Mechanistic Insights and Rational Design of a Versatile Surface with Cells/Bacteria Recognition Capability via Orientated Fusion Peptides.
ABSTRACT: Hospital-acquired infection causes many deaths worldwide and calls for the urgent need for antibacterial biomaterials used in clinic that can selectively kill harmful bacteria. The present study rationally designs fusion peptides capable of undergoing 2D self-assembly on the poly(methyl methacrylate) surface to form a smart surface, which can maintain a desirable orientation via electrostatic interactions. The in vitro assay shows that the smart surface can recognize bacteria to exert antibacterial activity and is nontoxic toward mouse bone mesenchymal stem cells. Excitingly, the smart surface can distinguish different bacterial strains. This selective feature, from being broad-spectrum to being highly selective against S. aureus, can be altered by varying the number of amino acids in the recognition sequences. By all-atom molecular dynamics simulations, it is also found that the recognition sequence in the peptide is critical for the selectivity toward specific bacterial strains, in which a less accessible surface area for the bacteria in the antimicrobial peptide sequence is responsible for such selectivity. Finally, the smart surface can inhibit S. aureus infection in vivo with much more rapid tissue-healing compared to the control.
Project description:There is a desperate need to develop new antibiotic agents to combat the rise of drug-resistant bacteria, such as clinically important Staphylococcus aureus. The essential multifunctional enzyme, biotin protein ligase (BPL), is one potential drug target for new antibiotics. We report the synthesis and characterization of a series of biotin analogues with activity against BPLs from S. aureus, Escherichia coli, and Homo sapiens. Two potent inhibitors with K i < 100 nM were identified with antibacterial activity against a panel of clinical isolates of S. aureus (MIC 2-16 ?g/mL). Compounds with high ligand efficiency and >20-fold selectivity between the isozymes were identified and characterized. The antibacterial mode of action was shown to be via inhibition of BPL. The bimolecular interactions between the BPL and the inhibitors were defined by surface plasmon resonance studies and X-ray crystallography. These findings pave the way for second-generation inhibitors and antibiotics with greater potency and selectivity.
Project description:Photoinduced antibacterial gold nanoparticles were developed as an alternative for the treatment of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Thanks to the amoxicillin coating, they possess high in vivo stability, selectivity for the bacteria wall, a good renal clearance, and are completely nontoxic for eukaryotic cells at the bactericidal concentrations. A simple one-step synthesis of amoxi@AuNP is described at mild temperatures using the antibiotic as both reducing and stabilizing agent. Time-resolved fluorescence microscopy proved these novel nano-photosensitizers, with improved selectivity, are bactericidal but showing excellent biocompatibility toward eukaryotic cells at the same dose (1.5 ?g/mL) when co-cultures are analyzed. Their stability in biological media, hemocompatibility, and photo-antibacterial effect against sensitive and antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated in vitro, whereas toxicity, renal clearance, and biodistribution were studied in vivo in male Wistar rats. The use of these nanoparticles to treat antibiotic-resistant infections is promising given their high stability and cytocompatibility.
Project description:Targeted bactericide nanosystems hold significant promise to improve the efficacy of existing antimicrobials for treatment of severe bacterial infections, minimizing the side effects and lowering the risk of the development of antibiotic resistance. In this work, we developed antibody-functionalized nanocapsules (NCs) containing antibacterial essential oil (EO) for selective and effective eradication of Staphylococcus aureus. Antibacterial EO NCs were produced via self-assembly nanoencapsulation in the plant-derived protein zein. The obtained EO NCs were decorated with aminocellulose to provide more reactive surface groups for carboxyl-to-amine immobilization of a antibody that is specific against S. aureus. The antibody-enabled EO NCs (Ab@EO NCs) demonstrated 2-fold higher bactericidal efficacy against the targeted bacterium compared to the pristine EO NCs at the same concentrations. The improved antibacterial effect of the Ab@EO NCs toward S. aureus was also confirmed in a real-time assay by monitoring bacterial cells elimination using a quartz crystal microbalance. Furthermore, the Ab@EO NCs selectively decreased the load and changed the cell morphology of the targeted S. aureus in a mixed inoculum with nontargeted Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Applying the nanoformulated antibacterial actives to an in vitro coculture model of the bacteria and skin fibroblasts resulted in suppression of S. aureus growth while preserving the human cells viability. The novel antibody-enabled antibacterial NCs showed potential for improving the treatment efficacy of staphylococcal infections, minimally affecting the beneficial microbial and human cells.
Project description:In western countries, one patient on twenty will develop a nosocomial infection during his hospitalization at health care facilities. Classical antibiotics being less and less effective, this phenomenon is expanding year after year. Prevention of bacteria colonization of implantable medical devices constitutes a major medical and financial issue. In this study, we developed an antibacterial coating based on self-assembled Fmoc-tripeptide. Fmoc-FFpY peptides (F: phenylalanine; Y: tyrosine; p: PO4 2-) are dephosphorylated enzymatically into Fmoc-FFY by action of alkaline phosphatase functionalized silica nanoparticles (NPs@AP), previously deposited on a surface. Fmoc-FFY peptides then self-assemble through ?-? stacking interactions, hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions adopting ?-sheets secondary structures. The obtained hydrogel coatings show fibrillary structures observed by cryo-scanning electron microscopy with a thickness of few micrometers. At low concentration (?0.5 mg.mL-1), self-assembled Fmoc-FFY has a superior antibacterial activity than Fmoc-FFpY peptide in solution. After 24 h of incubation, Fmoc-FFY hydrogel coatings fully inhibit the development of Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). The antibacterial effect is maintained on an in vitro model of repetitive infection in the case of S. aureus. This coating could serve in infections were Gram positive bacteria are prevalent, e.g., intravascular catheter infections. This work gives new insights toward the design of an alternative antimicrobial coating.
Project description:This study investigates the antibacterial mechanism of action of electrospun chitosan-based nanofibers (CNFs), against Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria innocua, bacteria frequently involved in food contamination and spoilage. CNFs were prepared by electrospinning of chitosan and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) blends. The in vitro antibacterial activity of CNFs was evaluated and the susceptibility/resistance of the selected bacteria toward CNFs was examined. Strain susceptibility was evaluated in terms of bacterial type, cell surface hydrophobicity, and charge density, as well as pathogenicity. The efficiency of CNFs on the preservation and shelf life extension of fresh red meat was also assessed. Our results demonstrate that the antibacterial action of CNFs depends on the protonation of their amino groups, regardless of bacterial type and their mechanism of action was bactericidal rather than bacteriostatic. Results also indicate that bacterial susceptibility was not Gram-dependent but strain-dependent, with non-virulent bacteria showing higher susceptibility at a reduction rate of 99.9%. The susceptibility order was: E. coli > L. innocua > S. aureus > S. Typhimurium. Finally, an extension of one week of the shelf life of fresh meat was successfully achieved. These results are promising and of great utility for the potential use of CNFs as bioactive food packaging materials in the food industry, and more specifically in meat quality preservation.
Project description:In the present work, the synthesis and characterization of silver triangular nanoplates (AgNTs) and their silica coating composites are reported. Engineering control on the surface coating has demonstrated the possibility to modulate the antibacterial effect. Several AgNT-coated nanomaterials, such as PVP (Polyvinylpyrrolidone) and MHA (16-mercaptohexadecanoic acid) as a stable organic coating system as well as uniform silica coating (≈5 nm) of AgNTs, have been prepared and fully characterized. The antibacterial properties of the systems reported, organic (MHA) and inorganic (amine and carboxylic terminated SiO2) coating nanocomposites, have been tested on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria strains. We observed that the AgNTs' organic coating improved antimicrobial properties when compared to other spherical silver colloids found in the literature. We have also found that thick inorganic silica coating decreases the antimicrobial effect, but does not cancel it. In addition, the effect of surface charge in AgNTs@Si seems to play a crucial role toward S. aureus ATCC 25923 bacteria, obtaining MIC/MBC values compared to the AgNTs with an organic coating.
Project description:Antibiotic resistance is one of the main public health concerns of this century. This resistance is also associated with oxidative stress, which could contribute to the selection of resistant bacterial strains. Bearing this in mind, and considering that flavonoid compounds are well known for displaying both activities, we investigated a series of hydroxy-3-arylcoumarins with structural features of flavonoids for their antibacterial activity against different bacterial strains. Active compounds showed selectivity against the studied Gram-positive bacteria compared to Gram-negative bacteria. 5,7-Dihydroxy-3-phenylcoumarin (compound 8) displayed the best antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 11 g/mL, followed by Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA strain) and Listeria monocytogenes with MICs of 22 and 44 g/mL, respectively. Moreover, molecular docking studies performed on the most active compounds against Staphylococcus aureus tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase and topoisomerase II DNA gyrase revealed the potential binding mode of the ligands to the site of the appropriate targets. Preliminary structure-activity relationship studies showed that the antibacterial activity can be modulated by the presence of the 3-phenyl ring and by the position of the hydroxyl groups at the coumarin scaffold.
Project description:In order to improve the antibacterial performance of natural palygorskite, spindle-like ZnO/palygorskite (ZnO/PAL) nanocomposites with controllable growth of ZnO on the surface of PAL were prepared in the presence of non-ionic surfactants using an easy-to-operate hydrothermal method. The obtained ZnO/PAL nanocomposites have a novel and special spindle-shaped structure and good antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), and are also low cost. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of ZnO/PAL nanocomposites toward E. coli and S. aureus reached 1.5 and 5 mg/mL, respectively.
Project description:This study investigated the potential antibacterial activity of three series of compounds synthesized from 12 linear and branched polyamines with 2-8 amino groups, which were substituted to produce the corresponding guanides, biguanides, or phenylguanides, against Acinetobacter baumannii, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Antibacterial activity was measured for each compound by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration against the bacteria, and the toxicity towards mammalian cells was determined. The most effective compound, THAM trisphenylguanide, was studied in time-to-kill and cytoplasmic leakage assays against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, USA300) in comparison to chlorhexidine. Preliminary toxicity and MRSA challenge studies in mice were also conducted on this compound. THAM trisphenylguanide showed significant antibacterial activity (MIC ?1 mg/L) and selectivity against MRSA relative to all the other bacteria examined. In time-to-kill assays it showed increased antimicrobial activity against MRSA versus chlorhexidine. It induced leakage of cytoplasmic content at concentrations that did not reduce cell viability, suggesting the mechanism of action may involve membrane disruption. Using an intraperitoneal mouse model of invasive MRSA disease, THAM trisphenylguanide reduced bacterial burden locally and in deeper tissues. This study has identified a novel guanide compound with selective microbicidal activity against Staphylococcus aureus, including a methicillin-resistant (MRSA) strain.
Project description:Introduction:It is well known that the grafted multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) have antibacterial activity and lower cytotoxicity. Moreover, pyrazole derivatives have a broad spectrum of biological activity due to their fertile template for many medicinal drugs. On view of these findings we report herein the hybridization between MWCNTs and some pyrazole derivatives as antibacterial agents. Materials and methods:Pyrazole and pyrazolone derivatives were grafted onto the surface of carboxylated MWCNTs via the reaction of carboxylated MWCNTs and the diazonium salts of pyrazoles and pyrazolones using mixed acid treatment. The insertion of the pyrazole and pyrazolone moieties was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, energy dispersion spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric (TGA). Results:The results indicate that pyrazole and pyrazolone moieties successfully attached on carboxylated MWCNTs surface. The neat pyrazole and pyrazolone derivatives and their corresponding carbon nanotubes were tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilus, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans bacteria, and Aspergillusniger fungi. The results showed that the grafted carbon nanotubes of pyrazole and pyrazolone derivatives have better antimicrobial activity than the neat pyrazole and pyrazolone derivatives. The molecular docking studies were performed on the most potent antimicrobial compounds to investigate the existence of the interactions between the most active inhibitors and Farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPPS). Conclusion:The surface of the carboxylated MWCNTs was successfully grafted with some pyrazole derivatives. The antibacterial activity was investigated for the newly synthesized compounds and indicated that the grafted MWCNTs have good antibacterial activity toward some pathogenic types of bacteria.