Young adults report increased pleasure from using e-cigarettes and smoking tobacco cigarettes when drinking alcohol.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Cigarettes share a high rate of co-use with alcohol, particularly among young adults. Studies have demonstrated greater perceived pleasure from smoking cigarettes when drinking alcohol. However, little is known about co-use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) and alcohol. The current study sought to compare extent of use and perceived pleasure from cigarettes and e-cigs when drinking alcohol. METHODS:Young adult bar patrons in California cities (San Diego, Los Angeles, and San Francisco) were recruited in 2015-16 using randomized time-location sampling. Participants completed cross-sectional surveys in bars, reporting the percent of cigarette smoking/e-cig use that occurred under the influence of alcohol, and reported if pleasure from smoking cigarettes/using e-cigs changed when drinking alcohol. Analyses are limited to participants reporting current (past 30-day) use of cigarettes, e-cigs, and alcohol (N?=?269; M age?=?24.1; 40.1% female, 36.1% Non-Hispanic White). RESULTS:Participants reported a greater percentage of cigarette smoking compared to e-cig use under the influence of alcohol (cigarettes M?=?63.6%; e-cigs M?=?46.7%; p?
Project description:INTRODUCTION:As concern is increasing about electronic cigarette use among never-smoking youth, we aimed to examine the prevalence and correlates of prior experimentation of electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) over conventional cigarettes (c-cigs). METHODS:We used the 10th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey in 2015, including 67960 participants as study subjects. This survey was designed as stratified multistage clustered samples from middle schools and high schools. Weighted percentages of vaping and/or smoking status by the timing of experimentation were calculated and multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted after adjustments for possible confounders (demographics, socioeconomic status, lifestyle, tobacco use pattern). RESULTS:Youth who use e-cigs only or before c-cigs were 1.7% and 9.1% of any type user, respectively. In younger participants, the proportion tended to be increasing. Apart from being younger (AOR=2.23, 95% CI: 1.66-2.99; 12th grade vs 7th grade), male gender (AOR=1.20, 95% CI: 1.03-1.42), higher household income (AOR=1.21, 95% CI: 1.01-1.45), higher school performance (AOR=1.19, 95% CI: 1.02-1.39), exposure to smoke (AOR=1.63, 95% CI: 1.43-1.86) and caffeine drink (AOR=1.44, 95% CI: 1.24-1.68) were associated with experimentation with e-cigs prior to c-cigs in a fully-adjusted model. Alcohol abuse (AOR=0.57, 95% CI: 0.48-0.68) and weekday internet usage for recreation (AOR=0.69, 95% CI: 0.60-0.78) were negatively associated. CONCLUSIONS:The characteristics of those who experiment with e-cigs over c-cigs may be different from the general characteristics of vaping. Considering recent e-cig epidemics, more attention should be paid to the adolescents who tend to start e-cigs first.
Project description:BACKGROUND:An outbreak of E-cigarette or Vaping Product Use-Associated Lung Injury (EVALI) with significant morbidity and mortality was reported in 2019. While most patients with EVALI report vaping tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) oils contaminated with vitamin E acetate, a subset report only vaping with nicotine-containing electronic cigarettes (e-cigs). Whether or not e-cigs cause EVALI, the outbreak highlights the need for identifying long term health effects of e-cigs. EVALI pathology includes alveolar damage, pneumonitis and/or organizing pneumonia, often with lipid-laden macrophages (LLM). We assessed LLM in the lungs of healthy smokers, e-cig users, and never-smokers as a potential marker of e-cig toxicity and EVALI. METHODS:A cross-sectional study using bronchoscopy was conducted in healthy smokers, e-cig users, and never-smokers (n = 64). LLM, inflammatory cell counts, and cytokines were determined in bronchial alveolar fluids (BAL). E-cig users included both never-smokers and former light smokers. FINDINGS:High LLM was found in the lungs of almost all smokers and half of the e-cig users, but not those of never-smokers. LLM were not related to THC exposure or smoking history. LLM were significantly associated with inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 in e-cig users, but not smoking-related cytokines. INTERPRETATION:This is the first report of lung LLM comparing apparently healthy smokers, e-cig users, and never-smokers. LLM are not a specific marker for EVALI given the frequent positivity in smokers; whether LLMs are a marker of lung inflammation in some e-cig users requires further study. FUNDING:The National Cancer Institute, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, the Food and Drug Administration Center for Tobacco Products, the National Center For Advancing Translational Sciences, and Pelotonia Intramural Research Funds.
Project description:With the rapid increase in electronic cigarette (e-cig) users worldwide, secondhand exposure to e-cig aerosols has become a serious public health concern. We summarize the evidence on the effects of e-cigs on indoor air quality, chemical compositions of mainstream and secondhand e-cig aerosols, and associated respiratory and cardiovascular effects. The use of e-cigs in indoor environments leads to high levels of fine and ultrafine particles similar to tobacco cigarettes (t-cigs). Concentrations of chemical compounds in e-cig aerosols are generally lower than those in t-cig smoke, but a substantial amount of vaporized propylene glycol, vegetable glycerin, nicotine, and toxic substances, such as aldehydes and heavy metals, has been reported. Exposures to mainstream e-cig aerosols have biologic effects but only limited evidence shows adverse respiratory and cardiovascular effects in humans. Long-term studies are needed to better understand the dosimetry and health effects of exposures to secondhand e-cig aerosols.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Recently, electronic cigarette (e-cig) usage has increased significantly, making it a potentially effective smoking cessation tool. In Muslim countries, most people who use e-cigarettes fast the month of Ramadan, which results in intermittent fasting. This study aims to reveal the severity of e-cig withdrawal symptoms among users during this intermittent fasting period.<h4>Methods</h4>A self-administered survey was developed and validated to solicit anonymous responses from e-cig users living in Jordan, through a cross-sectional study design. Participants were recruited through social media resources. Severity scores of physical (out of 11) and psychological (out of 8) withdrawal symptoms for each participant were assessed and calculated for each participant, depending on the symptoms reported.<h4>Results</h4>A convenience sample (n?=?523) of e-cig adult users were recruited. The majority of the participants were males (96.4%) aged between 18 and 40 years (86.4%). Many participants replaced tobacco smoking with e-cig (53.5%) in order to help them stop smoking. More than half of the participants experienced relatively weak physical (0.82?±?1.78) and psychological (1.24?±?1.89) withdrawal symptoms during the month of fasting. Most of the participants (63.2%) preferred to engage themselves with a busy schedule to tolerate the related withdrawal symptoms they experienced.<h4>Conclusion</h4>E-cigs could play a vital role in smoking cessation among tobacco smokers during intermittent fasting. Ramadan offers a good opportunity for smokers to quit, as the reported physical and psychological e-cig withdrawal symptoms were found to be relatively weak. Awareness and behavioral interventions would help clarify the effect of e-cigs and help determine alternative ways to cease smoking.
Project description:Electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) have increased in popularity over the last few years, especially with youth and young adults. However, little is known about the health effects of using these devices. Additionally, relatively few studies have explored college students' e-cig use and perceptions of safety. In this study, perceptions of e-cig safety were compared among three groups of college students-those who had never tried, had tried, and currently use e-cigs. Study findings suggest interesting differences between the three groups, with participants who had tried as well as those who currently use e-cigs having more positive views of the devices. For example, current users were more likely to view e-cigs as safe and healthy choices and less likely to view them as tobacco products. Further, compared to participants who had not tried e-cigs, individuals who had tried or currently use e-cigs were more likely to believe that vapor was safe to others (i.e., no second- or third-hand effects). Understanding the perceptions and use of e-cigs among college students is important in order to develop communication strategies for anti-tobacco campaigns that effectively relate safety concerns to these audiences.
Project description:Use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), such as electronic cigarettes (e-cigs), is increasing across the US population and is particularly troubling due to their adoption by adolescents, teens, and young adults. The industry's marketing approach for these instruments of addiction has been to promote them as a safer alternative to tobacco, a behavioral choice supporting smoking cessation, and as the 'cool' appearance of vaping with flavored products (e.g. tutti frutti, bubble gum, and buttered popcorn etc.). Thus, there is a clear need to better document the health outcomes of e-cig use in the oral cavity of the addicted chronic user. There appears to be an array of environmental toxins in the vapors, including reactive aldehydes and carbonyls resulting from the heating elements action on fluid components, as well as from the composition of chemical flavoring agents. The chemistry of these systems shows that the released vapors from the e-cigs frequently contain levels of environmental toxins that considerably exceed federal occupational exposure limits. Additionally, the toxicants in the vapors appear to be retained in the host fluids/tissues at levels often approximating 90% of the levels in the e-cig vapors. These water-soluble reactive toxins can challenge the oral cavity constituents, potentially contributing to alterations in the autochthonous microbiome and host cells critical for maintaining oral homeostasis. This review updates the existing chemistry/environmental aspects of e-cigs, as well as providing an overview of the somewhat limited data on potential oral health effects that could occur across the lifetime of daily e-cig users.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Nicotine-containing electronic cigarette (e-cig) use has become widespread. However, understanding the biological impact of e-cigs compared with smoking on the lung is needed. There are major gaps in knowledge for chronic effects and for an etiology to recent acute lung toxicity leading to death among vapers.<h4>Methods</h4>We conducted bronchoscopies in a cross-sectional study of 73 subjects (42 never-smokers, 15 e-cig users, and 16 smokers). Using bronchoalveolar lavage and brushings, we examined lung inflammation by cell counts, cytokines, genome-wide gene expression, and DNA methylation.<h4>Results</h4>There were statistically significant differences among never-smokers, e-cig users, and smokers for inflammatory cell counts and cytokines (FDR <i>q</i> < 0.1). The e-cig users had values intermediate between smokers and never-smokers, with levels for most of the biomarkers more similar to never-smokers. For differential gene expression and DNA methylation, e-cig users also more like never-smokers; many of these genes corresponded to smoking-related pathways, including those for xenobiotic metabolism, aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling, and oxidative stress. Differentially methylated genes were correlated with changes in gene expression, providing evidence for biological effects of the methylation associations.<h4>Conclusions</h4>These data indicate that e-cigs are associated with less toxicity than cigarettes for smoking-related pathways. What is unknown may be unique effects for e-cigs not measured herein, and a comparison of smokers completely switching to e-cigs compared with former smokers. Clinical trials for smokers switching to e-cigs who undergo serial bronchoscopy and larger cross-sectional studies of former smokers with and without e-cig use, and for e-cigs who relapse back to smoking, are needed.<h4>Impact</h4>These data can be used for product regulation and for informing tobacco users considering or using e-cigs. What is unknown may be unique effects for e-cigs not measured herein, and clinical trials with serial bronchoscopy underway can demonstrate a direct relationship for changes in lung biomarkers.
Project description:Electronic cigarettes (E-cigs) smoking or vaping is an emerging problem to public health due to its popularity. While its multi-faceted detrimental effects on human health are being reported, no current study addresses the effect of E-cigs on tumor metastasis, the main cause of tumor mortality. Using a well-established human breast cancer cell line MDA MB-231, we first showed that E-cig vapor extract (nicotine 24 mg/ml, propylene glycol 50%, vegetable glycerin 50%, no flavorings) significantly enhanced tumor cell migration (P<0.0001), but showed no significant effect on tumor cell proliferation (P>0.05). To evaluate the metastasis-promoting effect of E-cigs in vivo, we used NOD-SCID-Gamma mice and introduced tumor cells to the mice by tail vein injection. Among these mice, 4-week E-cigs exposure (nicotine 24 mg/ml, propylene glycol 50%, vegetable glycerin 50%, no flavorings, 2 h/day, 5 days/week) almost doubled the tumor load in the exposed lungs compared to controls (P=0.0036). While E-cig exposure did not alter the proliferative index of tumor cells colonized in the lungs (P=0.7953), tumor cell apoptosis was significantly reduced (P<0.001). Taken together, our data for the first time, demonstrated the lung colonization-promoting effects of E-cigs on human breast cancer cells. These findings show the risks of E-cigs on the lung metastasis of various cancers, and warrant more studies on the underlying mechanisms.
Project description:The COVID-19 pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, overlaps with the ongoing epidemics of cigarette smoking and electronic cigarette (e-cig) vaping. However, there is scarce data relating COVID-19 risks and outcome with cigarette or e-cig use. In this study, we mined three independent RNA expression datasets from smokers and vapers to understand the potential relationship between vaping/smoking and the dysregulation of key genes and pathways related to COVID-19. We found that smoking, but not vaping, upregulates ACE2, the cellular receptor that SARS-CoV-2 requires for infection. Both smoking and use of nicotine and flavor-containing e-cigs led to upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and inflammasome-related genes. Specifically, chemokines including CCL20 and CXCL8 are upregulated in smokers, and CCL5 and CCR1 are upregulated in flavor/nicotine-containing e-cig users. We also found genes implicated in inflammasomes, such as CXCL1, CXCL2, NOD2, and ASC, to be upregulated in smokers and these e-cig users. Vaping flavor and nicotine-less e-cigs, however, did not lead to significant cytokine dysregulation and inflammasome activation. Release of inflammasome products, such as IL-1B, and cytokine storms are hallmarks of COVID-19 infection, especially in severe cases. Therefore, our findings demonstrated that smoking or vaping may critically exacerbate COVID-19-related inflammation or increase susceptibility to COVID-19.