R-CHOP, radioimmunotherapy, and maintenance rituximab in untreated follicular lymphoma (SWOG S0801): a single-arm, phase 2, multicentre study.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Despite an abundance of therapeutic options, advanced-stage follicular lymphoma remains incurable. Furthermore, the ideal sequence and absolute benefit of post-induction therapy is unclear. We designed SWOG S0801 to assess the efficacy and safety of consolidative radioimmunotherapy and sequential maintenance rituximab following chemoimmunotherapy. METHODS:For this single-arm, phase 2, multicentre study, we enrolled patients aged 18 years and older with a diagnosis of stage III, IV, or bulky stage II follicular lymphoma, grades 1, 2, or 3a, who had not received previous therapy, from from 20 institutions within the United States National Cancer Institute Clinical Trials Network. Patients were assigned to a 5-year treatment plan consisting of R-CHOP (rituximab plus cyclophosphamide [750 mg/m2], doxorubicin [50 mg/m2], vincristine [1·4 mg/m2], and prednisone or prednisolone [100 mg]) every 21 days for up to six cycles, with rituximab 375 mg/m2 given on day 1 of cycles 1-4, followed by 131iodine tositumomab radioimmunotherapy and subsequent maintenance rituximab 375 mg/m2 within 12 weeks after the sixth cycle of R-CHOP, every 3 months for up to 4 years. The primary endpoint was 3-year progression-free survival in the intention-to-treat population. Efficacy and safety analyses were done in the intention-to-treat population and the per-protocol population. This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00770224. FINDINGS:Between April 1, 2009, and Dec 15, 2010, we enrolled 84 evaluable patients, of whom 73 completed R-CHOP and radioimmunotherapy. Of 69 patients who registered to maintenance therapy, only 41 completed the 4-year rituximab maintenance treatment. Progression-free survival at 3 years was 90% (95% CI 82-95). The most common grade 3 or worse adverse events included neutropenia in 48 (57%) patients, leucopenia in 34 (40%) patients, thrombocytopenia in 17 (20%) patients, and febrile neutropenia in 14 (17%) patients. Nine patients had possible treatment-related deaths during the study from secondary or unknown causes (n=3), cirrhosis (n=1), cardiac arrest (n=1), and secondary malignancies (n=4). Secondary malignancies occurred in seven patients, including two sarcomas, two colorectal carcinomas, two acute myelogenous leukaemias, and one case of renal-cell carcinoma. INTERPRETATION:SWOG S0801 showed near universal responses following chemoimmunotherapy and radioimmunotherapy. However, most discontinuations occurred during maintenance therapy, suggesting that rituximab over a 4-year span is not feasible for many patients. Nonetheless, this sequential therapeutic strategy resulted in good overall outcomes for patients, including a low incidence of early disease progression. FUNDING:The National Cancer Institute and GlaxoSmithKline.
Project description:Advanced follicular lymphomas (FL) are considered incurable with conventional chemotherapy and there is no consensus on the best treatment approach. Southwest Oncology Group (SWOG) and Cancer and Leukemia Group B compared the safety and efficacy of two immunochemotherapy regimens for FL in a phase III randomized intergroup protocol (SWOG S0016) that enrolled 554 patients with previously untreated, advanced-stage FL between March 1, 2001, and September 15, 2008.Patients were eligible for the study if they had advanced-stage (bulky stage II, III, or IV) evaluable FL of any grade (1, 2, or 3) and had not received previous therapy. In one arm of the study, patients received six cycles of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) chemotherapy at 3-week intervals with six doses of rituximab (CHOP-R). In another arm of the study, patients received six cycles of CHOP followed by consolidation with tositumomab/iodine I-131 tositumomab radioimmunotherapy (RIT).After a median follow-up period of 4.9 years, the 2-year estimate of progression-free survival (PFS) was 76% on the CHOP-R arm and 80% on the CHOP-RIT arm (P = .11). The 2-year estimate of overall survival (OS) was 97% on the CHOP-R arm and 93% on the CHOP-RIT arm (P = .08).There was no evidence of a significant improvement in PFS comparing CHOP-RIT with CHOP-R. However, PFS and OS were outstanding on both arms of the study. Future studies are needed to determine the potential benefits of combining CHOP-R induction chemotherapy with RIT consolidation and/or extended rituximab maintenance therapy.
Project description:No data are available regarding obesity and outcome in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL). We analyzed 263 patients from the AGMT CLL-8a Mabtenance trial for the impact of obesity. The trial included patients after rituximab-containing induction treatment in first or second line that had achieved at least a PR. A randomization to rituximab maintenance treatment (375 mg/m2 q3 months for 2 years) vs observation was performed. In this cohort 22% of the patients (58/263) were classified as obese. The baseline response to induction treatment was inferior in obese patients with a lower CR rate (43.1% vs 60.5% in obese vs non-obese, P = 0.018) and with a lower rate of patients achieving MRD negativity after chemoimmunotherapy induction treatment (19.6% vs 35.8%, P = 0.02). The PFS outcome of obese patients was significantly worse in the observation group of the trial (24 vs 39 months median PFS, P = 0.03). However, in the rituximab maintenance group the outcome for obese vs non-obese was not different (P = 0.4). In summary, obesity was overall associated with a worse outcome of chemoimmunotherapy induction. However, rituximab maintenance treatment seems to be able to overcome this negative effect.
Project description:Bortezomib is active in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), with approval in upfront and relapsed settings. Given inevitable recurrence following induction chemoimmunotherapy, maintenance approaches are a rational strategy to improve clinical outcomes. We conducted a phase II study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of six cycles of R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone) plus bortezomib (1.3 mg/m2 days 1 and 4 of 21 d cycles) followed by bortezomib maintenance (1.3 mg/m2 days 1, 4, 8, and 11 every 3 months for 2 years). Sixty-five eligible patients were enrolled. The treatment was well tolerated and toxicities were mainly haematological. The rate of grade ?3 peripheral neuropathy was low (5%). With a median follow-up of 6.8 years, 2-year progression-free survival (PFS) was 62%, and 2-year overall survival (OS) was 85%. At 5 years, PFS was 28% and OS was 66%. MCL International Prognostic Index scores were significantly associated with 2-year PFS, but did not predict long-term (?5-year) PFS. Baseline Ki-67 index was significantly associated with survival. Combination R-CHOP with bortezomib followed by maintenance bortezomib appears to improve outcomes compared historically with R-CHOP alone, with prolonged remissions in a subset of patients. These results suggest that inclusion of bortezomib with induction chemotherapy and/or maintenance is promising in MCL and warrants further exploration.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The response rate and survival improvement for rituximab, a CD20-targeting monoclonal antibody, have been demonstrated in marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) as monotherapy and in combination with chemotherapeutic regimens, yet relapses still occur despite treatment completion. Thus, extending the period of remission in MZL patients remains an essential goal. This multicenter, single-arm, open-label phase II study evaluated the survival efficacy of 2 years of rituximab-maintenance therapy in patients with stage III-IV CD20-positive MZL who had responded to first-line R-CVP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisolone). The objective of this study was to determine whether rituximab maintenance following R-CVP warrants further investigation. METHODS:Prior to rituximab-maintenance therapy, patients received 6-8 cycles of first-line R-CVP therapy for stage III-IV MZL. Rituximab (375 mg/m2), cyclophosphamide (750 mg/m2), and vincristine (1.4 mg/m2; maximum 2 mg) were administered via an intravenous infusion on day 1 of each 3-week cycle, while oral prednisolone (100 mg) was given on days 1-5 of each 3-week cycle. The patients who achieved complete response (CR), partial response (PR), or stable disease (SD) to R-CVP treatment, were prescribed rituximab-maintenance therapy which was administered intravenously at a dose of 375 mg/m2 every 8 weeks for up to 12 cycles. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary endpoints were overall survival (OS) and treatment safety. RESULTS:47 patients were enrolled, of whom, 45 (96%) received rituximab-maintenance treatment. Fifteen (33%) patients had nodal MZL. Following R-CVP first-line therapy, 20 (44%), 22 (49%), and 3 (7%) patients achieved CR, PR, and SD, respectively. After a median follow-up of 38.2 months, their observed 3-year PFS rate was 81%. During the rituximab-maintenance, 6 PR and 1 SD patients achieved CR following the administration of R-CVP. Elevated LDH and the presence of B symptoms were found to be significant prognostic factors for PFS (P?=?0.003) and demonstrated a 3-year OS rate of 90%. Rituximab-maintenance therapy was well tolerated, and the common treatment-emergent adverse events were sensory neuropathy (18%), myalgia (13%), fatigue (9%), and neutropenia (9%). CONCLUSION:Rituximab-maintenance therapy following first-line R-CVP demonstrated good PFS in patients with stage III-IV MZL, in addition to a favorable toxicity profile. Trial registration clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01213095.
Project description:Chemoimmunotherapy regimens have been the standard first-line therapy for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). For young, fit patients the standard of care is combination of fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab (FCR). Based on the preclinical work demonstrating that bendamustine combined with fludarabine resulted in increased DNA damage, we designed a phase I-II clinical trial with fludarabine, bendamustine, and rituximab (FBR) for patients with relapsed/refractory CLL. Treatment consisted of fludarabine 20 mg/m2 daily x 3 days and rituximab 375-500 mg/m2 x 1 day. Phase I included bendamustine at increasing doses of 20, 30, 40, or 50 mg/m2 daily x 3 days; phase II was with FR, and B at the selected dose. DNA damage response (H2AX phosphorylation) was evaluated in a subset of patients. Fifty-one patients were enrolled. The median age was 62 years; median number of prior therapies was 2; 40% had del(11q); and 41 patients had received prior FCR-based therapies. Hematologic toxicity was more common in ?40 mg/m2 dose cohorts. Maximum tolerated dose (MTD) was not identified. Bendamustine-elicited H2AX phosphorylation was not dose-dependent, but markedly increased after fludarabine. We identified bendamustine 30 mg/m2 as the safe dose for phase II. The overall response rate (ORR) was 67% with 36% complete response (CR) / CR with incomplete count recovery (CRi). Younger patients (<65 years) had significantly higher ORR (81% vs. 50%; p=0.038). The median progression-free survival was 19 months, and the median overall survival was 52.5 months. FBR is an effective and tolerable CIT regimen for patients with relapsed CLL.
Project description:The Swiss Group for Clinical Cancer Research (SAKK) conducted the SAKK 35/03 randomized trial (NCT00227695) to investigate different rituximab monotherapy schedules in patients with follicular lymphoma (FL). Here, we report their long-term treatment outcome. Two-hundred and seventy FL patients were treated with 4 weekly doses of rituximab monotherapy (375 mg/m2); 165 of them, achieving at least a partial response, were randomly assigned to maintenance rituximab (375 mg/m2 every 2 months) on a short-term (4 administrations; n = 82) or a long-term (up to a maximum of 5 years; n = 83) schedule. The primary end point was event-free survival (EFS). At a median follow-up period of 10 years, median EFS was 3.4 years (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.1-5.5) in the short-term arm and 5.3 years (95% CI, 3.5-7.5) in the long-term arm. Using the prespecified log-rank test, this difference is not statistically significant (P = .39). There also was not a statistically significant difference in progression-free survival or overall survival (OS). Median OS was 11.0 years (95% CI, 11.0-NA) in the short-term arm and was not reached in the long-term arm (P = .80). The incidence of second cancers was similar in the 2 arms (9 patients after short-term maintenance and 10 patients after long-term maintenance). No major late toxicities emerged. No significant benefit of prolonged maintenance became evident with longer follow-up. Notably, in symptomatic patients in need of immediate treatment, the 10-year OS rate was 83% (95% CI, 73-89%). These findings indicate that single-agent rituximab may be a valid first-line option for symptomatic patients with advanced FL.
Project description:R-CVP (cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisone) and R-CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone + rituximab) are immunochemotherapy regimens frequently used for remission induction of indolent non-Hodgkin lymphomas (iNHLs). Rituximab maintenance (RM) significantly improves progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with complete/partial remission (CR/PR). Here we report the final results of a randomized study comparing R-CVP to R-CHOP both followed by RM. Untreated patients in need of systemic therapy with symptomatic and progressive iNHLs including follicular (FL) and marginal zone lymphoma (MZL), mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT), small lymphocytic (SLL), and lymphoplasmacytic (LPL) lymphoma were eligible. Patients were randomized to receive R-CVP or R-CHOP for eight cycles or until complete response (CR). All patients with CR/PR (partial response) received RM 375 mg/m2 q 2 months for 12 cycles. Primary endpoint was event-free survival (EFS). Two-hundred and fifty patients [FL 42%, MZL/MALT 38%, LPL/ Waldenström Macroglobulinaemia (WM) 11%, SLL 9%] were enrolled and randomized (R-CHOP: 127, R-CVP: 123). Median age was 56 years (21-85), 44% were male, 90% were in stage III-IV, 43% of FL patients had a Follicular Lymphoma International Prognostic Index (FLIPI) score ?3, and 33·4% of all patients had an IPI score ?3. At the end of induction treatment, the CR/PR rate was 43·6/50·9% and 36·3/60·8% in the R-CHOP and R-CVP groups (P = 0·218) respectively. After a median follow-up of 67, 66, and 70 months, five-year EFS was 61% vs. 56% (not significant), progression-free survival (PFS) was 71% vs. 69% (not significant) and overall survival (OS) was 84% vs. 89% in the R-CHOP vs. the R-CVP arm respectively. Grade III/IV adverse events (65 vs. 22) occurred in 40 (33·1%) and 18 (15·3%) patients, P = 0·001; neutropenia in 16 (11·6%) and 4 (3·4%) patients, P = 0·017; infection in 14 (10·7%) and 3 (2·5%) patients,; P = 0·011; and a second neoplasm in three versus seven patients., in the R-CHOP and the R-CVP groups respectively. This multicentre randomized study with >five-year follow-up shows similar outcome in patients with indolent lymphoma in need of systemic therapy treated with R-CVP or R-CHOP immunochemotherapy and rituximab maintenance in both arms. The minor toxicity of the R-CVP regimen makes it a reasonable choice for induction treatment, leaving other active agents like doxorubicin or bendamustin for second-line therapy.
Project description:Purpose SWOG S0016 was a phase III randomized study that compared the safety and efficacy of R-CHOP (rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone) with CHOP-RIT (CHOP followed by consolidation with iodine-133-tositumomab radioimmunotherapy) for previously untreated patients with follicular lymphoma. Understanding the long-term outcome of patients provides a benchmark for novel treatment regimens for FL. Patients and Methods Between 2001 and 2008, 531 previously untreated patients with FL were randomly assigned to receive either six cycles of R-CHOP or six cycles of CHOP-RIT. Patients with advanced-stage disease (bulky stage II, III, or IV) of any pathologic grade (1, 2, or 3) were eligible. Results After a median follow-up of 10.3 years, 10-year estimates of progression-free and overall survival were 49% and 78% among all patients, respectively. Patients in the CHOP-RIT arm had significantly better 10-year progression-free survival compared with patients in the R-CHOP arm (56% v 42%; P = .01), but 10-year overall survival was not different between the two arms (75% v 81%; P = .13). There was no significant difference between the CHOP-RIT and R-CHOP arms in regard to incidence of second malignancies (15.1% v 16.1%; P = .81) or myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myeloid leukemia (4.9% v 1.8%; P = .058). The estimated 10-year cumulative incidences of death resulting from second malignancies were not different (7.1% v 3.2%; P = .16), but cumulative incidence of death resulting from myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myeloid leukemia was higher in the CHOP-RIT arm compared with the R-CHOP arm (4% v 0.9%; P = .02). Conclusion Given these outstanding outcomes, immunochemotherapy should remain the standard induction approach for patients with high-risk FL until long-term follow-up of alternative approaches demonstrates superiority.
Project description:Chemoimmunotherapy in follicular lymphoma is associated with significant toxicity. Targeted therapies are being investigated as potentially more efficacious and tolerable alternatives for this multiply-relapsing disease. Based on promising activity with rituximab and lenalidomide in previously untreated follicular lymphoma (overall response rate [ORR] 90%-96%) and ibrutinib in relapsed disease (ORR 30%-55%), the Alliance for Clinical Trials in Oncology conducted a phase 1 trial of rituximab, lenalidomide, and ibrutinib. Previously untreated patients with follicular lymphoma received rituximab 375 mg/m2 on days 1, 8, 15, and 22 of cycle 1 and day 1 of cycles 4, 6, 8, and 10; lenalidomide as per cohort dose on days 1 to 21 of 28 for 18 cycles; and ibrutinib as per cohort dose daily until progression. Dose escalation used a 3+3 design from a starting dose level (DL) of lenalidomide 15 mg and ibrutinib 420 mg (DL0) to DL2 (lenalidomide 20 mg, ibrutinib 560 mg). Twenty-two patients were enrolled; DL2 was determined to be the recommended phase II dose. Although no protocol-defined dose-limiting toxicities were reported, a high incidence of rash was observed (all grades 82%, grade 3 36%). Eleven patients (50%) required dose reduction, 7 because of rash. The ORR for the entire cohort was 95%, and the 12-month progression-free survival was 80% (95% confidence interval, 57%-92%). Five patients developed new malignancies; 3 had known risk factors before enrollment. Given the increased toxicity and required dose modifications, as well as the apparent lack of additional clinical benefit to the rituximab-lenalidomide doublet, further investigation of the regimen in this setting seems unwarranted. The study was registered with www.ClinicalTrials.gov as #NCT01829568.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Rituximab is an effective treatment for children with steroid dependent or frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome. The optimum dosing schedule for rituximab has not been established. We hypothesized that a single low dose of 375 mg/m2 would have comparable outcomes to higher doses in reducing the frequency of relapse and time to B cell reconstitution. METHODS:We conducted a multicenter retrospective observational cohort study of children with steroid-sensitive frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome. Data were extracted from clinical records including the dates of diagnosis, treatment, relapses, the use of concomitant immunosuppression, and lymphocyte subset profiling. Patients treated earlier received variable doses of rituximab, although typically two doses of 750 mg/m2. Later, patients received the current regimen of a single dose of 375 mg/m2. The primary outcome was an absence of clinically confirmed relapse 12 months following rituximab administration. Secondary outcomes were median time to relapse, probability of being relapse-free at 6 and 24 months and time to reconstitution of CD19+ B cells. RESULTS:Sixty patients received 143 courses of rituximab. Seven different dosing regimen strategies were used, ranging between 375 and 750 mg/m2 per dose, with administration of 1-4 doses. There was no significant difference in event-free survival at 12 months between dosing strategies. The median time to reconstitution of B cells was not significantly different between groups. CONCLUSIONS:Use of a single low-dose regimen of rituximab in the management of frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome does not affect the probability of relapse at 12 months or time to B cell reconstitution compared to a conventional higher dose.