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R-CHOP, radioimmunotherapy, and maintenance rituximab in untreated follicular lymphoma (SWOG S0801): a single-arm, phase 2, multicentre study.


ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Despite an abundance of therapeutic options, advanced-stage follicular lymphoma remains incurable. Furthermore, the ideal sequence and absolute benefit of post-induction therapy is unclear. We designed SWOG S0801 to assess the efficacy and safety of consolidative radioimmunotherapy and sequential maintenance rituximab following chemoimmunotherapy. METHODS:For this single-arm, phase 2, multicentre study, we enrolled patients aged 18 years and older with a diagnosis of stage III, IV, or bulky stage II follicular lymphoma, grades 1, 2, or 3a, who had not received previous therapy, from from 20 institutions within the United States National Cancer Institute Clinical Trials Network. Patients were assigned to a 5-year treatment plan consisting of R-CHOP (rituximab plus cyclophosphamide [750 mg/m2], doxorubicin [50 mg/m2], vincristine [1·4 mg/m2], and prednisone or prednisolone [100 mg]) every 21 days for up to six cycles, with rituximab 375 mg/m2 given on day 1 of cycles 1-4, followed by 131iodine tositumomab radioimmunotherapy and subsequent maintenance rituximab 375 mg/m2 within 12 weeks after the sixth cycle of R-CHOP, every 3 months for up to 4 years. The primary endpoint was 3-year progression-free survival in the intention-to-treat population. Efficacy and safety analyses were done in the intention-to-treat population and the per-protocol population. This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00770224. FINDINGS:Between April 1, 2009, and Dec 15, 2010, we enrolled 84 evaluable patients, of whom 73 completed R-CHOP and radioimmunotherapy. Of 69 patients who registered to maintenance therapy, only 41 completed the 4-year rituximab maintenance treatment. Progression-free survival at 3 years was 90% (95% CI 82-95). The most common grade 3 or worse adverse events included neutropenia in 48 (57%) patients, leucopenia in 34 (40%) patients, thrombocytopenia in 17 (20%) patients, and febrile neutropenia in 14 (17%) patients. Nine patients had possible treatment-related deaths during the study from secondary or unknown causes (n=3), cirrhosis (n=1), cardiac arrest (n=1), and secondary malignancies (n=4). Secondary malignancies occurred in seven patients, including two sarcomas, two colorectal carcinomas, two acute myelogenous leukaemias, and one case of renal-cell carcinoma. INTERPRETATION:SWOG S0801 showed near universal responses following chemoimmunotherapy and radioimmunotherapy. However, most discontinuations occurred during maintenance therapy, suggesting that rituximab over a 4-year span is not feasible for many patients. Nonetheless, this sequential therapeutic strategy resulted in good overall outcomes for patients, including a low incidence of early disease progression. FUNDING:The National Cancer Institute and GlaxoSmithKline.

SUBMITTER: Barr PM 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC6501182 | BioStudies | 2018-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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