Molecular determinants regulating selective binding of autophagy adapters and receptors to ATG8 proteins.
ABSTRACT: Autophagy is an essential recycling and quality control pathway. Mammalian ATG8 proteins drive autophagosome formation and selective removal of protein aggregates and organelles by recruiting autophagy receptors and adaptors that contain a LC3-interacting region (LIR) motif. LIR motifs can be highly selective for ATG8 subfamily proteins (LC3s/GABARAPs), however the molecular determinants regulating these selective interactions remain elusive. Here we show that residues within the core LIR motif and adjacent C-terminal region as well as ATG8 subfamily-specific residues in the LIR docking site are critical for binding of receptors and adaptors to GABARAPs. Moreover, rendering GABARAP more LC3B-like impairs autophagy receptor degradation. Modulating LIR binding specificity of the centriolar satellite protein PCM1, implicated in autophagy and centrosomal function, alters its dynamics in cells. Our data provides new mechanistic insight into how selective binding of LIR motifs to GABARAPs is achieved, and elucidate the overlapping and distinct functions of ATG8 subfamily proteins.
Project description:Through the canonical LC3 interaction motif (LIR), [W/F/Y]-X1-X2-[I/L/V], protein complexes are recruited to autophagosomes to perform their functions as either autophagy adaptors or receptors. How these adaptors/receptors selectively interact with either LC3 or GABARAP families remains unclear. Herein, we determine the range of selectivity of 30 known core LIR motifs towards individual LC3s and GABARAPs. From these, we define a G ABARAP I nteraction M otif (GIM) sequence ([W/F]-[V/I]-X2-V) that the adaptor protein PLEKHM1 tightly conforms to. Using biophysical and structural approaches, we show that the PLEKHM1-LIR is indeed 11-fold more specific for GABARAP than LC3B. Selective mutation of the X1 and X2 positions either completely abolished the interaction with all LC3 and GABARAPs or increased PLEKHM1-GIM selectivity 20-fold towards LC3B. Finally, we show that conversion of p62/SQSTM1, FUNDC1 and FIP200 LIRs into our newly defined GIM, by introducing two valine residues, enhances their interaction with endogenous GABARAP over LC3B. The identification of a GABARAP-specific interaction motif will aid the identification and characterization of the expanding array of autophagy receptor and adaptor proteins and their in vivo functions.
Project description:Members of the Atg8 family of proteins are conjugated to autophagosomal membranes, where they have been proposed to drive autophagosome formation and selective sequestration of cargo. In mammals, the Atg8 family consists of six members divided into the LC3 and GABARAP subfamilies. To define Atg8 function, we used genome editing to generate knockouts of the LC3 and GABARAP subfamilies as well as all six Atg8 family members in HeLa cells. We show that Atg8s are dispensable for autophagosome formation and selective engulfment of mitochondria, but essential for autophagosome-lysosome fusion. We find that the GABARAP subfamily promotes PLEKHM1 recruitment and governs autophagosome-lysosome fusion, whereas the LC3 subfamily plays a less prominent role in these processes. Although neither GABARAPs nor LC3s are required for autophagosome biogenesis, loss of all Atg8s yields smaller autophagosomes and a slowed initial rate of autophagosome formation. Our results clarify the essential function of the Atg8 family and identify GABARAP subfamily members as primary contributors to PINK1/Parkin mitophagy and starvation autophagy.
Project description:ULK1 (unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 1) is the key mediator of MTORC1 signaling to macroautophagy/autophagy. ULK1 functions as a protein complex by interacting with ATG13, RB1CC1/FIP200, and ATG101. How the ULK1 complex is regulated to trigger autophagy induction remains unclear. In this study, we have determined roles of Atg8-family proteins (ATG8s) in regulating ULK1 activity and autophagy. Using human cells depleted of each subfamily of ATG8, we found that the GABARAP subfamily positively regulates ULK1 activity and phagophore and autophagosome formation in response to starvation. In contrast, the LC3 subfamily negatively regulates ULK1 activity and phagophore formation. By reconstituting ATG8-depleted cells with individual ATG8 members, we identified GABARAP and GABARAPL1 as positive and LC3B and LC3C as negative regulators of ULK1 activity. To address the role of ATG8 binding to ULK1, we mutated the LIR of endogenous ULK1 to disrupt the ATG8-ULK1 interaction by genome editing. The mutation drastically reduced the activity of ULK1, autophagic degradation of SQSTM1, and phagophore formation in response to starvation. The mutation also suppressed the formation and turnover of autophagosomes in response to starvation. Similar to the mutation of the ULK1 LIR, disruption of the ATG13-ATG8 interaction suppressed ULK1 activity and autophagosome formation. In contrast, RB1CC1 did not show any specific binding to ATG8s, and mutation of its LIR did not affect ULK1 activity. Together, this study demonstrates differential binding and opposite regulation of the ULK1 complex by GABARAPs and LC3s, and an important role of the ULK1- and ATG13-ATG8 interactions in autophagy induction.Abbreviations: ATG5: autophagy related 5; ATG7: autophagy related 7; ATG8: autophagy related 8; ATG13: autophagy related 13; ATG14: autophagy related 14; ATG16L1: autophagy related 16 like 1; ATG101: autophagy related 101; BAFA1: bafilomycin A1; BECN1: beclin 1; Cas9: CRISPR associated protein 9; CRISPR: clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats; EBSS: earle's balanced salt solution; DAPI: 4'-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole; GABARAP: GABA type A receptor-associated protein; GABARAPL1: GABA type A receptor-associated protein like 1; GABARAPL2: GABA type A receptor-associated protein like 2; GAPDH: glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; GFP: green fluorescence protein; gRNA: guide RNA; KI: kinase inactive mutant; KO: knockout; LC3A: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 alpha; LC3B: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta; LC3C: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 gamma; LIR: LC3-interacting region; MTORC1: mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase complex 1; PBS: phosphate buffered saline; PCR: polymerase chain reaction; PE: phosphatidylethanolamine; PtdIns3P: phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate; qPCR: quantitative PCR; RB1CC1/FIP200: RB1 inducible coiled-coil 1; RPS6KB1: ribosomal protein S6 kinase B1; SEM: standard error of the mean; SQSTM1/p62: sequestosome 1; TALEN: transcription activator-like effector nuclease; TUBA: tubulin alpha; ULK1: unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 1; WB: western blotting; WIPI2: WD repeat domain phosphoinositide interacting 2; WT: wild type.
Project description:Current models of selective autophagy dictate that autophagy receptors, including Optineurin and NDP52, link cargo to autophagosomal membranes. This is thought to occur via autophagy receptor binding to Atg8 homologs (LC3/GABARAPs) through an LC3 interacting region (LIR). The LIR motif within autophagy receptors is therefore widely recognised as being essential for selective sequestration of cargo. Here we show that the LIR motif within OPTN and NDP52 is dispensable for Atg8 recruitment and selectivity during PINK1/Parkin mitophagy. Instead, Atg8s play a critical role in mediating ubiquitin-independent recruitment of OPTN and NDP52 to growing phagophore membranes via the LIR motif. The additional recruitment of OPTN and NDP52 amplifies mitophagy through an Atg8-dependent positive feedback loop. Rather than functioning in selectivity, our discovery of a role for the LIR motif in mitophagy amplification points toward a general mechanism by which Atg8s can recruit autophagy factors to drive autophagosome growth and amplify selective autophagy.
Project description:Several autophagy proteins contain an LC3-interacting region (LIR) responsible for their interaction with Atg8 homolog proteins. Here, we show that ALFY binds selectively to LC3C and the GABARAPs through a LIR in its WD40 domain. Binding of ALFY to GABARAP is indispensable for its recruitment to LC3B-positive structures and, thus, for the clearance of certain p62 structures by autophagy. In addition, the crystal structure of the GABARAP-ALFY-LIR peptide complex identifies three conserved residues in the GABARAPs that are responsible for binding to ALFY. Interestingly, introduction of these residues in LC3B is sufficient to enable its interaction with ALFY, indicating that residues outside the LIR-binding hydrophobic pockets confer specificity to the interactions with Atg8 homolog proteins.
Project description:During autophagy, vesicle dynamics and cargo recruitment are driven by numerous adaptors and receptors that become tethered to the phagophore through interactions with lipidated ATG8/LC3 decorating the expanding membrane. Most currently described ATG8-binding proteins exploit a well-defined ATG8-interacting motif (AIM, or LC3-interacting region [LIR]) that contacts a hydrophobic patch on ATG8 known as the LIR/AIM docking site (LDS). Here we describe a new class of ATG8 interactors that exploit ubiquitin-interacting motif (UIM)-like sequences for high-affinity binding to an alternative ATG8 interaction site. Assays with candidate UIM-containing proteins together with unbiased screens identified a large collection of UIM-based ATG8 interactors in plants, yeast, and humans. Analysis of a subset also harboring ubiquitin regulatory X (UBX) domains revealed a role for UIM-directed autophagy in clearing non-functional CDC48/p97 complexes, including some impaired in human disease. With this new class of adaptors and receptors, we greatly extend the reach of selective autophagy and identify new factors regulating autophagic vesicle dynamics.
Project description:The cysteine protease ATG4B cleaves off one or more C-terminal residues of the inactive proform of proteins of the ortholog and paralog LC3 and GABARAP subfamilies of yeast Atg8 to expose a C-terminal glycine that is conjugated to phosphatidylethanolamine during autophagosome formation. We show that ATG4B contains a C-terminal LC3-interacting region (LIR) motif important for efficient binding to and cleavage of LC3 and GABARAP proteins. We solved the crystal structures of the GABARAPL1-ATG4B C-terminal LIR complex. Analyses of the structures and in vitro binding assays, using specific point mutants, clearly showed that the ATG4B LIR binds via electrostatic-, aromatic HP1 and hydrophobic HP2 pocket interactions. Both these interactions and the catalytic site-substrate interaction contribute to binding between LC3s or GABARAPs and ATG4B. We also reveal an unexpected role for ATG4B in stabilizing the unlipidated forms of GABARAP and GABARAPL1. In mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) atg4b knockout cells, GABARAP and GABARAPL1 were unstable and degraded by the proteasome. Strikingly, the LIR motif of ATG4B was required for stabilization of the unlipidated forms of GABARAP and GABARAPL1 in cells.
Project description:Selective autophagy and macroautophagy sequester specific organelles/substrates or bulk cytoplasm, respectively, inside autophagosomes as cargo for delivery to lysosomes. The mammalian ATG8 orthologues (MAP1LC3A/B/C and GABARAP/L1/L2) are ubiquitin (UB)-like proteins conjugated to the autophagosome membrane and are thought to facilitate cargo receptor recruitment, vesicle maturation, and lysosomal fusion. To elucidate the molecular functions of the ATG8 proteins, we engineered cells lacking genes for each subfamily as well as all six mammalian ATG8s. Loss of GABARAPs alone attenuates autophagic flux basally and in response to macroautophagic or selective autophagic stimuli, including parkin-dependent mitophagy, and cells lacking all ATG8 proteins accumulate cytoplasmic UB aggregates, which are resolved following ectopic expression of individual GABARAPs. Autophagosomes from cells lacking GABARAPs had reduced lysosomal content by quantitative proteomics, consistent with fusion defects, but accumulated regulators of late endosome (LE)/autophagosome maturation. Through interaction proteomics of proteins accumulating in GABARAP/L1/L2-deficient cells, we identified C18orf8/RMC1 as a new subunit of the CCZ1-MON1 RAB7 guanine exchange factor (GEF) that positively regulates RAB7 recruitment to LE/autophagosomes. This work defines unique roles for GABARAP and LC3 subfamilies in macroautophagy and selective autophagy and demonstrates how analysis of autophagic machinery in the absence of flux can identify new regulatory circuits.
Project description:The turnover of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) ensures the correct biological activity of its distinct domains. In mammalian cells, the ER is degraded via a selective autophagy pathway (ER-phagy), mediated by two specific receptors: FAM134B, responsible for the turnover of ER sheets and SEC62 that regulates ER recovery following stress. Here, we identified reticulon 3 (RTN3) as a specific receptor for the degradation of ER tubules. Oligomerization of the long isoform of RTN3 is sufficient to trigger fragmentation of ER tubules. The long N-terminal region of RTN3 contains several newly identified LC3-interacting regions (LIR). Binding to LC3s/GABARAPs is essential for the fragmentation of ER tubules and their delivery to lysosomes. RTN3-mediated ER-phagy requires conventional autophagy components, but is independent of FAM134B. None of the other reticulon family members have the ability to induce fragmentation of ER tubules during starvation. Therefore, we assign a unique function to RTN3 during autophagy.
Project description:The centrosome is the master orchestrator of mitotic spindle formation and chromosome segregation in animal cells. Centrosome abnormalities are frequently observed in cancer, but little is known of their origin and about pathways affecting centrosome homeostasis. Here we show that autophagy preserves centrosome organization and stability through selective turnover of centriolar satellite components, a process we termed doryphagy. Autophagy targets the satellite organizer PCM1 by interacting with GABARAPs via a C-terminal LIR motif. Accordingly, autophagy deficiency results in accumulation of large abnormal centriolar satellites and a resultant dysregulation of centrosome composition. These alterations have critical impact on centrosome stability and lead to mitotic centrosome fragmentation and unbalanced chromosome segregation. Our findings identify doryphagy as an important centrosome-regulating pathway and bring mechanistic insights to the link between autophagy dysfunction and chromosomal instability. In addition, we highlight the vital role of centriolar satellites in maintaining centrosome integrity.