Developing measures for WHO recommendations on antenatal care for a positive pregnancy experience: a conceptual framework and scoping review.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:In response to the newest WHO recommendations on routine antenatal care (ANC) for pregnant women and adolescent girls, this paper identifies the literature on existing ANC measures, presents a conceptual framework for quality ANC, maps existing measures to specific WHO recommendations, identifies gaps where new measures are needed to monitor the implementation and impact of routine ANC and prioritises measures for capture. METHODS:We conducted searches in four databases and five websites. Searches and application of inclusion/exclusion criteria followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses flow approach for scoping reviews. Data were extracted on measure information, methodology, methodological work and implementation. We adapted and refined a conceptual framework for routine ANC based on these measures. RESULTS:This scoping review uncovered 58 resources describing 46 existing measures that align with WHO recommendations and good clinical practices for ANC. Of the 42 WHO-recommended ANC interventions and four good clinical practices included in this scoping review, only 14 WHO-recommended interventions and three established good clinical practices could potentially be measured immediately using existing measures. Recommendations addressing the integration of ANC with allied fields are likelier to have existing measures than recommendations that focus on maternal health. When mapped to our conceptual framework, existing measures prioritise content of care and health systems; measures for girls' and women's experiences of care are notably lacking. Available data sources for non-existent measures are currently limited. CONCLUSION:Our research updates prior efforts to develop comprehensive measures of quality ANC and raises awareness of the need to better assess experiences of ANC. Given the inadequate number and distribution of existing ANC measures across the quality of care conceptual framework domains, new standardised measures are required to assess quality of routine ANC. Girls' and women's voices deserve greater acknowledgement when measuring the quality and delivery of ANC.
Project description:Monitoring the implementation and impact of routine antenatal care (ANC), as described in the new World Health Organization (WHO) ANC model, requires indicators that go beyond the previously used global benchmark indicator of four or more ANC visits. To enable consistent monitoring of ANC content and care processes and to provide guidance to countries and health facilities, WHO developed an ANC monitoring framework. This framework builds on a conceptual framework for quality ANC and a scoping review of ANC indicators that mapped existing indicators related to recommendations in the new WHO ANC model. Based on the scoping review and following an iterative and consultative process, we developed a monitoring framework consisting of core indicators recommended for monitoring ANC recommendations in all settings, as well as a menu of additional measures. Finally, a research agenda highlights areas where ANC recommendations exist, but measures require further development. Nine core indicators can already be monitored globally and/or nationally, depending on the preferred data sources. Two core indicators (experience of care, ultrasound scan before 24 weeks) are included as placeholders requiring priority by the research agenda. Six context-specific indicators are appropriate for national and subnational monitoring in various settings based on specific guidance. Thirty-five additional indicators may be relevant and desirable for monitoring, depending on programme priorities. Monitoring implementation of the new WHO ANC model and the outcomes of routine ANC require greater attention to the measurement of ANC content and care processes as well as women's experience of ANC.
Project description:The World Health Organization (WHO) is in the process of updating antenatal care (ANC) guidelines.To map the existing clinical practice guidelines related to routine ANC for healthy women and to summarise all practices considered during routine ANC.A systematic search in four databases for all clinical practice guidelines published after January 2000.Two researchers independently assessed the list of potentially eligible publications.Information on scope of the guideline, type of practice, associated gestational age, recommendation type and the source of evidence were mapped.Of 1866 references, we identified 85 guidelines focusing on the ANC period: 15 pertaining to routine ANC and 70 pertaining to specific situations. A total of 135 interventions from routine ANC guidelines were extracted, and categorised as clinical interventions (n = 80), screening/diagnostic procedures (n = 47) and health systems related (n = 8). Screening interventions, (syphilis, anaemia) were the most common practices. Within the 70 specific situation guidelines, 102 recommendations were identified. Overall, for 33 (out of 171) interventions there were conflicting recommendations provided by the different guidelines.Mapping the current guidelines including practices related to routine ANC informed the scoping phase for the WHO guideline for ANC. Our analysis indicates that guideline development processes may lead to different recommendations, due to context, evidence base or assessment of evidence. It would be useful for guideline developers to map and refer to other similar guidelines and, where relevant, explore the discrepancies in recommendations and others.We identified existing ANC guidelines and mapped scope, practices, recommendations and source of evidence.
Project description:The objective of this study was to evaluate current approaches to economic modeling in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and propose a new conceptual model for evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of RA interventions. We followed recommendations from the International Society of Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research-Society of Medical Decision Making (ISPOR-SMDM) Modeling Good Research Practices Task Force-2. The process involved scoping the decision problem by a working group and drafting a preliminary cost-effectiveness model framework. A systematic literature review (SLR) of existing decision-analytic models was performed and analysis of an RA registry was conducted to inform the structure of the draft conceptual model. Finally, an expert panel was convened to seek input on the draft conceptual model. The proposed conceptual model consists of three separate modules: 1) patient characteristic module, 2) treatment module, and 3) outcome module. Consistent with the scope, the conceptual model proposed six changes to current economic models in RA. These changes proposed are to: 1) use composite measures of disease activity to evaluate treatment response as well as disease progression (at least two measures should be considered, one as the base case and one as a sensitivity analysis); 2) conduct utility mapping based on disease activity measures; 3) incorporate subgroups based on guideline-recommended prognostic factors; 4) integrate realistic treatment patterns based on clinical practice/registry datasets; 5) assimilate outcomes that are not joint related (extra-articular outcomes); and 6) assess mortality based on disease activity. We proposed a conceptual model that incorporates the current understanding of clinical and real-world evidence in RA, as well as of existing modeling assumptions. The proposed model framework was reviewed with experts and could serve as a foundation for developing future cost-effectiveness models in RA.
Project description:HIV prevalence data collected from routine HIV testing of pregnant women at antenatal clinics (ANC-RT) are potentially available from all facilities that offer testing services to pregnant women and can be used to improve estimates of national and subnational HIV prevalence trends. We develop methods to incorporate these new data source into the Joint United Nations Programme on AIDS Estimation and Projection Package in Spectrum 2017.We develop a new statistical model for incorporating ANC-RT HIV prevalence data, aggregated either to the health facility level (site-level) or regionally (census-level), to estimate HIV prevalence alongside existing sources of HIV prevalence data from ANC unlinked anonymous testing (ANC-UAT) and household-based national population surveys. Synthetic data are generated to understand how the availability of ANC-RT data affects the accuracy of various parameter estimates.We estimate HIV prevalence and additional parameters using both ANC-RT and other existing data. Fitting HIV prevalence using synthetic data generally gives precise estimates of the underlying trend and other parameters. More years of ANC-RT data should improve prevalence estimates. More ANC-RT sites and continuation with existing ANC-UAT sites may improve the estimate of calibration between ANC-UAT and ANC-RT sites.We have proposed methods to incorporate ANC-RT data into Spectrum to obtain more precise estimates of prevalence and other measures of the epidemic. Many assumptions about the accuracy, consistency, and representativeness of ANC-RT prevalence underlie the use of these data for monitoring HIV epidemic trends and should be tested as more data become available from national ANC-RT programs.
Project description:We employ a scoping review methodology to consider and assess the existing evidence on the determinants of unlawful file sharing (UFS) transparently and systematically. Based on the evidence, we build a simple conceptual framework to model the psychological decision to engage in UFS, purchase legally or do nothing. We identify social, moral, experiential, technical, legal and financial utility sources of the decision to purchase or to file share. They interact in complex ways. We consider the strength of evidence within these areas and note patterns of results. There is good evidence for influences on UFS within each of the identified determinants, particularly for self-reported measures, with more behavioral research needed. There are also indications that the reasons for UFS differ across media; more studies exploring media other than music are required.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Multimorbidity (co-occurring physical and mental illness) is an important issue for clinicians and researchers with combined efforts aimed at promoting the health and well-being of individuals across the life course. In children and youth, experience of any chronic physical illness leads to a substantial increase in risk for mental illness. As a growing field of interest, research is needed to map the current state of the literature in child and youth multimorbidity in order to identify existing gaps and inform the direction of future investigations. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:We are proposing the conduct of a scoping review to explore the depth and breadth of existing evidence in the field of child and youth multimorbidity. The scoping review will follow the methodological framework developed by Arksey and O'Malley, and will incorporate additional scoping review recommendations made by Levac et al. A systematic search of the following four key databases will be conducted: (1) PubMed; (2) EMBASE; (3) PsycINFO; and (4) Scopus, using combinations of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and Emtree terms. We will also consult grey literature sources and hand-search reference lists of included studies to identify additional studies of relevance. For eligible studies that meet all identified inclusion and exclusion criteria, a data extraction tool will be used to collect and store key study characteristics that will be relevant for collating, summarising and reporting the results of the scoping review. This scoping review also presents a novel use of quality index scoring, which we anticipate will contribute to strengthening the rigour of the scoping review methodology. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:The proposed scoping review does not require ethical approval. Final study results will be disseminated via conference presentations, publication in a peer-reviewed journal and knowledge translation activities with relevant stakeholders.
Project description:Surgery is a cornerstone of treatment for malignancy. However, significant variation has been reported in patterns and quality of cancer care for important health outcomes, including perioperative mortality. Surgical process improvement tools (SPITs) have been developed that focus on enhancing the processes of care at the point of care, as a means of quality improvement. This study describes SPITs and develops a conceptual framework by synthesizing the available literature on these novel quality improvement tools.A scoping review was conducted based on instruments developed for quality improvement in surgery. The search was executed on electronically indexed sources (MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane library) from January 1990 to March 2011. Data were extracted, tabulated and reported thematically using a narrative synthesis approach. These results were used to develop a conceptual framework that describes and classifies SPITs.232 articles were reviewed for data extraction and analysis. SPITs identified were classified into 3 groups: clinical mapping tools, structure communication tools and error reduction instruments. The dominant instrument reported were clinical mapping tools, including: clinical pathways (113, 48%), fast track (46, 20%) and enhanced recovery after surgery protocols (36, 15%). Outcomes reported included: length of stay (174, 75%), readmission rates (116, 50%), morbidity (116, 50%), mortality (104, 45%), and economic (60, 26%). Many gaps in the literature were recognized.We have developed a conceptual framework of SPITs and identified gaps in current knowledge. These results will guide the design and development of new quality instruments in surgery.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To explore linkages between water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) and maternal and perinatal health via a conceptual approach and a scoping review.<h4>Methods</h4>We developed a conceptual framework iteratively, amalgamating three literature-based lenses. We then searched literature and identified risk factors potentially linked to maternal and perinatal health. We conducted a systematic scoping review for all chemical and biological WASH risk factors identified using text and MeSH terms, limiting results to systematic reviews or meta-analyses. The remaining 10 complex behavioural associations were not reviewed systematically.<h4>Results</h4>The main ways poor WASH could lead to adverse outcomes are via two non-exclusive categories: 1. 'In-water' associations: (a) Inorganic contaminants, and (b) 'water-system' related infections, (c) 'water-based' infections, and (d) 'water borne' infections. 2. 'Behaviour' associations: (e) Behaviours leading to water-washed infections, (f) Water-related insect-vector infections, and (g-i) Behaviours leading to non-infectious diseases/conditions. We added a gender inequality and a life course lens to the above framework to identify whether WASH affected health of mothers in particular, and acted beyond the immediate effects. This framework led us to identifying 77 risk mechanisms (67 chemical or biological factors and 10 complex behavioural factors) linking WASH to maternal and perinatal health outcomes.<h4>Conclusion</h4>WASH affects the risk of adverse maternal and perinatal health outcomes; these exposures are multiple and overlapping and may be distant from the immediate health outcome. Much of the evidence is weak, based on observational studies and anecdotal evidence, with relatively few systematic reviews. New systematic reviews are required to assess the quality of existing evidence more rigorously, and primary research is required to investigate the magnitude of effects of particular WASH exposures on specific maternal and perinatal outcomes. Whilst major gaps exist, the evidence strongly suggests that poor WASH influences maternal and reproductive health outcomes to the extent that it should be considered in global and national strategies.
Project description:Background:Positive impacts of quality improvement initiatives on health care and services have not been substantial. Knowledge translation (KT) strategies (tools, products and interventions) strive to facilitate the uptake of knowledge thereby the potential to improve care, but there is little guidance on how to develop them. Existing KT guidance or planning tools fall short in operationalizing all aspects of KT practice activities conducted by knowledge users (researchers, clinicians, patients, decision-makers), and most do not consider their variable needs or to deliver recommendations that are most relevant and useful for them. Methods:We conducted a 3-phase study. In phase 1, we used several sources to develop a conceptual framework for creating optimized Knowledge-activated Tools (KaT) (consultation with our integrated KT team, the use of existing KT models and frameworks, findings of a systematic review of multimorbidity interventions and a literature review and document analysis on existing KT guidance tools). In phase 2, we invited KT experts to participate in a Delphi study to refine and evaluate the conceptual KaT framework. In phase 3, we administered an online survey to knowledge users (researchers, clinicians, decision-makers, trainees) to evaluate the potential usefulness of an online mock-up version of the KaT framework. Results:We developed the conceptual KaT framework, and iteratively refined it with 35 KT experts in a 3-round Delphi study. The final framework represents the blueprint for what is needed to create KT strategies. Feedback from 201 researcher, clinician, decision-maker and trainee knowledge users on the potential need and usefulness of an online, interactive version of KaT indicated that they liked the idea of it (mean score 4.36 on a 5-point Likert scale) and its proposed features (mean score range 4.30-4.79). Conclusions:Our findings suggest that mostly Canadian KT experts and knowledge users perceived the KaT framework and the future development of an online, interactive version to be important and needed. We anticipate that the KaT framework will provide clarity for knowledge users about how to identify their KT needs and what activities can address these needs, and to help streamline the process of these activities to facilitate efficient uptake of knowledge.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Responding to online patient feedback is considered integral to patient safety and quality improvement. However, guidance on how to respond effectively is limited, with limited attention paid to patient perceptions and reactions. OBJECTIVES:To identify factors considered potentially helpful in enhancing response quality; coproduce a best-practice response framework; and quality-appraise existing responses. DESIGN:A four-stage mixed methodology: (i) systematic search of stories published on Care Opinion about adult mental health services in the South West of England; (ii) collaborative thematic analysis of responses to identify factors potentially helpful in enhancing response quality; (iii) validation of identified factors by a patient-carer group (n = 12) leading to the coproduction of a best-practice response framework; and (iv) quality appraisal of existing responses. RESULTS:A total of 245 stories were identified, with 183 (74.7%) receiving a response. Twenty-four (9.8%) had been heard but not yet responded to. 1.6% (n = 4/245) may lead to a change. Nineteen factors were considered influential in response quality. These centred around seven subject areas: (i) introductions; (ii) explanations; (iii) speed of response; (iv) thanks and apologies; (v) response content; (vi) signposting; and (vii) response sign-off that were developed into a conceptual framework (the Plymouth, Listen, Learn and Respond framework). Quality appraisal of existing responses highlighted areas for further improvement demonstrating the framework's utility. CONCLUSION:This study advances existing understanding by providing previously unavailable guidance. It has clear practical and theoretical implications for those looking to improve health-care services, patient safety and quality of care. Further validation of the conceptual framework is encouraged.