Incidence of Acute Kidney Injury in Critically Ill Patients Receiving Vancomycin with Concomitant Piperacillin-Tazobactam, Cefepime, or Meropenem.
ABSTRACT: Critically ill patients are frequently treated with empirical antibiotic therapy, including vancomycin and β-lactams. Recent evidence suggests an increased risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients who received a combination of vancomycin and piperacillin-tazobactam (VPT) compared with patients who received vancomycin alone or vancomycin in combination with cefepime (VC) or meropenem (VM), but most studies were conducted predominately in the non-critically ill population. A retrospective cohort study that included 2,492 patients was conducted in the intensive care units of a large university hospital with the primary outcome being the development of any AKI. The rates of any AKI, as defined by the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) guidelines, were 39.3% for VPT patients, 24.2% for VC patients, and 23.5% for VM patients (P < 0.0001 for both comparisons). Similarly, the incidences of stage 2 and stage 3 AKI were also significantly higher for VPT patients than for the patients in the other groups. The rates of stage 2 and stage 3 AKI, respectively, were 15% and 6.6% for VPT patients, 5.8% and 1.8% for VC patients, and 6.6% and 1.3% for VM patients (P < 0.0001 for both comparisons). In multivariate analysis, the use of vancomycin in combination with piperacillin-tazobactam was found to be an independent predictor of AKI (odds ratio [OR], 2.161; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.620 to 2.883). In conclusion, critically ill patients receiving the combination of VPT had the highest incidence of AKI compared to critically ill patients receiving either VC or VM.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Vancomycin is widely used to treat infections caused by Gram positive bacteria, mostly methicillin-resistant strains. Despite its therapeutic effectiveness, vancomycin is a nephrotoxic drug that has been associated with the occurrence of acute kidney injury (AKI). In this study, we sought to evaluate the variability of serum trough concentrations of vancomycin and to determine the incidence and risk factors of vancomycin-associated nephrotoxicity (VAN) in non-critically ill patients. METHODS:This was a prospective cohort including Brazilian public hospital inpatients from April 2017 to June 2018. The participants received intravenous vancomycin therapy for at least 48 hours for any suspected or confirmed infection by Gram positive bacteria. Demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected. Information on vancomycin therapy and concomitant use of other nephrotoxic drugs were also recorded. Patients were followed up until discontinuation of vancomycin treatment or death, whatever occurred first. The primary outcome was the occurrence of AKI. We performed a Poisson regression to determine risk factors for AKI. RESULTS:Overall, 98 participants were included in the study. Median age was 55.9 (interquartile range [IQR] 40.6-66.8) years and 58 (59.2%) were men. Most of them showed subtherapeutic (<10mg/L) or supratherapeutic (>20mg/L) trough levels of vancomycin; 42.9% and 15.3%, respectively. A total of 19 (19.4%) patients developed AKI. Poisson regression showed that male sex (odds ratio [OR] 2.90; confidence interval [CI] 95% 1.28-6.53; p = 0.011), concomitant use of piperacillin-tazobactam (OR 4.66; CI 95% 2.26-9.58; p <0.001) and vancomycin trough levels above 20mg/mL (OR 4.21; CI 95% 1.57-11.278; p = 0.004) were independently associated with AKI. CONCLUSIONS:Our study showed that usual doses of vancomycin did not reach recommended therapeutic serum trough levels of vancomycin in non-critically ill patients. Besides that, nephrotoxicity was common in this population, being associated with male sex, concomitant use of piperacillin-tazobactam and supra-therapeutic trough serum levels of vancomycin.
Project description:BACKGROUND:There continues to be uncertainty about whether piperacillin/tazobactam (TZP) increases the risk of AKI in critically ill pediatric patients. We sought to compare rates of AKI among critically ill children treated with TZP or cefepime, an alternative frequently used in intensive care units, with and without vancomycin. METHODS:We conducted a retrospective cohort study assessing the risk of AKI in pediatric intensive care unit patients after exposure to vancomycin, TZP, and cefepime, alone or in combination, within 48 hours of admission. The primary outcome was development of stage 2 or 3 AKI or an increase in AKI stage from 2 to 3 within the 6 days after the 48-hour exposure window. Secondary outcomes included lengths of stay, need for RRT, and mortality. RESULTS:Of 5686 patients included, 494 (8.7%) developed stage 2 or 3 AKI. The adjusted odds of developing AKI after medication exposure were 1.56 for TZP (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.23 to 1.99), 1.13 for cefepime (95% CI, 0.79 to 1.64), and 0.86 for vancomycin (95% CI, 0.69 to 1.07). The adjusted odds of developing AKI for vancomycin plus TZP versus vancomycin plus cefepime was 1.38 (95% CI, 0.85 to 2.24). CONCLUSIONS:Observational data in critically ill children show that TZP use is associated with increased odds of AKI. A weaker, nonsignificant association between vancomycin plus TZP and AKI compared with vancomycin plus cefepime, creates some uncertainty about the nature of the association between TZP and AKI. However, cefepime is an alternative not associated with AKI.
Project description:Antibiotics induced acute kidney injury (AKI) risk in critically ill patients is not well known. This study aimed to evaluate the AKI development and clinical outcomes in critically ill adult patients treated with vancomycin (VAN) or combined with piperacillin-tazobactam (TZP) or meropenem (MEM). This was a retrospective study on critically ill adult patients who were given VAN, TZP or MEM and maintained for at least 48 h. The risk of AKI development and clinical outcomes were compared using the simple analysis and multivariate logistic regression. Three hundred forty patients were eligible. The incidence of any AKI was significantly higher in patients treated with VAN + TZP than those with VAN + MEM or VAN alone (52.7% vs. 27.7% vs. 25.7%; p < .0001). The adjusted odds of AKI increased 2.43-fold in VAN + TZP versus VAN, but not different in VAN + MEM versus VAN. However, AKI duration and recovery rate were not statistically different. In addition, all-cause death within 30 days after AKI onset was not significantly associated with antibiotic regimens. AKI incidence is higher in critically ill patients administered with VAN + TZP than those with VAN + MEM or VAN. However, no obvious evidence was found to prove that antibiotic-induced AKI leads to poor clinical outcomes.
Project description:PURPOSE:Piperacillin/tazobactam (PT), when combined with vancomycin, is associated with an increased risk of acute kidney injury (AKI). It is not known whether PT alone is associated with a higher incidence of AKI compared to other ?-lactams among critically ill patients. The objective of this study was to compare the incidence of AKI associated with the use of PT to other ?-lactams among adult critically ill patients METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted in the surgical and the medical intensive care units at two hospitals within Hamad Medical Corporation (HMC) in Qatar and included adult critically ill patients who received at least one dose of anti-pseudomonal ?-lactams. The primary outcome was acute kidney injury, defined using the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria. Multiple logistic regression with adjustment for pre-specified potential confounders was used for the primary outcome analysis. RESULTS:A total of 669 patients were included in the analysis: 507 patients in the PT group and 162 patients in the control (meropenem/cefepime) group. AKI occurred in 136 (26.8%) members of the PT group and 38 (23.5%) members of the control group [odds ratio (OR) 1.2; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.79-1.8]. The results were not significantly altered after adjusting for the pre-specified potential confounders (adjusted OR 1.38; 95% CI 0.88-2.15). CONCLUSION:In this study, PT was not associated with a higher risk of AKI compared to cefepime or meropenem among adult critically ill patients.
Project description:Pulmonary infections in critically ill patients are common and are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Piperacillin-tazobactam is a frequently used therapy in critically ill patients with pulmonary infection. Antibiotic concentrations in the lung reflect target-site antibiotic concentrations in patients with pneumonia. The aim of this study was to assess the plasma and intrapulmonary pharmacokinetics (PK) of piperacillin-tazobactam in critically ill patients administered standard piperacillin-tazobactam regimens. A population PK model was developed to describe plasma and intrapulmonary piperacillin and tazobactam concentrations. The probability of piperacillin exposures reaching pharmacodynamic end points and the impact of pulmonary permeability on piperacillin and tazobactam pulmonary penetration was explored. The median piperacillin and tazobactam pulmonary penetration ratios were 49.3 and 121.2%, respectively. Pulmonary piperacillin and tazobactam concentrations were unpredictable and negatively correlated with pulmonary permeability. Current piperacillin-tazobactam regimens may be insufficient to treat pneumonia caused by piperacillin-tazobactam-susceptible organisms in some critically ill patients.
Project description:Importance:β-Lactam antibiotics are often coadministered with intravenous (IV) vancomycin hydrochloride for children with suspected serious infections. For adults, the combination of IV vancomycin plus piperacillin sodium/tazobactam sodium is associated with a higher risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) compared with vancomycin plus 1 other β-lactam antibiotic. However, few studies have evaluated the safety of this combination for children. Objective:To assess the risk of AKI in children during concomitant therapy with vancomycin and 1 antipseudomonal β-lactam antibiotic throughout the first week of hospitalization. Design, Setting, and Participants:This retrospective cohort study focused on children hospitalized for 3 or more days who received IV vancomycin plus 1 other antipseudomonal β-lactam combination therapy at 1 of 6 large children's hospitals from January 1, 2007, through December 31, 2012. The study used the Pediatric Health Information System Plus database, which contains administrative and laboratory data from 6 pediatric hospitals in the United States. Patients with underlying kidney disease or abnormal serum creatinine levels on hospital days 0 to 2 were among those excluded. Patients 6 months to 18 years of age who were admitted through the emergency department of the hospital were included. Data were collected from July 2015 to March 2016. Data analysis took place from April 2016 through July 2017. (Exact dates are not available because the data collection and analysis processes were iterative.). Main Outcomes and Measures:The primary outcome was AKI on hospital days 3 to 7 and within 2 days of receiving combination therapy. Acute kidney injury was defined using KDIGO criteria and was based on changes in serum creatinine level from hospital days 0 to 2 through hospital days 3 to 7. Multiple logistic regression was performed using a discrete-time failure model to test the association between AKI and receipt of IV vancomycin plus piperacillin/tazobactam or vancomycin plus 1 other antipseudomonal β-lactam antibiotic. Results:A total of 1915 hospitalized children who received combination therapy were identified. Of the 1915 patients, a total of 866 (45.2%) were female and 1049 (54.8%) were male, 1049 (54.8%) were identified as white in race/ethnicity, and the median (interquartile range) age was 5.6 (2.1-12.7) years. Among the cohort who received IV vancomycin plus 1 other antipseudomonal β-lactam antibiotic, 157 patients (8.2%) had antibiotic-associated AKI. This number included 117 of 1009 patients (11.7%) who received IV vancomycin plus piperacillin/tazobactam combination therapy. After adjustment for age, intensive care unit level of care, receipt of nephrotoxins, and hospital, IV vancomycin plus piperacillin/tazobactam combination therapy was associated with higher odds of AKI each hospital day compared with vancomycin plus 1 other antipseudomonal β-lactam antibiotic combination (adjusted odds ratio, 3.40; 95% CI, 2.26-5.14). Conclusions and Relevance:Coadministration of IV vancomycin and piperacillin/tazobactam may increase the risk of AKI in hospitalized children. Pediatricians must be cognizant of the potential added risk of this combination therapy when making empirical antibiotic choices.
Project description:The empirical use of vancomycin in combination with a broad-spectrum beta-lactam is currently recommended after the initial surgery of prosthetic joint infection (PJI). However, the tolerability of such high-dose intravenous regimens is poorly known. Adult patients receiving an empirical antimicrobial therapy (EAT) for a PJI were enrolled in a prospective cohort study (2011 to 2016). EAT-related adverse events (AE) were described according to the common terminology criteria for AE (CTCAE), and their determinants were assessed by logistic regression and Kaplan-Meier curve analysis. The EAT of the 333 included patients (median age, 69.8 years; interquartile range [IQR], 59.3 to 79.1 years) mostly relies on vancomycin (n = 229, 68.8%), piperacillin-tazobactam (n = 131, 39.3%), and/or third-generation cephalosporins (n = 50, 15%). Forty-two patients (12.6%) experienced an EAT-related AE. Ten (20.4%) AE were severe (CTCAE grade ? 3). The use of vancomycin (odds ratio [OR], 6.9; 95% confidence interval [95%CI], 2.1 to 22.9), piperacillin-tazobactam (OR, 3.7; 95%CI, 1.8 to 7.2), or the combination of both (OR, 4.1; 95%CI, 2.1 to 8.2) were the only AE predictors. Acute kidney injury (AKI) was the most common AE (n = 25; 51.0% of AE) and was also associated with the use of the vancomycin and piperacillin-tazobactam combination (OR, 6.7; 95%CI, 2.6 to 17.3). A vancomycin plasma overexposure was noted in nine (37.5%) of the vancomycin-related AKIs only. Other vancomycin-based therapies were significantly less at risk for AE and AKI. The EAT of PJI is associated with an important rate of AE, linked with the use of the vancomycin and the piperacillin-tazobactam combination. These results corroborate recent findings suggesting a synergic toxicity of these drugs in comparison to vancomycin-cefepime, which remains to be evaluated in PJI. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under identifier NCT03010293.).
Project description:Infection is the most common cause of death in severe AKI, but many patients receiving continuous RRT do not reach target antibiotic concentrations in plasma. Extended infusion of ?-lactams is associated with improved target attainment in critically ill patients; thus, we hypothesized that extended infusion piperacillin-tazobactam would improve piperacillin target attainment compared with short infusion in patients receiving continuous RRT.We conducted an institutional review board-approved observational cohort study of piperacillin-tazobactam pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in critically ill patients receiving continuous venovenous hemodialysis and hemodiafiltration at three tertiary care hospitals between 2007 and 2015. Antibiotic concentrations in blood and/or dialysate samples were measured by liquid chromatography, and one- and two-compartment pharmacokinetic models were fitted to the data using nonlinear mixed effects regression. Target attainment for piperacillin was defined as achieving four times the minimum inhibitory concentration of 16 ?g/ml for >50% of the dosing cycle. The probabilities of target attainment for a range of doses, frequencies, and infusion durations were estimated using a Monte Carlo simulation method. Target attainment was also examined as a function of patient weight and continuous RRT effluent rate.Sixty-eight participants had data for analysis. Regardless of infusion duration, 6 g/d piperacillin was associated with ?45% target attainment, whereas 12 g/d was associated with ?95% target attainment. For 8 and 9 g/d, target attainment ranged between 68% and 85%. The probability of target attainment was lower at higher effluent rates and patient weights. For all doses, frequencies, patient weights, and continuous RRT effluent rates, extended infusion was associated with higher probability of target attainment compared with short infusion.Extended infusions of piperacillin-tazobactam are associated with greater probability of target attainment in patients receiving continuous RRT.
Project description:INTRODUCTION: Altered pharmacokinetics (PK) in critically ill patients can result in insufficient serum ?-lactam concentrations when standard dosages are administered. Previous studies on ?-lactam PK have generally excluded the most severely ill patients, or were conducted during the steady-state period of treatment. The aim of our study was to determine whether the first dose of piperacillin-tazobactam, ceftazidime, cefepime, and meropenem would result in adequate serum drug concentrations in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. METHODS: Open, prospective, multicenter study in four Belgian intensive care units. All consecutive patients with a diagnosis of severe sepsis or septic shock, in whom treatment with the study drugs was indicated, were included. Serum concentrations of the antibiotics were determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) before and 1, 1.5, 4.5 and 6 or 8 hours after administration. RESULTS: 80 patients were treated with piperacillin-tazobactam (n = 27), ceftazidime (n = 18), cefepime (n = 19) or meropenem (n = 16). Serum concentrations remained above 4 times the minimal inhibitory concentration (T > 4 × MIC), corresponding to the clinical breakpoint for Pseudomonas aeruginosa defined by the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST), for 57% of the dosage interval for meropenem (target MIC = 8 ?g/mL), 45% for ceftazidime (MIC = 32 ?g/mL), 34% for cefepime (MIC = 32 ?g/mL), and 33% for piperacillin-tazobactam (MIC = 64 ?g/mL). The number of patients who attained the target PK profile was 12/16 for meropenem (75%), 5/18 for ceftazidime (28%), 3/19 (16%) for cefepime, and 12/27 (44%) for piperacillin-tazobactam. CONCLUSIONS: Serum concentrations of the antibiotic after the first dose were acceptable only for meropenem. Standard dosage regimens for piperacillin-tazobactam, ceftazidime and cefepime may, therefore, be insufficient to empirically cover less susceptible pathogens in the early phase of severe sepsis and septic shock.
Project description:BACKGROUND:To study the incidence of vancomycin-associated acute kidney injury (VA-AKI) in Hong Kong and identify risk factors for VA-AKI. METHOD:Patients with vancomycin prescription and blood level measurement in 2012-2016 were identified using the Hong Kong Hospital Authority Clinical Data Analysis and Reporting System. Acute kidney injury was defined using KDIGO criteria. Patients without creatinine measurements, steady-state trough vancomycin level or who had vancomycin treatment <?3?days were excluded. Results were analyzed using SPSS version 22.0. Logistic regression was used to identify the predictors for VA-AKI. Odds ratio and 95% confidence interval were estimated. RESULTS:One thousand four hundred fifty patients were identified as VA-AKI from 12,758 records in Hong Kong in 2012-2016. The incidence was respectively 10.6, 10.9, 11.3, 12.2, 11.2% from 2012 to 2016. The incidence of VA-AKI was 16.3, 12.2, 11.3 and 6.2% in patients aged 1-12, 12-60, elderly aged >?60 and newborn and infants, respectively. Baseline creatinine, serum trough vancomycin level, systematic disease history including respiratory failure, hypertension, congestive heart failure, chronic renal failure, anemia and type II diabetes, and concomitant diuretics, piperacillin-tazobactam (PTZ) and meropenem prescription were significantly higher in VA-AKI patients older than 12?years. Logistic regression showed that older age group, higher baseline creatinine, serum trough vancomycin level, respiratory failure, chronic renal failure and congestive heart failure, concomitant diuretics, PTZ and meropenem prescription, and longer hospital stay were all associated with increased risk of VA-AKI. CONCLUSION:The incidence of VA-AKI in Hong Kong is low but shows no decline. Patients with higher baseline creatinine, multi-organ diseases and multiple drugs administration should have their vancomycin level monitored to decrease the risk of VA-AKI.