Identification of tyrosine-nitrated proteins in HT22 hippocampal cells during glutamate-induced oxidative stress.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:Nitration of tyrosine residues in protein is a post-translational modification, which occurs under oxidative stress, and is associated with several neurodegenerative diseases. To understand the role of nitrated proteins in oxidative stress-induced cell death, we identified nitrated proteins and checked correlation of their nitration in glutamate-induced HT22 cell death. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Nitrated proteins were detected by western blotting using an anti-nitrotyrosine antibody, extracted from matching reference 2-dimensional electrophoresis gels, and identified with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. RESULTS:Glutamate treatment induced apoptosis in HT22 cells, while reactive oxygen species (ROS) inhibitor or neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) inhibitor blocked glutamate-induced HT22 cell death. Nitration levels of 13 proteins were increased after glutamate stimulation; six of them were involved in regulation of energy production and two were related to apoptosis. The other nitrated proteins were associated with calcium signal modulation, ER dysfunction, or were of unknown function. CONCLUSIONS:The 13 tyrosine-nitrated proteins were detected in these glutamate-treated HT22 cells. Results demonstrated that cell death, ROS accumulation and nNOS expression were related to nitration of protein tyrosine in the glutamate-stimulated cells.
Project description:Sulfation is a common modification of extracellular glycans, tyrosine residues on proteins, and steroid hormones, and is important in a wide variety of signaling pathways. We investigated the role of sulfation on endogenous oxidative stress, such as glutamate-induced oxytosis and erastin-induced ferroptosis, using mouse hippocampal HT22 cells. Sodium chlorate competitively inhibits the formation of 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate, the high energy sulfate donor in cellular sulfation reactions. The treatment of HT22 cells with sodium chlorate decreased sulfation of heparan sulfate proteoglycans and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans. Sodium chlorate and ?-d-xyloside, which prevents proteoglycan glycosaminoglycan chain attachment, exacerbated both glutamate- and erastin-induced cell death, suggesting that extracellular matrix influenced oxytosis and ferroptosis. Moreover, sodium chlorate enhanced the generation of reactive oxygen species and influx of extracellular Ca2+ in the process of oxytosis and ferroptosis. Interestingly, sodium chlorate did not affect antioxidant glutathione levels. Western blot analysis revealed that sodium chlorate enhanced erastin-induced c-Jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation, which is preferentially activated by cell stress-inducing signals. Collectively, our findings indicate that sulfation is an important modification for neuroprotection against oxytosis and ferroptosis in neuronal hippocampal cells.
Project description:Cellular mechanisms involved in multiple neurodegenerative diseases converge on mitochondria to induce overproduction of reactive oxygen species, damage to mitochondria, and subsequent cytochrome c release. Little is currently known regarding the contribution mitochondrial dynamics play in cytochrome c release following oxidative stress in neurodegenerative disease. Here we induced oxidative stress in the HT22 cell line with glutamate and investigated key mediators of mitochondrial dynamics to determine the role this process may play in oxidative stress induced neuronal death. We report that glutamate treatment in HT22 cells induces increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS), release of the mitochondrial fusion protein Opa1 into the cytosol, with concomitant release of cytochrome c. Furthermore, following the glutamate treatment alterations in cell signaling coincide with mitochondrial fragmentation which culminates in significant cell death in HT22 cells. Finally, we report that treatment with the antioxidant tocopherol attenuates glutamate induced-ROS increase, release of mitochondrial Opa1 and cytochrome c, and prevents cell death.
Project description:Mitochondria are the primary locus for the generation of reactive nitrogen species including peroxynitrite and subsequent protein tyrosine nitration. Protein tyrosine nitration may have important functional and biological consequences such as alteration of enzyme catalytic activity. In the present study, mouse liver mitochondria were incubated with peroxynitrite, and the mitochondrial proteins were separated by 1D and 2D gel electrophoresis. Nitrotyrosinylated proteins were detected with an anti-nitrotyrosine antibody. One of the major proteins nitrated by peroxynitrite was carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 1 (CPS1) as identified by LC-MS protein analysis and Western blotting. The band intensity of nitration normalized to CPS1 was increased in a peroxynitrite concentration-dependent manner. In addition, CPS1 activity was decreased by treatment with peroxynitrite in a peroxynitrite concentration- and time-dependent manner. The decreased CPS1 activity was not recovered by treatment with reduced glutathione, suggesting that the decrease of the CPS1 activity is due to tyrosine nitration rather than cysteine oxidation. LC-MS analysis of in-gel digested samples, and a Popitam-based modification search located 5 out of 36 tyrosine residues in CPS1 that were nitrated. Taken together with previous findings regarding CPS1 structure and function, homology modeling of mouse CPS1 suggested that nitration at Y1450 in an ?-helix of allosteric domain prevents activation of CPS1 by its activator, N-acetyl-l-glutamate. In conclusion, this study demonstrated the tyrosine nitration of CPS1 by peroxynitrite and its functional consequence. Since CPS1 is responsible for ammonia removal in the urea cycle, nitration of CPS1 with attenuated function might be involved in some diseases and drug-induced toxicities associated with mitochondrial dysfunction.
Project description:Adhesion of T. cruzi trypomastigotes to components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) is an important step in mammalian host cell invasion. We have recently described a significant increase in the tyrosine nitration levels of histones H2A and H4 when trypomastigotes are incubated with components of the ECM. In this work, we used chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) with an anti-nitro-tyrosine antibody followed by mass spectrometry to identify nitrated DNA binding proteins in T. cruzi and to detect alterations in nitration levels induced upon parasite incubation with the ECM. Histone H1, H2B, H2A and H3 were detected among the 9 most abundant nitrated DNA binding proteins using this proteomic approach. One nitrated tyrosine residue (Y29) was identified in Histone H2B in the MS/MS spectrum. In addition, we observed a significant increase in the nitration levels of histones H1, H2B, H2A and H4 upon parasite incubation with ECM. Finally, we used ChIP-Seq to map global changes in the DNA binding profile of nitrated proteins. We observed a significant change in the binding pattern of nitrated proteins to DNA after parasite incubation with ECM. This work provides the first global profile of nitrated DNA binding proteins in T. cruzi and additional evidence for modification in the nitration profile of histones upon parasite incubation with ECM. Our data also indicate that the interaction of the parasite with the ECM induces alterations in chromatin structure, possibly affecting nuclear functions.
Project description:"Nitroproteomic" is under active development, as 3-nitrotyrosine in proteins constitutes a footprint left by the reactions of nitric oxide-derived oxidants that are usually associated to oxidative stress conditions. Moreover, protein tyrosine nitration can cause structural and functional changes, which may be of pathophysiological relevance for human disease conditions. Biological protein tyrosine nitration is a free radical process involving the intermediacy of tyrosyl radicals; in spite of being a nonenzymatic process, nitration is selectively directed toward a limited subset of tyrosine residues. Precise identification and quantitation of 3-nitrotyrosine in proteins has represented a "tour de force" for researchers. Recent Advances: A small number of proteins are preferential targets of nitration (usually less than 100 proteins per proteome), contrasting with the large number of proteins modified by other post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation, acetylation, and, notably, S-nitrosation. Proteomic approaches have revealed key features of tyrosine nitration both in vivo and in vitro, including selectivity, site specificity, and effects in protein structure and function.Identification of 3-nitrotyrosine-containing proteins and mapping nitrated residues is challenging, due to low abundance of this oxidative modification in biological samples and its unfriendly behavior in mass spectrometry (MS)-based technologies, that is, MALDI, electrospray ionization, and collision-induced dissociation.The use of (i) classical two-dimensional electrophoresis with immunochemical detection of nitrated proteins followed by protein ID by regular MS/MS in combination with (ii) immuno-enrichment of tyrosine-nitrated peptides and (iii) identification of nitrated peptides by a MIDAS™ experiment is arising as a potent methodology to unambiguously map and quantitate tyrosine-nitrated proteins in vivo. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 26, 313-328.
Project description:Natural sources are very promising materials for the discovery of novel bioactive compounds with diverse pharmacological effects. In recent years, many researchers have focused on natural sources as a means to prevent neuronal cell death in neuropathological conditions. This study focused on identifying neuroprotective compounds and their underlying molecular mechanisms. Procyanidin C1 (PC-1) was isolated from grape seeds and assessed for biological effects against glutamate-induced HT22 cell death. The results showed that PC-1 strongly prevented glutamate-induced HT22 cell death. Moreover, PC-1 was also found to prevent glutamate-induced chromatin condensation and reduce the number of annexin V-positive cells indicating apoptotic cell death. Procyanidin C1 possessed a strong 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity and inhibited glutamate-induced accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species and protein carbonylation. Additionally, PC-1 mediated nuclear translocation of nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-related factor 2 and increased the expression levels of heme oxygenase (HO-1). Inhibition of HO-1 by tin protoporphyrin, a synthetic inhibitor, reduced the protective effect of PC-1. Furthermore, PC-1 also blocked glutamate-induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) including ERK1/2 and p38, but not JNK. This study is the first experimental report to demonstrate the neuroprotective effects of PC-1 against glutamate-induced cytotoxicity in HT22 cells. Therefore, our results suggest that PC-1, as a potent bioactive compound of grape seeds, can prevent neuronal cell death in neuropathological conditions.
Project description:Adhesion of T. cruzi trypomastigotes to components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) is an important step in mammalian host cell invasion. We have recently described a significant increase in the tyrosine nitration levels of histones H2A and H4 when trypomastigotes are incubated with components of the ECM. In this work, we used chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) with an anti-nitrotyrosine antibody followed by mass spectrometry to identify nitrated DNA binding proteins in T. cruzi and to detect alterations in nitration levels induced upon parasite incubation with the ECM. Histone H1, H2B, H2A and H3 were detected among the 9 most abundant nitrated DNA binding proteins using this proteomic approach. One nitrated tyrosine residue (Y29) was identified in Histone H2B in the MS/MS spectrum. In addition, we observed a significant increase in the nitration levels of histones H1, H2B, H2A and H4 upon parasite incubation with ECM. Finally, we used ChIP-Seq to map global changes in the DNA binding profile of nitrated proteins. We observed a significant change in the binding pattern of nitrated proteins to DNA after parasite incubation with ECM. This work provides the first global profile of nitrated DNA binding proteins in T. cruzi and additional evidence for modification in the nitration profile of histones upon parasite incubation with ECM. Our data also indicate that the parasite interaction with the ECM induces alterations in chromatin structure, possibly affecting nuclear functions.
Project description:Endothelial nitric oxide synthase-derived NO and its derivative, peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)), suppresses oxygen consumption by nitration of mitochondrial proteins after reperfusion. However, very few nitrated proteins are identified to date. In this paper, ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury was induced in mouse heart by ligation and release of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Western blotting showed that tyrosine nitration was higher in I/R hearts. Nitrated proteins were identified by capillary-liquid chromatography-nanospray tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 23 proteins were identified as being nitrated after I/R and 10 of them were from mitochondria. The nitrated mitochondrial proteins included 4 subunits from the oxidative phosphorylation system (the 24 and the 30 kDa subunits of complex I, the Rieske ISP of complex III, and the alpha subunit of ATP synthase), five enzymes in the matrix, and voltage-dependent anion channel. In purified complex I treated with ONOO(-), 3-NT was identified locating at the residue of Y247 of the 30 kDa subunit and the residues of Y47, Y53 of the 49 kDa subunit. In conclusion, I/R induced protein nitration and mitochondrial proteins were the major targets. Selective nitration of proteins from the oxidative phosphorylation system at the beginning of reperfusion may contribute to the suppression of oxygen consumption.
Project description:Using NO specific probe (MNIP-Cu), rapid nitric oxide (NO) accumulation as a response to auxin (IAA) treatment has been observed in the protoplasts from the hypocotyls of sunflower seedlings (Helianthus annuus L.). Incubation of protoplasts in presence of NPA (auxin efflux blocker) and PTIO (NO scavenger) leads to significant reduction in NO accumulation, indicating that NO signals represent an early signaling event during auxin-induced response. A surge in NO production has also been demonstrated in whole hypocotyl explants showing adventitious root (AR) development. Evidence of tyrosine nitration of cytosolic proteins as a consequence of NO accumulation has been provided by western blot analysis and immunolocalization in the sections of AR producing hypocotyl segments. Most abundant anti-nitrotyrosine labeling is evident in proteins ranging from 25-80 kDa. Tyrosine nitration of a particular protein (25 kDa) is completely absent in presence of NPA (which suppresses AR formation). Similar lack of tyrosine nitration of this protein is also evident in other conditions which do not allow AR differentiation. Immunofluorescent localization experiments have revealed that non-inductive treatments (such as PTIO) for AR develpoment from hypocotyl segments coincide with symplastic and apoplastic localization of tyrosine nitrated proteins in the xylem elements, in contrast with negligible (and mainly apoplastic) nitration of proteins in the interfascicular cells and phloem elements. Application of NPA does not affect tyrosine nitration of proteins even in the presence of an external source of NO (SNP). Tyrosine nitrated proteins are abundant around the nuclei in the actively dividing cells of the root primordium. Thus, NO-modulated rapid response to IAA treatment through differential distribution of tyrosine nitrated proteins is evident as an inherent aspect of the AR development.
Project description:Diabetic retinopathy, a retinal vascular disease, is inhibited in animals treated with aminoguanidine, an inhibitor of inducible nitric-oxide synthase. This treatment also reduces retinal protein nitration, which is greater in diabetic rat retina than nondiabetic retina. As an approach to understanding the molecular mechanisms of diabetic retinopathy, we sought the identity of nitrotyrosine-containing proteins in retina from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and in a rat retinal Müller cell line grown in high glucose (25 mM). Anti-nitrotyrosine immunoprecipitation products from rat retina and Müller cells were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Ten nitrated proteins in diabetic rat retina and three nitrated proteins in Müller cells grown in high glucose were identified; three additional nitrotyrosine-containing proteins were tentatively identified from diabetic retina. The identified nitrotyrosine-containing proteins participate in a variety of processes including glucose metabolism, signal transduction, and transcription/translation. Among the nitrated proteins were insulin-responsive glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT-4), which has been implicated previously in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus; exocyst complex component Exo70, which functions in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake of GLUT-4-containing vesicles; and fibroblast growth factor receptor 2, which influences retinal vascularization via fibroblast growth factor signaling. Nitration of tyrosine phosphorylation sites were identified in five proteins, including GLUT-4, exocyst complex component Exo70, protein-tyrosine phosphatase eta, sensory neuron synuclein, and inositol trisphosphate receptor 3. Quantitation of nitration and phosphorylation at common tyrosine modification sites in GLUT-4 and protein-tyrosine phosphatase eta from diabetic and nondiabetic animals suggests that nitration reduced tyrosine phosphorylation approximately 2X in these proteins from diabetic retina. The present results provide new insights regarding tyrosine nitration and its potential role in the molecular mechanisms of diabetic retinopathy.