Divergent HIV-1-Directed Immune Responses Generated by Systemic and Mucosal Immunization with Replicating Single-Cycle Adenoviruses in Rhesus Macaques.
ABSTRACT: Most human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infections begin at mucosal surfaces. Providing a barrier of protection at these may assist in combating the earliest events in infection. Systemic immunization by intramuscular (i.m.) injection can drive mucosal immune responses, but there are data suggesting that mucosal immunization can better educate these mucosal immune responses. To test this, rhesus macaques were immunized with replicating single-cycle adenovirus (SC-Ad) vaccines expressing clade B HIV-1 gp160 by the intranasal (i.n.) and i.m. routes to compare mucosal and systemic routes of vaccination. SC-Ad vaccines generated significant circulating antibody titers against Env after a single i.m. immunization. Switching the route of second immunization with the same SC-Ad serotype allowed a significant boost in these antibody levels. When these animals were boosted with envelope protein, envelope-binding antibodies were amplified 100-fold, but qualitatively different immune responses were generated. Animals immunized by only the i.m. route had high peripheral T follicular helper (pTfh) cell counts in blood but low Tfh cell counts in lymph nodes. Conversely, animals immunized by the i.n. route had high Tfh cell counts in lymph nodes but low pTfh cell counts in the blood. Animals immunized by only the i.m. route had lower antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) antibody activity, whereas animals immunized by the mucosal i.n. route had higher ADCC antibody activity. When these Env-immunized animals were challenged rectally with simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) strain SF162P3 (SHIVSF162P3), they all became infected. However, mucosally SC-Ad-immunized animals had lower viral loads in their gastrointestinal tracts. These data suggest that there may be benefits in educating the immune system at mucosal sites during HIV vaccination.IMPORTANCE HIV-1 infections usually start at a mucosal surface after sexual contact. Creating a barrier of protection at these mucosal sites may be a good strategy for to protect against HIV-1 infections. While HIV-1 enters at mucosa, most vaccines are not delivered here. Most are instead injected into the muscle, a site well distant and functionally different than mucosal tissues. This study tested if delivering HIV vaccines at mucosa or in the muscle makes a difference in the quality, quantity, and location of immune responses against the virus. These data suggest that there are indeed advantages to educating the immune system at mucosal sites with an HIV-1 vaccine.
Project description:The benefits of mucosal vaccines over injected vaccines are difficult to ascertain, since mucosally administered vaccines often induce serum antibody responses of lower magnitude than those induced by injected vaccines. This study aimed to determine if mucosal vaccination using a modified vaccinia virus Ankara expressing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp120 (MVAgp120) prime and a HIV-1 gp120 protein boost could be optimized to induce serum antibody responses similar to those induced by an intramuscularly (i.m.) administered MVAgp120 prime/gp120 boost to allow comparison of an i.m. immunization regimen to a mucosal vaccination regimen for the ability to protect against a low-dose rectal simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) challenge. A 3-fold higher antigen dose was required for intranasal (i.n.) immunization with gp120 to induce serum anti-gp120 IgG responses not significantly different than those induced by i.m. immunization. gp120 fused to the adenovirus type 2 fiber binding domain (gp120-Ad2F), a mucosal targeting ligand, exhibited enhanced i.n. immunogenicity compared to gp120. MVAgp120 was more immunogenic after i.n. delivery than after gastric or rectal delivery. Using these optimized vaccines, an i.n. MVAgp120 prime/combined i.m. (gp120) and i.n. (gp120-Ad2F) boost regimen (i.n./i.m.-plus-i.n.) induced serum anti-gp120 antibody titers similar to those induced by the intramuscular prime/boost regimen (i.m./i.m.) in rabbits and nonhuman primates. Despite the induction of similar systemic anti-HIV-1 antibody responses, neither the i.m./i.m. nor the i.n./i.m.-plus-i.n. regimen protected against a repeated low-dose rectal SHIV challenge. These results demonstrate that immunization regimens utilizing the i.n. route are able to induce serum antigen-specific antibody responses similar to those induced by systemic immunization.IMPORTANCE Mucosal vaccination is proposed as a method of immunization able to induce protection against mucosal pathogens that is superior to protection provided by parenteral immunization. However, mucosal vaccination often induces serum antigen-specific immune responses of lower magnitude than those induced by parenteral immunization, making the comparison of mucosal and parenteral immunization difficult. We identified vaccine parameters that allowed an immunization regimen consisting of an i.n. prime followed by boosters administered by both i.n. and i.m. routes to induce serum antibody responses similar to those induced by i.m. prime/boost vaccination. Additional studies are needed to determine the potential benefit of mucosal immunization for HIV-1 and other mucosally transmitted pathogens.
Project description:Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is transmitted mainly through mucosal sites. Optimum strategies to elicit both systemic and mucosal immunity are critical for the development of vaccines against HIV-1. We therefore sought to evaluate the induction of systemic and mucosal immune responses by the use of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) as a vaccine vector. We generated a recombinant NDV, designated rLaSota/gp160, expressing the gp160 envelope (Env) protein of HIV-1 from an added gene. The gp160 protein expressed by rLaSota/gp160 virus was detected on an infected cell surface and was incorporated into the NDV virion. Biochemical studies showed that gp160 present in infected cells and in the virion formed a higher-order oligomer that retained recognition by conformationally sensitive monoclonal antibodies. Expression of gp160 did not increase the virulence of recombinant NDV (rNDV) strain LaSota. Guinea pigs were administered rLaSota/gp160 via the intranasal (i.n.) or intramuscular (i.m.) route in different prime-boost combinations. Systemic and mucosal antibody responses specific to the HIV-1 envelope protein were assessed in serum and vaginal washes, respectively. Two or three immunizations via the i.n. or i.m. route induced a more potent systemic and mucosal immune response than a single immunization by either route. Priming by the i.n. route was more immunogenic than by the i.m. route, and the same was true for the boosts. Furthermore, immunization with rLaSota/gp160 by any route or combination of routes induced a Th1-type response, as reflected by the induction of stronger antigen-specific IgG2a than IgG1 antibody responses. Additionally, i.n. immunization elicited a stronger neutralizing serum antibody response to laboratory-adapted HIV-1 strain MN.3. These data illustrate that it is feasible to use NDV as a vaccine vector to elicit potent humoral and mucosal responses to the HIV-1 envelope protein.
Project description:Thirty different genes including cytokines, chemokines, granzymes, perforin and specifically integrins were evaluated in Peyer's patch-KdGag197-205-specific CD8+ T cells (pools of 100 cells) using Fluidigm 48.48 Dynamic arrays following three different prime-boost immunization strategies. Data revealed that the route of prime or the booster immunization differentially influenced the integrin expression profile on gut KdGag197-205-specific CD8+ T cells. Specifically, elevated numbers of integrin ?E and ?D expressing gut KdGag197-205-specific CD8+ T cells were detected following mucosal but not systemic priming. Also, ?E/?7 and ?D/?2 heterodimerization were more noticeable in an intranasal (i.n.)/i.n. vaccination setting compared to i.n./intramuscular (i.m) or i.m./i.m. vaccinations. Moreover, in all vaccine groups tested ?4 appeared to heterodimerize more closely with ?7 then ?1. Also MIP-1?, RANTES, CCR5, perforin and integrin ?4 bio-markers were significantly elevated in i.n./i.m. and i.m./i.m. immunization groups compared to purely mucosal i.n./i.n. delivery. Furthermore, when wild type (WT) BALB/c and IL-13 knockout (KO) mice were immunized using i.n./i.m. strategy, MIP-1?, MIP-1?, RANTES, integrins ?4, ?1 and ?7 mRNA expression levels were found to be significantly different, in mucosal verses systemic KdGag197-205-specific CD8+ T cells. Interestingly, the numbers of gut KdGag197-205-specific CD8+ T cells expressing gut-homing markers ?4?7 and CCR9 protein were also significantly elevated in IL-13 KO compared to WT control. Collectively, our findings further corroborate that the route of vaccine delivery, tissue microenvironment and IL-13 depleted cytokine milieu can significantly alter the antigen-specific CD8+ T cell gene expression profiles and in turn modulate their functional avidities as well as homing capabilities.
Project description:Chlamydia trachomatis causes respiratory and sexually transmitted infections. Here, we tested a vaccine formulated with the recombinant major outer membrane protein from C. trachomatis mouse pneumonitis (CT-MoPn) for its ability to protect mice against an intranasal (i.n.) challenge. The adjuvants CpG and Montanide were used for systemic routes, intramuscular (i.m.) and subcutaneous (s.c.), and cholera toxin for mucosal routes, sublingual (s.l.) and colonic (c.l.). Mucosal immunizations were performed either alone or in combination with systemic routes. Mice inoculated i.n. with 10(4) inclusion-forming units (IFU) of CT-MoPn served as a positive control and the Neisseria gonorrhoeae recombinant porin B (Ng-rPorB) as the negative antigen control. Immunized animals were challenged i.n. with 10(4)IFU of CT-MoPn. Following immunization the combination groups showed high chlamydial serum IgG titers (s.l.+i.m.+s.c. 25,600; c.l+i.m.+s.c. 102,400) and the IgG2a/IgG1 ratios indicated a Th1 response. Following the i.n. challenge the s.l.+i.m.+s.c. group showed the best protection as demonstrated by an increase in body weight of 0.3% over the 10 day course of infection. A statistically significant difference was found when compared with the Ng-rPorB immunized animals that had lost 20% of their original body weight (P<0.05). In addition, the repeated measures ANOVA test showed significant difference in body weight change for the combined immunized groups vs their mucosal counterparts and also the systemic immunized group. A statistically significant difference (P<0.05) was also observed in the number of IFUs recovered from the lungs when the s.l.+i.m.+s.c. (2.8×10(6)) and c.l.+i.m.+s.c. (3.4×10(6)) groups were compared to their respective mucosal only groups (s.l.: 61.9×10(6) and c.l: 136.2×10(6)) and the control Ng-rPorB immunized mice (198.2×10(6)) (P<0.05). In conclusion, a combined systemic plus mucosal vaccination provides better protection against a respiratory challenge with C. trachomatis than either systemic or mucosal immunizations alone.
Project description:A vaccine formulated with the Chlamydia muridarum recombinant major outer membrane protein, plus the adjuvants CpG and Montanide, was tested for its ability to protect BALB/c mice against a vaginal challenge. Mice were immunized by mucosal [intravaginal (i.vag.) plus colonic (col.), or intranasal (i.n.) plus sublingual (s.l.)], or systemic [intramuscular (i.m.) plus subcutaneous (s.c.)] routes, and a combination of mucosal priming and systemic boosting routes. A negative control group was vaccinated with the Neisseria gonorrhoeae porin B (Ng-rPorB) and a positive control group was inoculated in the nares with live Chlamydia. The strongest Chlamydia-specific humoral and cell-mediated immune responses were observed in the groups immunized by a combination of mucosal and systemic routes. Following the vaginal challenge, groups immunized using mucosal priming followed by systemic immunization had a significant decrease in the number of mice with positive vaginal cultures. For example, of the mice immunized i.n./s.l.+i.m./s.c., 24% had positive cultures during the six weeks of the experiment versus 69% for the negative control group immunized with Ng-rPorB (P<0.05). Similarly, the groups of mice primed by the mucosal routes and boosted by the systemic routes had significantly less IFU in the vaginal cultures when compared to the Ng-rPorB animals (P<0.05). These combination groups were also protected against infertility. The two groups had fertility rates of 100% (i.n./s.l.+i.m./s.c.) and 81% (i.vag./col.+i.m./s.c.) equivalent to the positive-control group immunized with live Chlamydia (100% fertility; P>0.05). These results show the importance of the schedule and routes of vaccination and represent the first study to show protection against infertility by a Chlamydia recombinant subunit vaccine.
Project description:Most HIV-1 infections are thought to occur at mucosal surfaces during sexual contact. It has been hypothesized that vaccines delivered at mucosal surfaces may mediate better protection against HIV-1 than vaccines that are delivered systemically. To test this, rhesus macaques were vaccinated by intramuscular (i.m.) or intravaginal (ivag.) routes with helper-dependent adenoviral (HD-Ad) vectors expressing HIV-1 envelope. Macaques were first immunized intranasally with species C Ad serotype 5 (Ad5) prior to serotype-switching with species C HD-Ad6, Ad1, Ad5, and Ad2 vectors expressing env followed by rectal challenge with CCR5-tropic SHIV-SF162P3. Vaccination by the systemic route generated stronger systemic CD8 T cell responses in PBMC, but weaker mucosal responses. Conversely, mucosal immunization generated stronger CD4 T cell central memory (Tcm) responses in the colon. Intramuscular immunization generated higher levels of env-binding antibodies, but neither produced neutralizing or cytotoxic antibodies. After mucosal SHIV challenge, both groups controlled SHIV better than control animals. However, more animals in the ivag. group had lower viral set points than in in the i.m. group. These data suggest mucosal vaccination may have improve protection against sexually-transmitted HIV. These data also demonstrate that helper-dependent Ad vaccines can mediate robust vaccine responses in the face of prior immunity to Ad5 and during four rounds of adenovirus vaccination.
Project description:We have previously reported that a subunit protein vaccine based on the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) spike protein and a recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV)-based RBD (RBD-rAAV) vaccine could induce highly potent neutralizing Ab responses in immunized animals. In this study, systemic, mucosal, and cellular immune responses and long-term protective immunity induced by RBD-rAAV were further characterized in a BALB/c mouse model, with comparison of the i.m. and intranasal (i.n.) routes of administration. Our results demonstrated that: 1) the i.n. vaccination induced a systemic humoral immune response of comparable strength and shorter duration than the i.m. vaccination, but the local humoral immune response was much stronger; 2) the i.n. vaccination elicited stronger systemic and local specific cytotoxic T cell responses than the i.m. vaccination, as evidenced by higher prevalence of IL-2 and/or IFN-gamma-producing CD3+/CD8+ T cells in both lungs and spleen; 3) the i.n. vaccination induced similar protection as the i.m. vaccination against SARS-CoV challenge in mice; 4) higher titers of mucosal IgA and serum-neutralizing Ab were associated with lower viral load and less pulmonary pathological damage, while no Ab-mediated disease enhancement effect was observed; and 5) the vaccination could provide long-term protection against SARS-CoV infection. Taken together, our findings suggest that RBD-rAAV can be further developed into a vaccine candidate for prevention of SARS and that i.n. vaccination may be the preferred route of administration due to its ability to induce SARS-CoV-specific systemic and mucosal immune responses and its better safety profile.
Project description:To investigate the influence of immunization routes onIgG, IgA and IgM production in systemic and mucosal compartments, we immunized mice with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) via oral, intranasal (i.n.) or subcutaneous (s.c.) routes alone or combined with the intravenous (i.v.) route. We found that administering antigen intravenously could affect antibody production and formation of antibody secreting cells (ASCs) depending on the immunization route previously used. Combined oral/i.v. immunization but not s.c./i.v. immunization caused a great increase of IgA ASCs in the spleen and enhanced IgA production in the small intestine and serum. Combined i.n./i.v. immunization could also increase IgA ASCs in the spleen and enhance IgA production in serum but had no effect on IgA production in the small intestine. Oral/i.v. immunization caused increase of IgG ASCs in both the spleen and bone marrow. In comparison, combined i.n./i.v. and s.c./i.v. immunization could increase IgG ASCs in the spleen but not in bone marrow. Intravenous administration of KLH in mice that had been immunized via oral, i.n. or s.c. routes caused some increase of IgM ASCs in the spleen but not in bone marrow. In conclusion, combined oral and i.v. administration of an antigen can induce fast and strong immune responses, especially for IgA, in both systemic and mucosal compartments.
Project description:Most studies on E1-deleted adenovirus (Ad) vectors as vaccine carriers for antigens of HIV-1 have focused on induction of central immune responses, although stimulation of mucosal immunity at the genital tract (GT), the primary port of entry of HIV-1, would also be highly desirable. In this study, different immunization protocols using chimpanzee-derived adenoviral (AdC) vectors expressing Gag of HIV-1 clade B given in heterologous prime-boost regimens were tested for induction of systemic and genital immune responses. Although i.n. immunization stimulated CD8(+) T-cell responses that could be detected in the GT, this route induced only marginal cellular responses in systemic tissues and furthermore numbers of Gag-specific CD8(+) T cells contracted sharply within a few weeks. On the contrary, i.m. immunization induced higher and more sustained frequencies of vaccine-induced cells which could be detected in the GT as well as systemic compartments. Antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells could be detected 1 year after immunization in all compartments analyzed. Genital memory cells secreted IFN-?, expressed high levels of CD103 and their phenotypes were consistent with a state of activation. Taken together, the results presented here show that i.m. vaccination with chimpanzee-derived (simian) adenovirus vectors is a suitable strategy to induce a long-lived genital CD8(+) T-cell response.
Project description:Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a mucosally transmitted infection that rapidly targets and depletes CD4+ T cells in mucosal tissues and establishes a major reservoir for viral persistence in gut-associated lymphoid tissues. Therefore, vaccines designed to prevent HIV infections must induce potent and durable mucosal immune responses, especially in the genital tract. Here we investigated whether intranasal (i.n.) immunization with inactivated gp120-depleted HIV-1 antigen (Ag) plus CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) as an adjuvant induced local immune responses in the genital tract and cross-clade protection against intravaginal (IVAG) challenge. Lymphocytes isolated from the iliac lymph nodes (ILNs) and genital tracts of female mice i.n. immunized with HIV-1 Ag plus CpG showed significant HIV-specific proliferation and produced significantly higher levels of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) and beta-chemokines than mice immunized with HIV-1 Ag alone or mixed with non-CpG ODN. CD8+ lymphocytes were dramatically increased in the genital tracts of mice immunized with HIV-1 Ag plus CpG, and protection following IVAG challenge with recombinant vaccinia viruses (rVVs) expressing HIV-1 gag was shown to be CD8 dependent. Finally, cross-clade protection was observed between clades A, C, and G but not B following IVAG challenge with rVVs expressing HIV-1 gag from different clades. These studies provide evidence that mucosal (i.n.) immunization induced strong local T-cell-mediated immune responses in the genital tract and cross-clade protection against IVAG challenge.