METTL13 Methylation of eEF1A Increases Translational Output to Promote Tumorigenesis.
ABSTRACT: Increased protein synthesis plays an etiologic role in diverse cancers. Here, we demonstrate that METTL13 (methyltransferase-like 13) dimethylation of eEF1A (eukaryotic elongation factor 1A) lysine 55 (eEF1AK55me2) is utilized by Ras-driven cancers to increase translational output and promote tumorigenesis in vivo. METTL13-catalyzed eEF1A methylation increases eEF1A's intrinsic GTPase activity in vitro and protein production in cells. METTL13 and eEF1AK55me2 levels are upregulated in cancer and negatively correlate with pancreatic and lung cancer patient survival. METTL13 deletion and eEF1AK55me2 loss dramatically reduce Ras-driven neoplastic growth in mouse models and in patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) from primary pancreatic and lung tumors. Finally, METTL13 depletion renders PDX tumors hypersensitive to drugs that target growth-signaling pathways. Together, our work uncovers a mechanism by which lethal cancers become dependent on the METTL13-eEF1AK55me2 axis to meet their elevated protein synthesis requirement and suggests that METTL13 inhibition may constitute a targetable vulnerability of tumors driven by aberrant Ras signaling.
Project description:Eukaryotic elongation factor 1 alpha (eEF1A) delivers aminoacyl-tRNA to the ribosome and thereby plays a key role in protein synthesis. Human eEF1A is subject to extensive post-translational methylation, but several of the responsible enzymes remain unknown. Using a wide range of experimental approaches, we here show that human methyltransferase (MTase)-like protein 13 (METTL13) contains two distinct MTase domains targeting the N terminus and Lys55 of eEF1A, respectively. Our biochemical and structural analyses provide detailed mechanistic insights into recognition of the eEF1A N terminus by METTL13. Moreover, through ribosome profiling, we demonstrate that loss of METTL13 function alters translation dynamics and results in changed translation rates of specific codons. In summary, we here unravel the function of a human MTase, showing that it methylates eEF1A and modulates mRNA translation in a codon-specific manner.
Project description:Eukaryotic elongation factor 1 alpha (eEF1A) delivers aminoacyl-tRNA to the ribosome and thereby plays a key role in protein synthesis. Human eEF1A is post-translationally methylated on several lysine residues as well as on the N-terminus and until recently the responsible methyltransferases were largely elusive. Using mass spectrometry based screens, gene targeted cells and in vitro enzymology we identify the human methyltransferase like proteins 13 (METTL13), which contains two distinct methyltransferase domains, as an enzyme catalyzing both dimethylation of Lys55 and trimethylation of the N-terminus of eEF1A. Moreover, through ribosome profiling we demonstrate that loss of METTL13 function alters translation dynamics and results in changed translation rate of specific codons. In line with the established descriptive nomenclature for this type of enzymes we suggest that METTL13 is redubbed eEF1A dual methyltransferase (eEF1A-DMT / EEF1ADMT). Overall design: ribosome profiling and poly(A) RNA sequencing of wildtype and MELL13-KO cells. Libraries were prepared as triplicates, except for wt ribosome profiling libraries that are duplicates only.
Project description:The incidence of bladder cancer has increased in the last few decades, thus novel markers for early diagnosis and more efficacious treatment are urgently needed. It found that METTTL13 protein is aberrant expression in variety of human cancers and METTL13 was involved in oncogenic pathways. However, the role of METTL13 has been unexplored in bladder cancer to date. Here, expression of METTL13 was lower in bladder cancer tissue samples and cancer cell lines than in normal bladder tissue and cell lines. METTL13 was downregulated in the late stages of the disease and was maintained at low level throughout the tumor progression process based on tumor node metastasis (TNM) staging. Further research suggested that METTL13 negatively regulates cell proliferation in bladder cancer and reinstates G1/S checkpoint via the coordinated downregulation of CDK6, CDK4 and CCND1, decreased phosphorylation of Rb and subsequent delayed cell cycle progression. Moreover, METTL13-dependent inhibition of bladder cancer cell migration and invasion is mediated by downregulation of FAK (Focal adhesion kinase) phosphorylation, AKT (v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene) phosphorylation, ?-catenin expression and MMP-9 expression. These integrated efforts have identified METTL13 as a tumor suppressor and might provide promising approaches for bladder cancer treatment and prevention.
Project description:A modifier variant can abrogate the risk of a monogenic disorder. DFNM1 is a locus on chromosome 1 encoding a dominant suppressor of human DFNB26 recessive, profound deafness. Here, we report that DFNB26 is associated with a substitution (p.Gly116Glu) in the pleckstrin homology domain of GRB2-associated binding protein 1 (GAB1), an essential scaffold in the MET proto-oncogene, receptor tyrosine kinase/HGF (MET/HGF) pathway. A dominant substitution (p.Arg544Gln) of METTL13, encoding a predicted methyltransferase, is the DFNM1 suppressor of GAB1-associated deafness. In zebrafish, human METTL13 mRNA harboring the modifier allele rescued the GAB1-associated morphant phenotype. In mice, GAB1 and METTL13 colocalized in auditory sensory neurons, and METTL13 coimmunoprecipitated with GAB1 and SPRY2, indicating at least a tripartite complex. Expression of MET-signaling genes in human lymphoblastoid cells of individuals homozygous for p.Gly116Glu GAB1 revealed dysregulation of HGF, MET, SHP2, and SPRY2, all of which have reported variants associated with deafness. However, SPRY2 was not dysregulated in normal-hearing humans homozygous for both the GAB1 DFNB26 deafness variant and the dominant METTL13 deafness suppressor, indicating a plausible mechanism of suppression. Identification of METTL13-based modification of MET signaling offers a potential therapeutic strategy for a wide range of associated hearing disorders. Furthermore, MET signaling is essential for diverse functions in many tissues including the inner ear. Therefore, identification of the modifier of MET signaling is likely to have broad clinical implications.
Project description:Eukaryotic translation elongation factors 1 alpha, eEF1A1 and eEF1A2, are not only translation factors but also pleiotropic proteins that are highly expressed in human tumors, including breast cancer, ovarian cancer, and lung cancer. eEF1A1 modulates cytoskeleton, exhibits chaperone-like activity and also controls cell proliferation and cell death. In contrast, eEF1A2 protein favors oncogenesis as shown by the fact that overexpression of eEF1A2 leads to cellular transformation and gives rise to tumors in nude mice. The eEF1A2 protein stimulates the phospholipid signaling and activates the Akt-dependent cell migration and actin remodeling that ultimately favors tumorigenesis. In contrast, inactivation of eEF1A proteins leads to immunodeficiency, neural and muscular defects, and favors apoptosis. Finally, eEF1A proteins interact with several viral proteins resulting in enhanced viral replication, decreased apoptosis, and increased cellular transformation. This review summarizes the recent findings on eEF1A proteins indicating that eEF1A proteins play a critical role in numerous human diseases through enhancement of oncogenesis, blockade of apoptosis, and increased viral pathogenesis.
Project description:Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are heterogeneous and aggressive, with high mortality rates. TNBCs frequently respond to chemotherapy, yet many patients develop chemoresistance. The molecular basis and roles for tumor cell-stromal crosstalk in establishing chemoresistance are complex and largely unclear. Here we report molecular studies of paired TNBC patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) established before and after the development of chemoresistance. Interestingly, the chemoresistant model acquired a distinct KRASQ61R mutation that activates K-Ras. The chemoresistant KRAS-mutant model showed gene expression and proteomic changes indicative of altered tumor cell metabolism. Specifically, KRAS-mutant PDXs exhibited increased redox ratios and decreased activation of AMPK, a protein involved in responding to metabolic homeostasis. Additionally, the chemoresistant model exhibited increased immunosuppression, including expression of CXCL1 and CXCL2, cytokines responsible for recruiting immunosuppressive leukocytes to tumors. Notably, chemoresistant KRAS-mutant tumors harbored increased numbers of granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (gMDSCs). Interestingly, previously established Ras/MAPK-associated gene expression signatures correlated with myeloid/neutrophil-recruiting CXCL1/2 expression and negatively with T cell-recruiting chemokines (CXCL9/10/11) across patients with TNBC, even in the absence of KRAS mutations. MEK inhibition induced tumor suppression in mice while reversing metabolic and immunosuppressive phenotypes, including chemokine production and gMDSC tumor recruitment in the chemoresistant KRAS-mutant tumors. These results suggest that Ras/MAPK pathway inhibitors may be effective in some breast cancer patients to reverse Ras/MAPK-driven tumor metabolism and immunosuppression, particularly in the setting of chemoresistance.
Project description:Eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1A (eEF1A) is one of the most abundant protein synthesis factors. eEF1A is responsible for the delivery of all aminoacyl-tRNAs to the ribosome, aside from initiator and selenocysteine tRNAs. In addition to its roles in polypeptide chain elongation, unique cellular and viral activities have been attributed to eEF1A in eukaryotes from yeast to plants and mammals. From preliminary, speculative associations to well characterized biochemical and biological interactions, it is clear that eEF1A, of all the translation factors, has been ascribed the most functions outside of protein synthesis. A mechanistic understanding of these non-canonical functions of eEF1A will shed light on many important biological questions, including viral-host interaction, subcellular organization, and the integration of key cellular pathways.
Project description:During early postnatal development, a switch occurs between eEF1A-1/EF-1alpha and eEF1A-2/S1, homologous peptide elongation factors, in brain, heart, and skeletal muscle; eEF1A-2/S1 becomes the major form expressed in maturity. By immunofluorescent labeling, we detected both homologues in the developing brains of wild-type and wasted mutant mice, carrying a deletion in the eEF1A-2/S1 gene; we found that brain expression of eEF1A-2/S1 protein is restricted to mature, terminally differentiated neurons, and coincides with the disappearance of eEF1A-1/EF-1alpha 20 days after birth. Furthermore, no elongation factor 1A is present in wasted mutant mice neurons following the developmental switch, indicating that the genetic regulation silencing eEF1A-1/EF-1alpha is still functional.
Project description:PUF (Pumilio/FBF) RNA-binding proteins and Argonaute (Ago) miRNA-binding proteins regulate mRNAs post-transcriptionally, each acting through similar, yet distinct, mechanisms. Here, we report that PUF and Ago proteins can also function together in a complex with a core translation elongation factor, eEF1A, to repress translation elongation. Both nematode (Caenorhabditis elegans) and mammalian PUF-Ago-eEF1A complexes were identified, using coimmunoprecipitation and recombinant protein assays. Nematode CSR-1 (Ago) promoted repression of FBF (PUF) target mRNAs in in vivo assays, and the FBF-1-CSR-1 heterodimer inhibited EFT-3 (eEF1A) GTPase activity in vitro. Mammalian PUM2-Ago-eEF1A inhibited translation of nonadenylated and polyadenylated reporter mRNAs in vitro. This repression occurred after translation initiation and led to ribosome accumulation within the open reading frame, roughly at the site where the nascent polypeptide emerged from the ribosomal exit tunnel. Together, these data suggest that a conserved PUF-Ago-eEF1A complex attenuates translation elongation.