Enhancing the one health initiative by using whole genome sequencing to monitor antimicrobial resistance of animal pathogens: Vet-LIRN collaborative project with veterinary diagnostic laboratories in United States and Canada.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of bacterial pathogens is an emerging public health threat. This threat extends to pets as it also compromises our ability to treat their infections. Surveillance programs in the United States have traditionally focused on collecting data from food animals, foods, and people. The Veterinary Laboratory Investigation and Response Network (Vet-LIRN), a national network of 45 veterinary diagnostic laboratories, tested the antimicrobial susceptibility of clinically relevant bacterial isolates from animals, with companion animal species represented for the first time in a monitoring program. During 2017, we systematically collected and tested 1968 isolates. To identify genetic determinants associated with AMR and the potential genetic relatedness of animal and human strains, whole genome sequencing (WGS) was performed on 192 isolates: 69?Salmonella enterica (all animal sources), 63 Escherichia coli (dogs), and 60?Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (dogs). RESULTS:We found that most Salmonella isolates (46/69, 67%) had no known resistance genes. Several isolates from both food and companion animals, however, showed genetic relatedness to isolates from humans. For pathogenic E. coli, no resistance genes were identified in 60% (38/63) of the isolates. Diverse resistance patterns were observed, and one of the isolates had predicted resistance to fluoroquinolones and cephalosporins, important antibiotics in human and veterinary medicine. For S. pseudintermedius, we observed a bimodal distribution of resistance genes, with some isolates having a diverse array of resistance mechanisms, including the mecA gene (19/60, 32%). CONCLUSION:The findings from this study highlight the critical importance of veterinary diagnostic laboratory data as part of any national antimicrobial resistance surveillance program. The finding of some highly resistant bacteria from companion animals, and the observation of isolates related to those isolated from humans demonstrates the public health significance of incorporating companion animal data into surveillance systems. Vet-LIRN will continue to build the infrastructure to collect the data necessary to perform surveillance of resistant bacteria as part of fulfilling its mission to advance human and animal health. A One Health approach to AMR surveillance programs is crucial and must include data from humans, animals, and environmental sources to be effective.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a globally important one health threat. The impact of resistant infections on companion animals, and the potential public health implications of such infections, has not been widely explored, largely due to an absence of structured population-level data.<h4>Objectives</h4>We aimed to efficiently capture and repurpose antimicrobial susceptibility test (AST) results data from several veterinary diagnostic laboratories (VDLs) across the United Kingdom to facilitate national companion animal clinical AMR surveillance. We also sought to harness and genotypically characterize isolates of potential AMR importance from these laboratories.<h4>Methods</h4>We summarized AST results for 29,330 canine and 8,279 feline <i>Enterobacteriaceae</i> isolates originating from companion animal clinical practice, performed between April 2016 and July 2018 from four VDLs, with submissions from 2,237 United Kingdom veterinary practice sites.<h4>Results</h4><i>Escherichia coli</i> (<i>E. coli</i>) was the most commonly isolated <i>Enterobacteriaceae</i> in dogs (69.4% of AST results, 95% confidence interval, CI, 68.7-70.0) and cats (90.5%, CI 89.8-91.3). Multi-drug resistance was reported in 14.1% (CI 13.5-14.8) of canine and 12.0% (CI 11.1-12.9) of feline <i>E. coli</i> isolates. Referral practices were associated with increased <i>E. coli</i> 3rd generation ≤ cephalosporin resistance odds (dogs: odds ratio 2.0, CI 1.2-3.4). We selected 95 <i>E. coli</i> isolates for whole genome analyses, of which seven belonged to sequence type 131, also carrying the plasmid-associated extended spectrum β-lactamase gene <i>bla</i> <sub>CTX-M-</sub> <sub>15</sub>. The plasmid-mediated colistin resistance gene <i>mcr-9</i> was also identified for the first time in companion animals.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Linking clinical AMR data with genotypic characterization represents an efficient means of identifying important resistance trends in companion animals on a national scale.
Project description:The objective of this study was to compare virulence and resistance factors of mucosal and cutaneous staphylococci from dogs with pyoderma in the UK and Romania, two countries with different approaches to antimicrobial use in companion animals. Staphylococcal isolates (<i>n</i> = 166) identified to the species level as being <i>Staphylococcus pseudintermedius</i> or coagulase negative (CoNS) were analyzed for their antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profile and presence of resistance and virulence genes. Of the investigated isolates, 26 were methicillin-resistant <i>S. pseudintermedius</i> (MRSP), 89 were methicillin-susceptible <i>S. pseudintermedius</i> (MSSP) and 51 were coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS). A significantly larger number of isolates originating from Romania were resistant to clindamycin, tetracycline, and chloramphenicol compared to the UK isolates (<i>P</i> < 0.05). Resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, gentamicin, and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole was more evident in UK isolates. Fusidic acid resistance was common in <i>Staphylococcus</i> spp. isolates from both countries. Most isolates carried virulence factors associated with <i>siet</i> (exfoliative toxin) and <i>luk</i> (leucocidin) genes. All MRSP UK isolates exhibited fusidic acid resistance genes whilst this was very rare in the MRSP isolates from Romania. The chlorhexidine resistance gene <i>qacA/B</i> was frequently identified in CoNS isolates from the UK (<i>P</i> < 0.001). The current study documented differences in antimicrobial resistance profiles of <i>Staphylococcus</i> spp. isolates from dogs in two geographical locations in Europe, which could reflect differences in antimicrobial prescribing patterns. The study also highlights the need for further studies and interventions on antimicrobial use, prescribing patterns and AMR surveillance in companion animals in Romania.
Project description:Methicillin-resistant coagulase-positive staphylococci (CoPS) have become increasingly recognised as opportunistic pathogens that limit therapeutic options in companion animals. The frequency of methicillin resistance amongst clinical isolates on an Australia-wide level is unknown. This study determined antimicrobial susceptibility patterns for CoPS isolated from clinical infections in companion animals (dogs, cats and horses) as part of the first nation-wide survey on antimicrobial resistance in animal pathogens in Australia for a one-year period (January 2013 to January 2014). Clinical Staphylococcus spp. isolates (n = 888) obtained from 22 veterinary diagnostic laboratories were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing for 16 antimicrobials, representing 12 antimicrobial classes. Potential risk factors associated with methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolates from dogs were analysed based on demographic factors and clinical history, including gender, age, previous antimicrobial treatment, chronic and/or recurrent diseases and site of infections. The most commonly identified CoPS were S. pseudintermedius (70.8%; dogs n = 616, cats n = 13) and S. aureus (13.2%, horses n = 53, dogs n = 47 and cats n = 17). Overall, the frequency of methicillin resistance among S. pseudintermedius (MRSP) and S. aureus (MRSA) was 11.8% and 12.8%, respectively. MRSP isolates were strongly associated with resistance to fluoroquinolones (OR 287; 95%CI 91.2-1144.8) and clindamycin (OR 105.2, 95%CI 48.5-231.9). MRSA isolates from dogs and cats were also more likely to be resistant to fluoroquinolones (OR 5.4, 95%CI 0.6-252.1), whereas MRSA from horses were more likely to be resistant to rifampicin. In multivariate analysis, MRSP-positive status was significantly associated with particular infection sites, including surgical (OR 8.8; 95%CI 3.74-20.7), and skin and soft tissue (OR 3.9; 95%CI 1.97-7.51). S. pseudintermedius isolated from dogs with surgical site infections were three times more likely to be methicillin-resistant if cases had received prior antimicrobial treatment. Whilst the survey results indicate the proportion of CoPS obtained from Australian companion animals that are methicillin-resistant is currently moderate, the identified risk factors suggest that it could rapidly increase without adequate biosecurity and infection control procedures in veterinary practice.
Project description:The Staphylococcus (S.) intermedius group (SIG) has been a main research subject in recent years. S. pseudintermedius causes pyoderma and otitis in companion animals as well as foodborne diseases. To prevent SIG-associated infection and disease outbreaks, identification of both staphylococcal exotoxins and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) types among SIG isolates may be helpful. In this study, it was found that a single isolate (one out of 178 SIG isolates examined) harbored the canine enterotoxin SEC gene. However, the S. intermedius exfoliative toxin gene was found in 166 SIG isolates although the S. aureus-derived exfoliative toxin genes, such as eta, etb and etd, were not detected. SCCmec typing resulted in classifying one isolate as SCCmec type IV, 41 isolates as type V (including three S. intermedius isolates), and 10 isolates as non-classifiable. Genetic relatedness of all S. pseudintermedius isolates recovered from veterinary staff, companion animals, and hospital environments was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Strains having the same band patterns were detected in S. pseudintermedius isolates collected at 13 and 18 months, suggesting possible colonization and/or expansion of a specific S. pseudintermedius strain in a veterinary hospital.
Project description:The Japanese National Action Plan on Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) was adopted to strengthen AMR surveillance and monitoring in companion animals. The Japanese Veterinary Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring (JVARM) system monitors the sale of veterinary antimicrobial drugs by pharmaceutical companies, and the sale of human drugs by principal wholesale companies to companion animal (dogs and cats) clinics. However, the data do not include sales by local drug suppliers and personal importation to companion animal clinics in Japan. The purposes of this study were to estimate total antimicrobial drug use by companion animal clinics in Japan and to identify the factors associated with their use. In 2018, questionnaires gathering data on attributes of the clinic and volumes of antimicrobial drugs used were sent to 212 clinics across Japan by the Japan Veterinary Medical Association. Out of the clinics, 170 valid questionnaires were returned (80.2% response rate). Antimicrobial drugs were categorized first as human, veterinary, or imported drugs and then further categorized as important drugs (critically important drugs for humans and second-choice veterinary drugs) or others. Total antimicrobial drug use was estimated based on the number of clinics reported in 2016. The relationships between antimicrobial drug use and various questionnaire items were analyzed using non-parametric regression analysis. Total antimicrobial drug use was estimated at 29.9t, which was 2.1 times higher than reported by the JVARM survey on the sales of antimicrobial drugs. In terms of total use, important drugs and human drugs accounted for 12.6 and 61.8%, respectively. Clinic income per veterinarian was associated with total antimicrobial use per veterinarian. The proportion of important drugs among all antimicrobial drugs used in a clinic was high in recently established clinics with middle-aged and older directors.
Project description:UNLABELLED:Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a global human health problem causing infections in both hospitals and the community. Companion animals, such as cats, dogs, and horses, are also frequently colonized by MRSA and can become infected. We sequenced the genomes of 46 multilocus sequence type (ST) 22 MRSA isolates from cats and dogs in the United Kingdom and compared these to an extensive population framework of human isolates from the same lineage. Phylogenomic analyses showed that all companion animal isolates were interspersed throughout the epidemic MRSA-15 (EMRSA-15) pandemic clade and clustered with human isolates from the United Kingdom, with human isolates basal to those from companion animals, suggesting a human source for isolates infecting companion animals. A number of isolates from the same veterinary hospital clustered together, suggesting that as in human hospitals, EMRSA-15 isolates are readily transmitted in the veterinary hospital setting. Genome-wide association analysis did not identify any host-specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) or virulence factors. However, isolates from companion animals were significantly less likely to harbor a plasmid encoding erythromycin resistance. When this plasmid was present in animal-associated isolates, it was more likely to contain mutations mediating resistance to clindamycin. This finding is consistent with the low levels of erythromycin and high levels of clindamycin used in veterinary medicine in the United Kingdom. This study furthers the "one health" view of infectious diseases that the pathogen pool of human and animal populations are intrinsically linked and provides evidence that antibiotic usage in animal medicine is shaping the population of a major human pathogen. IMPORTANCE:Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is major problem in human medicine. Companion animals, such as cats, dogs, and horses, can also become colonized and infected by MRSA. Here, we demonstrate that a shared population of an important and globally disseminated lineage of MRSA can infect both humans and companion animals without undergoing host adaptation. This suggests that companion animals might act as a reservoir for human infections. We also show that the isolates from companion animals have differences in the presence of certain antibiotic resistance genes. This study furthers the "one health" view of infectious diseases by demonstrating that the pool of MRSA isolates in the human and animal populations are shared and highlights how different antibiotic usage patterns between human and veterinary medicine can shape the population of bacterial pathogens.
Project description:Companion animals have been described as potential reservoirs of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), however data remain scarce. Therefore, the objectives were to describe antimicrobial usage (AMU) in dogs and cats in three European countries (Belgium, Italy, and The Netherlands) and to investigate phenotypic AMR. A questionnaire and one fecal sample per animal (n = 303) were collected over one year and AMU was quantified using treatment incidence (TI). Phenotypic resistance profiles of 282 Escherichia coli isolates were determined. Nineteen percent of the animals received at least one antimicrobial treatment six months preceding sampling. On average, cats and dogs were treated with a standard daily dose of antimicrobials for 1.8 and 3.3 days over one year, respectively. The most frequently used antimicrobial was amoxicillin-clavulanate (27%). Broad-spectrum antimicrobials and critically important antimicrobials for human medicine represented 83% and 71% of the total number of treatments, respectively. Resistance of E. coli to at least one antimicrobial agent was found in 27% of the isolates. The most common resistance was to ampicillin (18%). Thirteen percent was identified as multidrug resistant isolates. No association between AMU and AMR was found in the investigated samples. The issue to address, regarding AMU in companion animal, lies within the quality of use, not the quantity. Especially from a One-Health perspective, companion animals might be a source of transmission of resistance genes and/or resistant bacteria to humans.
Project description:The aim of this study was to detect the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus sp. (MRS) in populations of companion animals that either have previously been exposed or have not been exposed to antibiotic therapy or veterinary facilities, and if owners' healthcare profession had an influence on colonization with MRS. In addition, the antimicrobial resistance pheno- and genotype were investigated and risks for colonization with MRS were assessed. During this study, 347 nasal swabs (dogs n = 152; cats n = 107; rabbits n = 88) were investigated for the presence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In addition, 131 nasal swabs (dogs n = 79; cats n = 47; rabbits = 3; guinea pigs = 2) were examined for the presence of MRSA but also other MRS. In total, 23 MRS isolates belonged to nine staphylococcal species: Staphylococcus epidermidis (n = 11), Staphylococcus warneri (n = 3), Staphylococcus hominis (n = 2), Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (n = 2), and singletons Staphylococcus cohnii, Staphylococcus sciuri, Staphylococcus fleurettii, Staphylococcus lentus, and Staphylococcus haemolyticus. Twenty isolates displayed a multidrug-resistant phenotype. Various resistance and biocide resistance genes were detected among the examined staphylococci. Risk assessment for MRS colonization was conducted using a number of factors, including animal species, breed, age, gender, recent veterinary health care hospitalization, and antibiotic prescription, resulting in recent veterinary health care hospitalization being a significant risk factor. The detection of multidrug-resistant MRS in healthy animals is of importance due to their zoonotic potential.
Project description:Extended-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC)-resistant Enterobacteriaceae is an increasingly important problem in both human and veterinary medicine. The aims of this study were to describe a comparative molecular characterization of Enterobacteriaceae carrying ESC resistance genes, encoding extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL) and AmpC, isolated from human stool samples, rectal swabs from companion animals, and swabs from the environment of veterinarian hospitals in South Korea, and to examine their possible dissemination and transmission. The ESC resistance genes were identified by PCR and sequencing. Isolates with the predominant ESC resistance genes were assessed for their genetic relatedness by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multi-locus sequence typing. A total of 195 Escherichia coli and 41 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates that exhibited ESC resistance were recovered on CHROMagar ESBL from human, companion animal, and the veterinary hospital environmental samples. In companion animals, most of the ESC resistance genes were bla CMY-2-like (26.4%), followed by bla CTX -M-55 (17.2%) and bla CTX-M-14 (16.1%), whereas bla CTX-M-15 (28.6%) was predominant in human samples. The epidemiological relatedness of isolates carrying ESC resistance genes, including 124 E. coli and 23 K. pneumoniae isolates carrying CMY-2-like, DHA-1-like, or/and CTX-M-type, were analyzed by PFGE. The pulsotypes of five E. coli isolates (three from dogs and two from humans) carrying bla CMY-2-like, which were attributed to sequence type 405, from different veterinary clinics showed >85% similarity. Our results indicate direct transmission and dissemination of ESC-resistant Enterobacteriaceae between humans and companion animals.
Project description:Staphylococcus pseudintermedius causes opportunistic infections in dogs. It also has significant zoonotic potential, with the emergence of multidrug resistance leading to difficulty treating both animal and human infections. Manuka honey has previously been reported to inhibit many bacterial pathogens, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and is successfully utilized in both clinical and veterinary practice. Here, we evaluated the ability of manuka honey to inhibit strains of S. pseudintermedius grown alone and in combination with antibiotics, as well as its capacity to modulate virulence within multiple S. pseudintermedius isolates. All 18 of the genetically diverse S. pseudintermedius strains sequenced and tested were inhibited by??12% (wt/vol) medical-grade manuka honey, although tolerance to five clinically relevant antibiotics was observed. The susceptibility of the isolates to four of these antibiotics was significantly increased (P ? 0.05) when combined with sublethal concentrations of honey, although sensitivity to oxacillin was decreased. Virulence factor (DNase, protease, and hemolysin) activity was also significantly reduced (P???0.05) in over half of isolates when cultured with sublethal concentrations of honey (13, 9, and 10 isolates, respectively). These findings highlight the potential for manuka honey to be utilized against S. pseudintermedius infections.IMPORTANCE Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is an important member of the skin microbial community in animals and can cause opportunistic infections in both pets and their owners. The high incidence of antimicrobial resistance in S. pseudintermedius highlights that this opportunistic zoonotic pathogen can cause infections which require prolonged and intensive treatment to resolve. Manuka honey has proven efficacy against many bacterial pathogens and is an accepted topical treatment for infections in both veterinary and clinical practice, and so it is a particularly appropriate antimicrobial for use with zoonotic pathogens such as S. pseudintermedius Here, we demonstrate that not only is manuka honey highly potent against novel multidrug-resistant S. pseudintermedius isolates, it also acts synergistically with clinically relevant antibiotics. In addition, manuka honey modulates S. pseudintermedius virulence activity, even at subinhibitory concentrations. In a clinical setting, these attributes may assist in controlling infection, allowing a more rapid resolution and reducing antibiotic use.