Oropharyngeal cancer is no longer a disease of younger patients and the prognostic advantage of Human Papillomavirus is attenuated among older patients: Analysis of the National Cancer Database.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) patients have been observed to be younger than patients with HPV-negative OPC at diagnosis. We evaluated recent trends in age at OPC diagnosis, and whether older age attenuates the survival benefit of HPV-positive tumor status. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Patients diagnosed with OPC from 2004 to 2014 represented in the National Cancer Database were included. HPV tumor status was available after 2010. Trends in age by calendar year were compared using linear regression. Overall survival was compared using Cox Proportional Hazards models. RESULTS:The mean age of OPC patients (N?=?119,611) increased significantly from 2004 to 2014 (ß?=?0.21?years of age per calendar year, 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?0.19-0.23). The increase in age from 2010 to 2014 was similar for HPV-positive (N?=?21,880; ß?=?0.63, 95%CI?=?0.53-0.72) and HPV-negative (N?=?11,504; ß?=?0.59, 95%CI?=?0.45-0.74) patients. Between 2010 and 2014, the proportion of OPCs that were HPV-positive increased significantly for all age groups, including for patients ?70?years old (from 45% to 60%, ptrend?
Project description:Background: Anti-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor (EGFR) therapies in combination with radiotherapy are being studied on de-escalation clinical trials for HPV-related oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) patients. The HPV16-E5 oncoprotein increases recycling of activated EGFR to the cell surface, enhancing factor signal transduction. Our aim was to evaluate viral HPV16-E5 oncogene expression as well as EGFR and phosphorylated-EGFR (pEGFR), protein levels as biomarkers for clinical outcome in a retrospective cohort of OPC patients. Methods: Formalin-fixed-paraffin-embedded OPCs were collected from 1990 to 2013. OPC samples containing HPV-DNA were subject to viral E6 * I mRNA detection and p16INK4a immunohistochemistry (IHC). HPV16-positive cases were evaluated for HPV16-E5 (RT-PCR) and EGFR/pEGFR (IHC). A stratified and matched random sample of HPV-negative samples was used as control and evaluated for EGFR/pEGFR. Overall survival (OS) and disease free survival (DFS) estimates were assessed for locally advanced OPC patients (stage III, IVa,b 7th edition). Results: Among 788 OPC patient samples, 53 were double positive for HPV16-DNA/p16INK4a. HPV16-E5 expression was found in 41 of 53 samples (77.4%). EGFR expression was observed in 37.7 vs 70.8% of HPV16-positive vs HPV-negative samples, respectively; (adjusted OR = 0.15) 5% CI = 0.04-0.56]). Expression of pEGFR followed an inverse pattern with 39.6 and 24.9% detection in HPV16-positive and HPV-negative samples; (adjusted OR = 1.58 [95% CI = 0.48-5.17]). Within HPV16-positive cases, no association between HPV16-E5/EGFR nor pEGFR was observed. With a median follow-up of 39.36 months (min = 0.03 - max = 272.07), the combination of HPV status and EGFR or pEGFR expression were predictors of better OS (p < 0.001, for both) and DFS (p < 0.001 for EGFR and p = 0.003 for pEGFR). Conclusions: HPV16-E5 is highly expressed on HPV16-positive OPCs. Interestingly, HPV16-positive cases expressed significantly more pEGFR while HPV-negative cases expressed more EGFR. The combinations of HPV status and EGFR or pEGFR may be useful biomarkers for evaluating prognosis outcome in OPC patients.
Project description:The incidence of oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) in New Zealand (NZ) has more than doubled over the last 14 years with 126 cases in 2010. Overseas studies have shown that human papillomavirus (HPV) plays a significant role in the development of these cancers. However, the role of HPV in OPC and the burden on the NZ health system is unclear.The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and the genotypes of HPV associated with OPC in New Zealand.In this study, 621 OPC were identified from cancer registry data from 1996-98, 2003-05, and 2010-12. Biopsies of 267 cases were then retrieved from laboratories throughout New Zealand. p16 immunohistochemistry and a human beta globin PCR were performed on all specimens. HPV genotyping was performed on all beta globin positive specimens using real-time PCR with melt analysis.Using a p16/PCR algorithm, 77.9% (95% CI: 71.1-83.5%) of cases were attributable to HPV. Of these, 98.5% were HPV 16 positive. There was also one case each of HPV 33 and 35. The percentage of HPV positive cases increased from 61.9% (95% CI: 40.9%- 79.2%) in 1996-98 to 87.5% (95% CI: 79.8%- 92.5%) in 2010-12. Results from the multivariable model, adjusted for sex and ethnicity found statistically significant associations between HPV positivity and timeframe (OR: 5.65, 95% CI: 2.60-12.30, 2010-12 vs 1996-98), and between HPV positivity and patient age (OR: 0.55, 95% CI: 0.33-0.99, ?61 years vs ?60 years).This data is consistent with data from other developed countries showing an increase in cases of HPV positive OPC in New Zealand, and the majority of cases being attributable to HPV 16. These results support the recent inclusion of males into the nationally funded immunization schedule for Gardasil® 9.
Project description:The incidence of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) associated oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) is increasing. HPV-associated OPC appear to have better prognosis than HPV-negative OPC. The aim of this study was to robustly determine the prevalence of HPV-positive OPC in an unselected UK population and correlate HPV positivity with clinical outcome.HPV testing by GP5+/6+ PCR, In Situ Hybridisation (ISH) and p16 immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed on 138 OPCs diagnosed in South Wales (UK) between 2001-06. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to correlate HPV status with clinical outcome.Using a composite definition of HPV positivity (HPV DNA and p16 overexpression), HPV was detected in 46/83 (55%) samples where DNA quality was assured. Five year overall survival was 75.4% (95% CI: 65.2 to 85.5) in HPV-positives vs 25.3% (95% CI: 14.2 to 36.4) in HPV negatives, corresponding to a 78% reduction in death rate (HR 0.22, p < 0.001). HPV-positives had less locoregional recurrence but second HPV-positive Head and Neck primaries occurred. Poor quality DNA in fixed pathological specimens reduced both HPV prevalence estimates and the prognostic utility of DNA-based HPV testing methods. As a single marker, p16 was least affected by sample quality and correlated well with prognosis, although was not sufficient on its own for accurate HPV prevalence reporting.This study highlights the significant burden of OPC associated with HPV infection. HPV positive cases are clinically distinct from other OPC, and are associated with significantly better clinical outcomes. A composite definition of HPV positivity should be used for accurate prevalence reporting and up-front DNA quality assessment is recommended for any DNA-based HPV detection strategy.
Project description:Antibodies (Abs) to the HPV16 proteome increase risk for HPV-associated OPC (HPVOPC). The goal of this study was to investigate the association of a panel of HPV16 Abs with risk for OPC as well as the association of these Abs with tumor HPV and smoking status among patients with OPC.IgG Abs to the HPV16 antigens E1, E2, E4, E5, E6, E7, L1, L2 were quantified using a programmable ELISA assay. Sera were obtained from 258 OPC patients at diagnosis and 250 healthy controls. HPV16 tumor status was measured by PCR for 137 cases. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios for the association of HPV16 Abs with risk for OPC.HPV16 E1, E2, E4, E5, E6, E7 and L1-specific IgG levels were elevated in OPC patients compared to healthy controls (p<0.05). After multivariable adjustment, Ab positivity for NE2, CE2, E6, and/or E7 was associated with OPC risk (OR [95% CI], 249.1 [99.3-624.9]). Among patients with OPC, Ab positivity for these antigens was associated with tumor HPV status, especially among never or light smokers (OR [95% CI], 6.5 [2.1-20.1] and OR [95% CI], 17.5 [4.0-77.2], respectively).Antibodies to HPV16 proteins are associated with increased risk for HPVOPC. Among patients with OPC, HPV16 Abs are associated with tumor HPV status, in particular among HPV positive patients with no or little smoking history.
Project description:Importance:Data are limited on the prognostic value of human papillomavirus (HPV) status for head and neck carcinoma subsites. Objective:To determine whether HPV positivity at each head and neck subsite is associated with improved overall survival. Design, Setting, and Participants:This retrospective population-based cohort study used the National Cancer Database to identify patients diagnosed with head and neck squamous cell carcinomas from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2014. Patients were classified according to the location of their primary malignancy into 1 of the 6 main subsites of the upper aerodigestive tract: oral cavity, oropharynx, nasopharynx, hypopharynx, larynx, and sinonasal tract. Patients were also classified by their HPV status. Data collection for this study took place from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2014. Data analysis was conducted from August 1, 2017, to September 30, 2017. Main Outcomes and Measures:The difference in 5-year overall survival between patients with HPV-positive status and those with HPV-negative status in various head and neck carcinoma subsites; the role of HPV status in an unadjusted Cox multivariate regression model. Results:Of the 175 223 total number of patients identified (129 634 [74.0%] male; 45 589 [26.0%] female; mean [SD] age, 63.1 [11.9] years), 133 273 (76.1%) were ineligible and 41 950 (23.9%) were included in the sample. This sample included 16?644 patients (39.7%) with HPV-positive tumors and 25?306 (60.3%) with HPV-negative tumors. Patients with an HPV-positive status were more likely to be younger, be white, be male, present with local T category tumors, and have poor differentiation on histologic examination. HPV-positive status was associated with survival at 4 tumor subsites: oral cavity (hazard ratio [HR], 0.76; 95% CI, 0.66-0.87), oropharynx (HR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.41-0.47), hypopharynx (HR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.45-0.77), and larynx (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.59-0.85). The HPV status was the greatest factor in survival outcome between the HPV-positive and -negative cohorts at the oropharynx subsite (77.6% vs 50.7%; survival difference, 26.9%; 95% CI, 25.6%-28.2%) and hypopharynx subsites (52.2% vs 28.8%; survival difference, 23.4%; 95% CI, 17.5%-29.3%). For the nasopharynx (HR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.75-1.42) and sinonasal tract (HR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.39-1.01) subsites, HPV-positive status was not an independent prognostic factor. Conclusions and Relevance:Human papillomavirus positivity was associated with improved survival in 4 subsites (oropharynx, hypopharynx, oral cavity, and larynx), and the largest survival difference was noted in the oropharynx and hypopharynx subsites. In the nasopharynx and sinonasal tract subsites, HPV positivity had no association with overall survival. Given these results, routine testing for HPV at the oropharynx, hypopharynx, oral cavity, and larynx subsites may be warranted.
Project description:IMPORTANCE:Human papillomavirus-related oropharyngeal carcinoma (HPV-OPC) is increasing in incidence in the United States. Although HPV-OPC has favorable prognosis, 10% to 25% of HPV-OPCs recur. Detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in oral rinses is associated with HPV-OPC, but its potential as a prognostic biomarker is unclear. OBJECTIVE:To determine whether HPV DNA detection in oral rinses after treatment for HPV-OPC is associated with recurrence and survival. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:Prospective cohort study of patients with incident HPV-OPC diagnosed from 2009 to 2013 at 4 academic tertiary referral cancer centers in the United States. Oral rinse samples were collected at diagnosis and after treatment (9, 12, 18, and 24 months after diagnosis), and evaluated for HPV DNA. Among an initial cohort of 157 participants with incident HPV-OPC treated with curative intent, 124 had 1 or more posttreatment oral rinses available and were included in this study. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES:Disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method, and the association of HPV DNA detection in oral rinses with survival was evaluated using Cox regression analysis. RESULTS:Oral HPV type 16 (HPV16) DNA was common at diagnosis (67 of 124 participants [54%]). In contrast, oral HPV16 DNA was detected in only 6 participants after treatment (5%), including 5 with HPV16 DNA also detected at diagnosis (persistent oral HPV16 DNA). Two-year DFS and OS were 92% (95% CI, 94%-100%) and 98% (95% CI, 93%-99%). Persistent oral HPV16 DNA was associated with worse DFS (hazard ratio, 29.7 [95% CI, 9.0-98.2]) and OS (hazard ratio, 23.5 [95% CI, 4.7-116.9]). All 5 participants with persistent oral HPV16 DNA developed recurrent disease, 3 with local disease involvement. In contrast, just 9 of 119 participants (8%) without persistent oral HPV16 DNA developed recurrent disease, only 1 (11%) with local disease involvement. Median (range) time from earliest posttreatment oral HPV16 DNA detection to recurrence was 7.0 (3.7-10.9) months. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:Human papillomavirus type 16 DNA in oral rinses is common at diagnosis but rare after treatment for HPV-OPC. Our data suggest that, although infrequent, persistent HPV16 DNA in posttreatment oral rinses is associated with poor prognosis and is a potential tool for long-term tumor surveillance, perhaps more so for local recurrence.
Project description:Head and neck cancer (HNC) is the fifth most common malignancy worldwide with an annual mortality rate of 200,000. About 90% of HNC can be classified as head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC), of which approximately 75% are attributed to alcohol and tobacco consumption and 25 are associated with human papillomavirus (HPV), predominantly HPV16. HPV-associated OPC have better prognosis and a more favorable response to therapy as compared to HPV-negative tumors. Differences in risk factors, age of presentation, clinical behavior and gene expression profiles indicate that HPV-positive and HPV-negative tumors develop via different molecular mechanisms and are biologically distinct. HPV has been characterized as a risk factor for OPC based on race, life style and sexual behavior, impacting survival outcomes for both African American (AA) and European American (EA) patients. According to some reports, the rate of HPV-associated tumors is much lower in AA patients as compared to EA patients in United States. In general, however, AA males have a higher incidence of HNC than any other racial/gender group, and a mortality rate almost three-fold that observed in EA males. Overall, AA patients tend to present with more HPV-negative OPC and have worse prognosis as compared to both HPV-positive and HPV-negative EA patients. This study aimed to compare the gene expression profiles of HPV-negative oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPC) and normal benign uvula/tonsil tissues from European American patients and determine what biological processes and pathways are affected in HPV-negative OPCs in EA patients. Additional datasets in this study explore gene expression differences in HNC from EA and AA patients. ANALYSIS 8: Two-condition, one-color experiment: European American (EA) HPV-negative oropharyngeal tumor samples and normal benign uvula/tonsil tissues. Biological replicates: 8 EA HPV active samples and 4 EA Normal samples.
Project description:Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection is recognised as aetiological factor of carcinogenesis in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPC). HPV-related OPC respond better to treatments and have a significantly favourable outcome. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) implicated in tumour invasion, is a hallmark of a poor prognosis in carcinomas.We have studied the relationship of EMT markers (E-cadherin, β-catenin and vimentin) with HPV infection (DNA and E6/E7 mRNA detection), p16INK4a expression and survival outcomes in a cohort of 296 patients with OPC.Among the 296 OPSSC, 26% were HPV positive, 20.3% had overt EMT (>25% of vimentin positive tumour cells). Lower E-cadherin expression was associated with a higher risk of distant metastasis in univariate (P=0.0110) and multivariate analyses (hazard ratios (HR)=6.86 (1.98; 23.84)). Vimentin expression tends towards worse metastasis-free survival (MFS; HR=2.53 (1.00; 6.41)) and was an independent prognostic factor of progression-free survival (HR=1.55 (1.03; 2.34)).There was a non significant association of EMT with HPV status. This may be explained by a mixed subpopulation of patients HPV positive with associated risk factors (HPV, tobacco and alcohol). Thus, the detection of EMT in OPC represents another reliable approach in the prognosis and the management of OPC whatever their HPV status.