receptor Rpn10 into the 19S regulatory particle and efficient 26S proteasome assembly. Sem1 maintains high cellular NADH levels, controls mitochondria integrity during stress and developmental transition.
Project description:Proteasomal degradation is altered in many disease phenotypes including cardiac hypertrophy, a prevalent condition leading to heart failure. Our recent investigations identified heterogeneous subpopulations of proteasome complexes in the heart and implicated multiple mechanisms for their regulation.The study aimed at identification of molecular mechanisms changing proteasome function in the hypertrophic heart.Proteasome function, expression, and assembly were analyzed during the development of cardiac hypertrophy induced by ?-adrenergic stimulation. The analysis revealed, for the first time, divergent regulation of proteasome function in cardiac hypertrophy. Proteasome complexes have 3 different proteolytic activities, which are ATP-dependent for 26S complexes (19S assembled with 20S) and ATP-independent for 20S core particles. The 26S activities were enhanced in hypertrophic hearts, partially because of increased expression and assembly of 19S subunits with 20S core complexes. In contrast, caspase- and trypsin-like 20S activities were significantly decreased. Activation of endogenous cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) rescued the depressed 20S functions, supporting the notion that PKA signaling is a positive regulator of protein degradation in the heart. Chymotrypsin-like 20S activity was stably maintained during cardiac remodeling, indicating a switch in proteasome subpopulations, which was supported by altered expression and incorporation of inducible ? subunits.Three novel mechanisms for the regulation of proteasome activities were discovered in the development of cardiac hypertrophy: (1) increased incorporation of inducible subunits in 20S proteasomes; (2) enhanced 20S sensitivity to PKA activation; and (3) increased 26S assembly. PKA modulation of proteasome complexes may provide a novel therapeutic avenue for restoration of cardiac function in the diseased myocardium.
Project description:The ATP-powered protein degradation machinery plays essential roles in maintaining protein homeostasis in all organisms. Robust proteolytic activities are typically sequestered within protein complexes to avoid the fatal removal of essential proteins. Because the openings of proteolytic chambers are narrow, substrate proteins must undergo unfolding. AAA superfamily proteins (ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities) are mostly located at these openings and regulate protein degradation appropriately. The 26S proteasome, comprising 20S peptidase and 19S regulatory particles, is the major ATP-powered protein degradation machinery in eukaryotes. The 19S particles are composed of six AAA proteins and 13 regulatory proteins, and bind to both ends of a barrel-shaped proteolytic chamber formed by the 20S peptidase. Several recent studies have reported that another AAA protein, Cdc48, can replace the 19S particles to form an alternative ATP-powered proteasomal complex, i.e., the Cdc48-20S proteasome. This review focuses on our current knowledge of this alternative proteasome and its possible linkage to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
Project description:This study examined the hypothesis that 26S proteasome dysfunction in human end-stage heart failure is associated with decreased docking of the 19S regulatory particle to the 20S proteasome. Previous studies have demonstrated that 26S proteasome activity is diminished in human end-stage heart failure associated with oxidation of the 19S regulatory particle Rpt5 subunit. Docking of the 19S regulatory particle to the 20S proteasome requires functional Rpt subunit ATPase activity and phosphorylation of the ?-type subunits.An enriched proteasome fraction was prepared from 7 human nonfailing and 10 failing heart explants. Native gel electrophoresis assessed docking of 19S to 20S proteasome revealing 3 proteasome populations (20S, 26S, and 30S proteasomes). In failing hearts, 30S proteasomes were significantly lower (P=0.048) by 37% suggesting diminished docking. Mass spectrometry-based phosphopeptide analysis demonstrated that the relative ratio of phosphorylated:non phosphorylated ?7 subunit (serine250) of the 20S proteasome was significantly less (P=0.011) by almost 80% in failing hearts. Rpt ATPase activity was determined in the enriched fraction and after immunoprecipitation with an Rpt6 antibody. ATPase activity (?mol PO4/?g protein per hour) of the total fraction was lowered from 291±97 to 194±27 and in the immunoprecipitated fraction from 42±12 to 3±2 (P=0.005) in failing hearts.These studies suggest that diminished 26S activity in failing human hearts may be related to impaired docking of the 19S to the 20S as a result of decreased Rpt subunit ATPase activity and ?7 subunit phosphorylation.
Project description:Protein ubiquitination is a stable, reversible post-translational modification, targeting proteins for degradation/recycling by the 26S proteasome in a well-characterized enzymatic cascade. Studies have revealed the role of UPS in the regulation of fertilization, including sperm-zona pellucida interactions and the early event of sperm capacitation. The present study investigates the changes in proteasome compartmentalization, subunit composition and post-translational modifications during in vitro capacitation of fresh boar spermatozoa. We observed capacitation-dependent shedding of both 20S core and 19S regulatory particles from the acrosome that was associated with decreased plasma membrane integrity, independent of proteasomal inhibition. Subunits PSMA1-7 of the 20S core did not appear to undergo post-translational modifications during capacitation, based on invariant molecular masses before and after capacitation; however, we observed multiple PSMD4 forms of 19S regulatory particles (50, 53, 70, 115-140, 160 and >176 kDa) sequentially released from spermatozoa. PSMD4 subunit was found to be post-translationally modified during the course of capacitation, resulting in changes of apparent molecular mass, some of which were dependent on proteasomal inhibition. These results show that the sperm proteasomes are being modified during sperm capacitation. Additional studies of individual 26S proteasome subunits will be required to elucidate these modifications and to understand how UPS modulates sperm capacitation.