Single best euploid versus single best unknown-ploidy blastocyst frozen embryo transfers: a randomized controlled trial.
ABSTRACT: PURPOSE:This paper aims to investigate the efficacy of IVF with preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidy (PGT-A), using only best-scoring blastocysts from young (??35 years) infertile patients undergoing single blastocyst frozen embryo transfers (FET). METHOD:In this randomized controlled trial (RCT) registered 29 March 2017, 302 infertile patient-couples eligible to participate underwent autologous ICSI blastocyst freeze-all cycles. Two-hundred and twenty patient-couples satisfied the inclusion criteria (i.e., female age???35 years, two-day 5 ??2BB blastocysts) and were randomized to either the PGT-A (PGT-A group, n?=?109) selection arm or morphology score (morphology group, n?=?111) selection arm. In both arms, the highest ranking (by morphological score) blastocysts were selected for FET. RESULTS:Of the 109 best-scoring blastocysts that underwent PGT-A, 80 were predicted to be euploid (73.4%) and were transferred in FET (euploid subgroup). There was no statistical difference in LB rate between the euploid subgroup and morphology group (56.3% vs 58.6%, odds ratio 0.91 (95% CI 0.51-1.63), p?=?0.750). In a multiple logistic regression, the transfer of euploid blastocysts was not found to be a significant predictor of LB when adjusting for female age, infertility duration, antral follicle count, and blastocyst quality, with the independent odds expressed as 0.91 (95% CI 0.50-1.66, p?=?0.760). CONCLUSION:In young (??35 years) infertile patients with at least two ??2BB blastocysts, PGT-A blastocyst selection does not result in an enhanced LB rate, with the evidence suggesting that the effectivity of PGT-A may be limited by the effectivity of TE biopsy. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT03095053.
Project description:PURPOSE:To investigate the cumulative live birth (cLB) rate of one complete freeze-all-IVF cycle in a general infertile population and to investigate patient and treatment variables that predict blastocyst development and live birth (LB). METHOD:In a retrospective observational study, the data of all IVF cycles performed between 1 February 2015 and 31 January 2016 at a single IVF centre was investigated. In the study, patient-couples were followed up for 18 months following oocyte retrieval. After exclusions, the patient and treatment variables of 1582 patient-couples who underwent treatment were included in the analyses. RESULTS:The median time interval between the oocyte retrieval attempt and the frozen embryo transfer (FET) in which LB was achieved was 38.0 (35.0-67.0) days. The variables of freeze-all-IVF cycles with single blastocyst FET selected by multiple logistic regression to predict LB significantly were female age, infertility duration, FET number (i.e. 1st, 2nd, or ??3rd FET), and blastocyst quality. In a regression adjusting for female age, the number of blastocysts transferred, and oocyte number group (1-3, 4-9, 10-15, and >?15), none of the oocyte number groups were selected to predict LB of 1st FET, significantly. While the per transfer LB rates decreased linearly from the 1st (56.5%) to the 3rd (36.4%) FET, the cLB rate increased from 47.3% after the 1st FET to 55.0% after a 3rd possible FET. CONCLUSION:The cLB rate of one complete freeze-all-IVF cycle of a general infertile population, with 18-month follow-up, was 55.0%. In freeze-all-IVF, ovarian reserve variables were not selected by regression models to predict LB, significantly.
Project description:PURPOSE:To determine the expected out-of-pocket costs of IVF with preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidy (PGT-A) to attain a 50%, 75%, or 90% likelihood of a euploid blastocyst based on individual age and AMH, and develop a personalized counseling tool. METHODS:A cost analysis was performed and a counseling tool was developed using retrospective data from IVF cycles intended for PGT or blastocyst freeze-all between January 1, 2014 and August 31, 2017 (n = 330) and aggregate statistics on euploidy rates of > 149,000 embryos from CooperGenomics. Poisson regression was used to determine the number of biopsiable blastocysts obtained per cycle, based on age and AMH. The expected costs of attaining a 50%, 75%, and 90% likelihood of a euploid blastocyst were determined via 10,000 Monte Carlo simulations for each age and AMH combination, incorporating age-based euploidy rates and IVF/PGT-A cost assumptions. RESULTS:The cost to attain a 50% likelihood of a euploid blastocyst ranges from approximately $15,000 U.S. dollars (USD) for younger women with higher AMH values (≥ 2 ng/mL) to > $150,000 for the oldest women (44 years) with the lowest AMH values (< 0.1 ng/mL) in this cohort. The cost to attain a 75% versus 90% likelihood of a euploid blastocyst is similar (~ $16,000) for younger women with higher AMH values, but varies for the oldest women with low AMH values (~ $280,000 and > $450,000, respectively). A typical patient (36-37 years, AMH 2.5 ng/mL) should expect to spend ~ $30,000 for a 90% likelihood of attaining a euploid embryo. CONCLUSIONS:This tool can serve as a counseling adjunct by providing individualized cost information for patients regarding PGT-A.
Project description:PURPOSE:The aim of the study is to investigate how blastocyst contraction behaviour affects the reproductive competence in high-quality euploid embryos. METHODS:Eight hundred ninety-six high-quality blastocysts derived from 190 patients (mean age 38.05 (SD = 2.9) years) who underwent preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidies (PGT-A) from January 2016 to October 2017 were included in this study. PGT-A results were reported as euploid or aneuploid. Aneuploid embryos were sub-classified into three categories: monosomy, trisomy and complex aneuploid. Retrospective studies of time-lapse monitoring (TLM) of those embryos were analysed and reproductive outcome of transferred embryos was collected. RESULTS:A total of 234/896 were euploid (26.1%) whilst 662/896 (73.9%) blastocysts were proven to be aneuploid from which 116 (17.6%) presented monosomies, 136 (20.5%) trisomies and 410 (61.9%) were complex aneuploid. The most frequent chromosomal complements were trisomies affecting chromosome 21 and monosomies involving chromosomes 16 and 22. Data analysis showed a statistical difference in the number of contractions being reported greater in aneuploid when compared to euploid embryos (0.6 vs 1.57; p < 0.001). Analysis of the aneuploid embryos showed that monosomies present less number of contractions when compared to embryos affected with trisomies or complex aneuploidies (1.23 vs 1.53 and 1.40; p < 0.05). No difference was observed when comparing the latter two groups. Euploid embryos presenting at least one contraction resulted in lower implantation and clinical pregnancy rates when compared to blastocysts that do not display this event (47.6 vs 78.5% and 40.0 vs 59.0% respectively). CONCLUSIONS:Most aneuploid blastocysts diagnosed by PGT-A have complex aneuploidies, showing that aneuploid embryos can develop after genomic activation and reaching high morphological scores. It becomes clear that embryo contraction, despite being a physiological feature during blastulation, is conditioned by the ploidy status of the embryo. Furthermore, the presence of contractions may compromise implantation rates.
Project description:PURPOSE:The aim was to evaluate mtDNA content and its dynamics in euploid and aneuploid embryos from cleavage to blastocyst stage following consecutive biopsies. The effect of female age on mtDNA content was evaluated by comparing reproductively younger (??37 years) with older (>?37 years) women. METHODS:A retrospective single-centre descriptive study was performed between August 2016 and January 2017. Forty patients, with 112 embryos, undergoing preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidies (PGT-A) by next-generation sequencing (NGS) were included. Embryos that reached the blastocyst stage and were not selected for fresh embryo transfer were included following consecutive biopsies of a single blastomere on day 3 and trophectoderm biopsy of day 5 blastocysts. RESULTS:Cleavage-stage mtDNA was significantly lower in fast cleaving embryos (p?=?0.016). Based on the concordance between day 3 and day 5 biopsies, a difference was identified in blastocyst mtDNA content between groups (p?=?0.019); true euploid blastocysts presented a lower mtDNA content. No association was identified between cleavage-stage mtDNA content and ploidy status (OR 1.008 [0.981-1.036], p?=?0.565) nor between blastocyst mtDNA content and ploidy outcome (OR 0.954 [0.898-1.014], p?=?0.129). No difference was found when comparing mtDNA content and ploidy outcome between the two reproductive age groups (p?=?0.505 (cleavage stage) and p?=?0.774 (blastocyst)). CONCLUSION:Mitochondrial DNA content of cleavage-stage embryos and blastocysts is unable to predict ploidy status. Subgroup analysis based on ploidy concordance between day 3 and day 5 revealed a significantly lower mtDNA content for true euploid blastocysts. Reproductive ageing does not affect mtDNA content.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>To investigate the associations of previous pregnancy failures, including implantation failures (IFs), biochemical pregnancy losses (BPLs), and early (EMs) and late miscarriages (LMs), with blastocyst aneuploidy and pregnancy outcomes after PGT-A.<h4>Methods</h4>This study included 792 couples who underwent PGT-A after multiple pregnancy failures. Subgroup analyses were used to compare the blastocyst aneuploidy rate (BAR), implantation rate (IR), early miscarriage rate (EMR), and live birth rate (LBR). Multiple linear and logistic regression models were used to evaluate the associations. The control group comprised couples with ??2 IFs, ??1 BPL, ??1 EM, and no LM.<h4>Results</h4>Notably, a history of ??4 IFs was significantly associated with an increase in aneuploid blastocysts (42.86% vs. 33.05%, P?=?0.044, B?=?10.23 for 4 IFs; 48.80% vs. 33.05%, P?=?0.002, B?=?14.43 for ??5 IFs). Women with ??4 prior EMs also harbored more aneuploid blastocysts (41.00% vs. 33.05%, P?=?0.048; B?=?9.23). Compared with the control group, women with ??4 prior EMs had a significantly higher EMR (6.58% vs. 31.11%, P?<?0.001, OR?=?6.49) and a lower LBR (53.49% vs. 34.18%, P?=?0.007, OR?=?0.56) after euploid transfer. Moreover, a history of LM(s) was associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes after PGT-A (OR for EM?=?3.16; OR for live birth?=?0.48). However, previous BPLs and 2 EMs were not associated significantly with blastocyst aneuploidy and pregnancy outcomes after PGT-A.<h4>Conclusion</h4>A history of high-order IFs or EMs and existence of LM(s) were significantly associated with blastocyst aneuploidy and adverse pregnancy outcomes after PGT-A, whereas no such associations were observed with BPLs or 2 EMs.
Project description:PURPOSE:In this study, we tested the hypothesis that, in PGT-A cycles, decreased semen quality is associated with increased rates of mosaic blastocysts. METHODS:In a retrospective analysis, three hundred and forty PGT-A cycles are divided into study groups according to semen quality. Cycles were initially divided into two groups, discerning couples with absence of male factor of infertility (non-male factor: NMF; N?=?146 cycles) from couples with a male factor of infertility (MF; N?=?173 cycles). Couples with severe male factor (SMF) infertility (n?=?22) were assessed separately. Embryos were cultured to the blastocyst stage and chromosomally assessed by array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). The study did not involve specific interventions. RESULTS:The reproductive outcome of MF and NMF groups did not indicate statistically significant differences. However, while no differences were found between MF and NMF groups in terms of euploid or aneuploid blastocysts rates, a significantly higher rate of mosaic blastocysts was observed in the MF group (3.6% vs. 0.5%, respectively; P?=?0.03). A similar pattern of results was observed in the SMF group when compared with those of the other PGT-A cycles taken together (no SMF). In particular, a significantly higher rate of mosaic blastocysts was observed in the SMF group (7.7% and 1.8%, respectively; P?=?0.008). CONCLUSIONS:The study outcome strongly suggests that compromised semen quality is associated with increased rates of mosaic blastocysts analysed in PGT-A cycles. Sperm assessment appears therefore as an important factor in the determination of embryo development and for a more precise prognostic assessment of PGT-A cases.
Project description:PURPOSE:To determine the developmental competence of fast-cleaving D3 embryos. METHODS:Retrospective study including 4028 embryos from 513 PGT-A cycles performed between July 2014 and June 2017. Embryos were cultured in time-lapse incubators and biopsied at blastocyst stage. Embryos were classified in groups according to the number of cells on D3 (from 2-cell to ?13 -cell and compacted). A generalized linear mixed model adjusted for confounding factors was performed to assess the chance to give rise to an euploid blastocyst in each group compared with the chance of 8-cell embryos. Implantation and live birth rates were also analyzed. RESULTS:The statistical analysis showed that embryos with 9 to 11 cells had a slightly lower euploid blastocyst rate than 8-cell embryos (OR (95% CI) 0.77 (0.61-0.96)) while embryos with more than 11 cells were found to be just as likely to give rise to an euploid blastocyst as the 8-cell embryos (OR (95% CI) 1.20 (0.92-1.56)). Conversely, slow-cleaving embryos had a significantly lower euploid blastocyst rate than 8-cell embryos (OR (95% CI) 0.31 (0.24-0.39)). Moreover, euploid blastocysts derived from fast-cleaving embryos and from 8-cell embryos exhibit similar live birth rates. No significant differences were found in the chance to give rise a live birth between 8-cell and 9- to 11-cell embryos (OR (95% CI) 1.23 (0.70-2.15)) and >?11-cell embryos (OR (95% CI) 1.09 (0.57-2.09)). CONCLUSIONS:Embryos with more than 11 cells exhibit similar developmental competence to 8-cell embryos. Their poor prognosis should be reconsidered.
Project description:This multicenter study evaluated the reliability of the recently published ART calculator for predicting the minimum number of metaphase II (MII) oocytes (MIImin) to obtain at least one euploid blastocyst in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI). We used clinical and embryonic retrospective data of 1,464 consecutive infertile couples who underwent IVF/ICSI with the intention to have preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidy. The validation procedure followed a stepwise approach. Firstly, we assessed the distribution of euploid blastocysts per patient and found that it followed a negative binomial distribution. Secondly, we used generalized linear models and applied the Lasso procedure-including MII oocytes to adjust the data-to select the factors predicting the response variable "euploid blastocyst." Third, a logistic regression model-fit to the binomial response euploid (yes/no) for each MII oocyte-was built using the relevant factors. The observational unit was the "woman" whereas the response was the pair (m, n), where n is the number of retrieved MII oocytes and m the corresponding number of euploid blastocysts. The model was internally validated by randomly splitting the data into training and validation sets. The R-squares (~0.25) and the area under the ROC curve (~0.70) did not differ between the training and validation datasets. Fourth, mathematical equations and the calculated probabilities generated by the validation model were used to determine the MIImin required for obtaining at least one euploid blastocyst according to different success probabilities. Lastly, we compared the fittings generated by the validation model and the ART calculator and assessed the predictive value of the latter using the validation dataset. The fittings were sufficiently close for both the estimated probabilities of blastocyst euploid per MII oocyte (r = 0.91) and MIImin (r = 0.88). The ART calculator positive predictive values, i.e., the frequency of patients with at least one euploid blastocyst among those who achieved the estimated MIImin, were 84.8%, 87.5%, and 90.0% for 70%, 80%, and 90% predicted probabilities of success, respectively. The ART calculator effectively predicts the MIImin needed to achieve at least one euploid blastocyst in individual patients undergoing IVF/ICSI. The prediction tool might be used for counseling and planning IVF/ICSI treatments.
Project description:BACKGROUND/AIM:To determine the incidence of X chromosome mosaicism in women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment and present preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidy (PGT-A) outcome of this group. PATIENTS AND METHODS:A total of 1,058 women undergoing IVF and 154 women with no fertility problems were enrolled in the study. Karyotyping from peripheral blood lymphocytes was performed by conventional cytogenetics. Twenty-nine women with X mosaicism underwent PGT-A by array-comparative genomic hybridization from embryos at the blastocyst stage. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:Out of 1,058 women undergoing IVF, 166 (15.7%) had an abnormal karyotype. The most common finding (14.6%) was X chromosome mosaicism. Its frequency was higher in women >35 years old and reached 46.1% in those >45 years of age. PGT-A results of 130 blastocysts tested showed that 29/117 (24.8%) were euploid; 17/29 (60%) were transferred and 10/17 (70%) were successfully implanted, indicating that PGT-A may be an option for women with low-level X chromosome mosaicism undergoing IVF in order to improve the likelihood of a successful pregnancy outcome.
Project description:The POSEIDON group (Patient-Oriented Strategies Encompassing IndividualizeD Oocyte Number) has introduced "the ability to retrieve the number of oocytes needed to achieve at least one euploid embryo for transfer" as an intermediate marker of successful outcome in IVF/ICSI cycles. This study aimed to develop a novel calculator to predict the POSEIDON marker. We analyzed clinical and embryonic data of infertile couples who underwent IVF/ICSI with the intention to have trophectoderm biopsy for preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidy. We used the negative binomial distribution to model the number of euploid blastocysts and the adaptive LASSO (Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator) method for variable selection. The fitted model selected female age, sperm source used for ICSI, and the number of mature (metaphase II) oocytes as predictors (p < 0.0001). Female age was the most important factor for predicting the probability of a blastocyst being euploid given each mature oocyte (loglikelihood of age [adjusted for sperm source]: 30.9; df = 2; p < 0.0001). The final predictive model was developed using logistic regression analysis, and internally validated by the holdout method. The predictive ability of the model was assessed by the ROC curve, which resulted in an area under the curve of 0.716. Using the final model and mathematical equations, we calculated the individualized probability of blastocyst euploidy per mature retrieved oocyte and the minimum number of mature oocytes required to obtain ?1 euploid blastocyst-with their 95% confidence interval [CI]-for different probabilities of success. The estimated predicted probabilities of a mature oocyte turn into a euploid blastocyst decreased progressively with female age and was negatively modulated overall by use of testicular sperm across age (p < 0.001). A calculator was developed to make two types of predictions automatically, one using pretreatment information to estimate the minimum number of mature oocytes to achieve ?1 euploid blastocyst, and another based on the actual number of mature oocytes collected/accumulated to estimate the chances of having a euploid blastocyst using that oocyte cohort for IVF/ICSI. The new ART calculator may assist in clinical counseling and individualized treatment planning regarding the number of oocytes required for at least one euploid blastocyst in IVF/ICSI procedures.