Lnc-TALC promotes O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase expression via regulating the c-Met pathway by competitively binding with miR-20b-3p.
ABSTRACT: Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as new regulatory molecules implicated in diverse biological processes, including therapeutic resistance. However, the mechanisms underlying lncRNA-mediated temozolomide (TMZ) resistance in glioblastoma (GBM) remain largely unknown. To illustrate the role of lncRNA in TMZ resistance, we induce TMZ-resistant GBM cells, perform a lncRNA microarray of the parental and TMZ-resistant cells, and find an unreported lncRNA in GBM, lnc-TALC (temozolomide-associated lncRNA in glioblastoma recurrence), correlated with TMZ resistance via competitively binding miR-20b-3p to facilitate c-Met expression. A phosphorylated AKT/FOXO3 axis regulated lnc-TALC expression in TMZ-resistant GBM cells. Furthermore, lnc-TALC increased MGMT expression by mediating the acetylation of H3K9, H3K27 and H3K36 in MGMT promoter regions through the c-Met/Stat3/p300 axis. In clinical patients, lnc-TALC is required for TMZ resistance and GBM recurrence. Our results reveal that lnc-TALC in GBM could serve as a therapeutic target to overcome TMZ resistance, enhancing the clinical benefits of TMZ chemotherapy.
Project description:Although there is a relationship between DNA repair deficiency and temozolomide (TMZ) resistance in glioblastoma (GBM), it remains unclear which molecule is associated with GBM recurrence. We isolated three TMZ-resistant human GBM cell lines and examined the expression of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) and mismatch repair (MMR) components. We used immunohistochemical analysis to compare MutL homolog 1 (MLH1), postmeiotic segregation increased 2 (PMS2) and MGMT expression in primary and recurrent GBM specimens obtained from GBM patients during TMZ treatment. We found a reduction in MLH1 expression and a subsequent reduction in PMS2 protein levels in TMZ-resistant cells. Furthermore, MLH1 or PMS2 knockdown confered TMZ resistance. In recurrent GBM tumours, the expression of MLH1 and PMS2 was reduced when compared to primary tumours.
Project description:Overcoming temozolomide (TMZ) resistance in glioma cancer cells remains a major challenge to the effective treatment of the disease. Increasing TMZ efficacy for patients with glioblastoma (GBM) is urgently needed because TMZ treatment is the standard chemotherapy protocol for adult patients with glioblastoma. O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) overexpression is associated with TMZ resistance, and low MGMT is a positive response marker for TMZ therapy. Here, we used 3 glioma cell lines (SF767, U373, and LN229), which had different levels of TMZ sensitivity. We found TMZ sensitivity is positively correlated with MGMT expression and multidrug-resistance protein ABC subfamily G member 2 (ABCG2) in these cells. CK2-STAT3 signaling and Hippo-YAP signaling are reported to regulate MGMT expression and ABCG2 expression, respectively. We combined CK2 inhibitor CX-4945 and YAP inhibitor verteporfin with TMZ treatment. We found that CX-4945 but not verteporfin can sensitize TMZ-resistant cells SF767 to TMZ and that CX-4945 and TMZ combinational treatment was effective for glioma treatment in mouse models compared with TMZ alone. IMPLICATIONS: A combination of CK2 inhibitor with TMZ may improve the therapeutic efficiency of TMZ toward GBM with acquired resistance.
Project description:Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most prevalent and aggressive tumor in the central nervous system. Surgical resection followed by concurrent radiotherapy (ionizing radiation [IR]) and temozolomide (TMZ) is the standard of care for GBM. However, a large subset of patients offer resistance or become adapted to TMZ due mainly to the DNA repair enzyme O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT). Thus, alternative mechanisms of MGMT deregulation have been proposed but are heretofore unproven. We show that heterogeneous GBM cells express tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) upon oxidative stress and TMZ/IR treatment. We identified that MGMT protein diffused from resistant to sensitive cells upon exposure to TMZ/IR, resulting in protection against cytotoxic therapy in a TNT-dependent manner. In vivo analysis of resected GBM tumors support our hypothesis that the MGMT protein, but not its mRNA, was associated with TNT biomarkers. We propose that targeting TNT formation could be an innovative strategy to overcome treatment resistance in GBM.
Project description:Temozolomide (TMZ) is an alkylating agent chemotherapy drug used as a first-line treatment for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). O6-methyl-guanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) repairs DNA damage induced by TMZ; hence, elevated MGMT levels usually correlate with TMZ resistance. MGMT promoter methylation is a key regulatory mechanism for MGMT expression and is important in overcoming TMZ therapy resistance. To date, little is known about how MGMT expression is regulated beyond promoter methylation. In this work, we show an alternative mechanism by which MGMT levels are regulated independent of its promoter methylation status. We found that inhibition of the histone deacetylase HDAC8 by either HDAC8-specific inhibitor PCI34051 or HDAC8 shRNA decreases MGMT levels in GBM cell lines. Furthermore, the proteasome receptor ADRM1 participates in this MGMT regulation by interacting with HDAC8. Interestingly, this interaction is disrupted by TMZ exclusively in TMZ sensitive cells, suggesting that this MGMT regulatory pathway might be inactivated in TMZ resistant cells. Consequently, HDAC8 inhibition in GBM cell lines increases DNA damage and cell cycle arrest and, eventually, decreases cell viability, likely due to the decrease in MGMT protein levels.
Project description:Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the most malignant human intracranial tumors. Temozolomide (TMZ) is the primary alkylating agent for GBM patients. However, many GBM patients are resistant to TMZ. Therefore, patients with GBM urgently need more effective therapeutic options. 20(S)-ginsenoside-Rg3 (20(S)-Rg3) is a natural chemical with anti-tumor effects, but at present there is little understanding of its functional mechanism. Several research reports have demonstrated that O<sup>6</sup> -methylguanine DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) repairs damaged DNA and contributes to TMZ resistance in gliomas. In addition, recent studies have shown that MGMT gene expression could be regulated by the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. However, whether 20(S)-Rg3 inhibits MGMT expression and augments chemosensitivity to Temozolomide (TMZ) in glioma cells remains unclear. In this study, we explored the modulating effects of 20(S)-Rg3 on MGMT. We used glioma cell lines, primary cell strain (including T98G, U118 and GBM-XX; all of them are MGMT-positive glioma cell lines) and xenograft glioma models to examine whether 20(S)-Rg3 increased the sensitivity to TMZ and to reveal the underlying mechanisms. We found that the MGMT expression was effectively downregulated by 20(S)-Rg3 via the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in glioma cell lines, and TMZ resistance was significantly reversed by 20(S)-Rg3. Meanwhile, 20(S)-Rg3 shows no obvious cytotoxicity at its effective dose and is well tolerated in vivo. In addition, we found that 20(S)-Rg3 significantly restrains the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) progression of glioma cells. Taken together, these results indicate that 20(S)-Rg3 may be a novel agent to use in treatment of GBM, especially in TMZ-resistant GBM with high MGMT expression.
Project description:Tumor recurrence in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is often attributed to acquired resistance to the standard chemotherapeutic agent, temozolomide (TMZ). Promoter methylation of the DNA repair gene MGMT (O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase) has been associated with sensitivity to TMZ, whereas increased expression of MGMT has been associated with TMZ resistance. Clinical studies have observed a downward shift in MGMT methylation percentage from primary to recurrent stage tumors; however, the evolutionary processes that drive this shift and more generally the emergence and growth of TMZ-resistant tumor subpopulations are still poorly understood. Here, we develop a mathematical model, parameterized using clinical and experimental data, to investigate the role of MGMT methylation in TMZ resistance during the standard treatment regimen for GBM-surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation. We first found that the observed downward shift in MGMT promoter methylation status between detection and recurrence cannot be explained solely by evolutionary selection. Next, our model suggests that TMZ has an inhibitory effect on maintenance methylation of MGMT after cell division. Finally, incorporating this inhibitory effect, we study the optimal number of TMZ doses per adjuvant cycle for patients with GBM with high and low levels of MGMT methylation at diagnosis.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a malignant high-grade glioma with a poor clinical outcome. Temozolomide (TMZ) is the first-line GBM chemotherapy; however, patients commonly develop resistance to its effects.<h4>Materials and methods</h4>We investigated the antitumor activity of CAT<sub>3</sub> in TMZ-resistant glioblastoma cell lines U251/TMZ and T98G. Orthotopic and subcutaneous mice tumor models were used to investigate the effects of various treatment regimes.<h4>Results</h4>We found that PF403, the active metabolite of CAT<sub>3</sub>, inhibited proliferation of both cell lines. PF403 repressed the Hedgehog signaling pathway in the U251/TMZ cell line, reduced O<sup>6</sup>-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) expression, and abolished the effects of the Shh pathway. Moreover, PF403 blocked the Hedgehog signaling pathway in T98G MGMT-expressing cells and downregulated the expression of MGMT. CAT<sub>3</sub> suppressed growth in the U251/TMZ orthotopic and T98G subcutaneous xenograft tumor models in vivo. We also demonstrated that inhibition of the Hedgehog pathway by PF403 counteracted TMZ resistance and enhanced the antitumor activity of TMZ in vitro and in vivo.<h4>Conclusion</h4>These results indicate that CAT<sub>3</sub> is a potential therapeutic agent for TMZ-resistant GBM.
Project description:Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the most aggressive cancers. Despite recent advances in multimodal therapies, high-grade glioma remains fatal. Temozolomide (TMZ) is an alkylating agent used worldwide for the clinical treatment of GBM; however, the innate and acquired resistance of GBM limits its application. Here, we found that TMZ inhibited the proliferation and induced the G2/M arrest of GBM cells. Therefore, we performed microarrays to identify the cell cycle- and apoptosis-related genes affected by TMZ. Notably, GADD45A was found to be up-regulated by TMZ in both cell cycle and apoptosis arrays. Furthermore, GADD45A knockdown (GADD45A<sup>kd</sup>) enhanced the cell growth arrest and cell death induced by TMZ, even in natural (T98) and adapted (TR-U373) TMZ-resistant cells. Interestingly, GADD45A<sup>kd</sup> decreased the expression of O<sup>6</sup>-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) in TMZ-resistant cells (T98 and TR-U373). In MGMT-deficient/TMZ-sensitive cells (U87 and U373), GADD45A<sup>kd</sup> decreased TMZ-induced TP53 expression. Thus, in this study, we investigated the genes influenced by TMZ that were important in GBM therapy, and revealed that GADD45A plays a protective role against TMZ treatment which may through TP53-dependent and MGMT-dependent pathway in TMZ-sensitive and TMZ-resistant GBM, respectively. This protective role of GADD45A against TMZ treatment may provide a new therapeutic strategy for GBM treatment.
Project description:Temozolomide (TMZ) was used for the treatment of glioblastoma (GBM) for over a decade, but its treatment benefits are limited by acquired resistance, a process that remains incompletely understood. Here we report that an enhancer, located between the promoters of marker of proliferation Ki67 (MKI67) and O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) genes, is activated in TMZ-resistant patient-derived xenograft (PDX) lines and recurrent tumor samples. Activation of the enhancer correlates with increased MGMT expression, a major known mechanism for TMZ resistance. We show that forced activation of the enhancer in cell lines with low MGMT expression results in elevated MGMT expression. Deletion of this enhancer in cell lines with high MGMT expression leads to a dramatic reduction of MGMT and a lesser extent of Ki67 expression, increased TMZ sensitivity, and impaired proliferation. Together, these studies uncover a mechanism that regulates MGMT expression, confers TMZ resistance, and potentially regulates tumor proliferation.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Resistance to temozolomide (TMZ) is due in part to enhanced DNA repair mediated by high expression of O<sup>6</sup>-methyl guanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) that is often characterised by unmethylated promoter. Here, we investigated pre-treatment of glioblastoma (GBM) cells with the 26S-proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (BTZ) as a strategy to interfere with MGMT expression and thus sensitise them to TMZ.<h4>Methods</h4>Cell lines and patient GBM-derived cells were examined in vitro, and the latter also implanted orthotopically into NOD-SCID C.B.-Igh-1b/lcrTac-Prkdc mice to assess efficacy and tolerability of BTZ and TMZ combination therapy. MGMT promoter methylation was determined using pyrosequencing and PCR, protein signalling utilised western blotting while drug biodistribution was examined by LC-MS/MS. Statistical analysis utilised Analysis of variance and the Kaplan-Meier method.<h4>Results</h4>Pre-treatment with BTZ prior to temozolomide killed chemoresistant GBM cells with unmethylated MGMT promoter through MGMT mRNA and protein depletion in vitro without affecting methylation. Chymotryptic activity was abolished, processing of NFkB/p65 to activated forms was reduced and corresponded with low MGMT levels. BTZ crossed the blood-brain barrier, diminished proteasome activity and significantly prolonged animal survival.<h4>Conclusion</h4>BTZ chemosensitized resistant GBM cells, and the schedule may be amenable for temozolomide refractory patients with unmethylated MGMT promoter.