The Epigenetic Factor CBP Is Required for the Differentiation and Function of Medial Ganglionic Eminence-Derived Interneurons.
ABSTRACT: The development of inhibitory circuits depends on the action of a network of transcription factors and epigenetic regulators that are critical for interneuron specification and differentiation. Although the identity of many of these transcription factors is well established, much less is known about the specific contribution of the chromatin-modifying enzymes that sculpt the interneuron epigenome. Here, we generated a mouse model in which the lysine acetyltransferase CBP is specifically removed from neural progenitors at the median ganglionic eminence (MGE), the structure where the most abundant types of cortical interneurons are born. Ablation of CBP interfered with the development of MGE-derived interneurons in both sexes, causing a reduction in the number of functionally mature interneurons in the adult forebrain. Genetic fate mapping experiments not only demonstrated that CBP ablation impacts on different interneuron classes, but also unveiled a compensatory increment of interneurons that escaped recombination and cushion the excitatory-inhibitory imbalance. Consistent with having a reduced number of interneurons, CBP-deficient mice exhibited a high incidence of spontaneous epileptic seizures, and alterations in brain rhythms and enhanced low gamma activity during status epilepticus. These perturbations led to abnormal behavior including hyperlocomotion, increased anxiety and cognitive impairments. Overall, our study demonstrates that CBP is essential for interneuron development and the proper functioning of inhibitory circuitry in vivo.
Project description:Immature neurons generated by the subpallial MGE tangentially migrate to the cortex where they become parvalbumin-expressing (PV+) and somatostatin (SST+) interneurons. Here, we show that the Sp9 transcription factor controls the development of MGE-derived cortical interneurons. SP9 is expressed in the MGE subventricular zone and in MGE-derived migrating interneurons. Sp9 null and conditional mutant mice have approximately 50% reduction of MGE-derived cortical interneurons, an ectopic aggregation of MGE-derived neurons in the embryonic ventral telencephalon, and an increased ratio of SST+/PV+ cortical interneurons. RNA-Seq and SP9 ChIP-Seq reveal that SP9 regulates MGE-derived cortical interneuron development through controlling the expression of key transcription factors Arx, Lhx6, Lhx8, Nkx2-1, and Zeb2 involved in interneuron development, as well as genes implicated in regulating interneuron migration Ackr3, Epha3, and St18. Thus, Sp9 has a central transcriptional role in MGE-derived cortical interneuron development.
Project description:Interneurons contribute to the complexity of neural circuits and maintenance of normal brain function. Rodent interneurons originate in embryonic ganglionic eminences, but developmental origins in other species are less understood. Here, we show that transcription factor expression patterns in porcine embryonic subpallium are similar to rodents, delineating a distinct medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) progenitor domain. On the basis of Nkx2.1, Lhx6, and Dlx2 expression, <i>in vitro</i> differentiation into neurons expressing GABA, and robust migratory capacity in explant assays, we propose that cortical and hippocampal interneurons originate from a porcine MGE region. Following xenotransplantation into adult male and female rat hippocampus, we further demonstrate that porcine MGE progenitors, like those from rodents, migrate and differentiate into morphologically distinct interneurons expressing GABA. Our findings reveal that basic rules for interneuron development are conserved across species, and that porcine embryonic MGE progenitors could serve as a valuable source for interneuron-based xenotransplantation therapies.<b>SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT</b> Here we demonstrate that porcine medial ganglionic eminence, like rodents, exhibit a distinct transcriptional and interneuron-specific antibody profile, <i>in vitro</i> migratory capacity and are amenable to xenotransplantation. This is the first comprehensive examination of embryonic interneuron origins in the pig; and because a rich neurodevelopmental literature on embryonic mouse medial ganglionic eminence exists (with some additional characterizations in other species, e.g., monkey and human), our work allows direct neurodevelopmental comparisons with this literature.
Project description:Although it is well established that the ventral telencephalon is the primary source of GABAergic cortical interneurons in rodents, little is known about the specification of specific interneuron subtypes. It is also unclear whether the potential to achieve a given fate is established at their place of origin or by signals received during their migration to or during their maturation within the cerebral cortex. Using both in vivo and in vitro transplantation techniques, we find that two major interneuron subgroups have largely distinct origins within the MGE. Somatostatin (SST)-expressing interneurons are primarily generated within the dorsal MGE, while parvalbumin (PV)-expressing interneurons primarily originate from the ventral MGE. In addition, we show that significant heterogeneity exists between gene expression patterns in the dorsal and ventral MGE. These results suggest that, like the spinal cord, neuronal fate determination in the ventral telencephalon is largely the result of spatially segregated, molecularly distinct microdomains arranged on the dorsal-ventral axis.
Project description:Understanding the mechanisms guiding interneuron development is a central aspect of the current research on cortical/hippocampal interneurons, which is highly relevant to brain function and pathology. In this methodological study we have addressed the setup of protocols for the reproducible culture of dissociated cells from murine medial ganglionic eminences (MGEs), to provide a culture system for the analysis of interneurons in vitro. This study includes the detailed protocols for the preparation of the dissociated cells, and for their culture on optimal substrates for cell migration or differentiation. These cultures enriched in interneurons may allow the investigation of the migratory behavior of interneuron precursors and their differentiation in vitro, up to the formation of morphologically identifiable GABAergic synapses. Live imaging of MGE-derived cells plated on proper substrates shows that they are useful to study the migratory behavior of the precursors, as well as the behavior of growth cones during the development of neurites. Most MGE-derived precursors develop into polarized GABAergic interneurons as determined by axonal, dendritic, and GABAergic markers. We present also a comparison of cells from WT and mutant mice as a proof of principle for the use of these cultures for the analysis of the migration and differentiation of GABAergic cells with different genetic backgrounds. The culture enriched in interneurons described here represents a useful experimental system to examine in a relatively easy and fast way the morpho-functional properties of these cells under physiological or pathological conditions, providing a powerful tool to complement the studies in vivo.
Project description:By combining an inducible genetic fate mapping strategy with electrophysiological analysis, we have systematically characterized the populations of cortical GABAergic interneurons that originate from the caudal ganglionic eminence (CGE). Interestingly, compared with medial ganglionic eminence (MGE)-derived cortical interneuron populations, the initiation [embryonic day 12.5 (E12.5)] and peak production (E16.5) of interneurons from this embryonic structure occurs 3 d later in development. Moreover, unlike either pyramidal cells or MGE-derived cortical interneurons, CGE-derived interneurons do not integrate into the cortex in an inside-out manner but preferentially (75%) occupy superficial cortical layers independent of birthdate. In contrast to previous estimates, CGE-derived interneurons are both considerably greater in number (approximately 30% of all cortical interneurons) and diversity (comprised by at least nine distinct subtypes). Furthermore, we found that a large proportion of CGE-derived interneurons, including the neurogliaform subtype, express the glycoprotein Reelin. In fact, most CGE-derived cortical interneurons express either Reelin or vasoactive intestinal polypeptide. Thus, in conjunction with previous studies, we have now determined the spatial and temporal origins of the vast majority of cortical interneuron subtypes.
Project description:The integration of interneuron subtypes into specific microcircuits is essential for proper cortical function. Understanding to what extent interneuron diversity is regulated and maintained during development might help to reveal the principles that govern their role as synchronizing elements as well as causes for dysfunction. Particular interneuron subtypes are generated in a temporally regulated manner in the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE), the caudal ganglionic eminence, and the preoptic area (POA) of the basal telencephalon. Long-range tangential migration from their site of origin to cortical targets is orchestrated by a variety of attractive, repulsive, membrane-bound, and secreted signaling molecules, to establish the critical balance of inhibition and excitation. It remains unknown whether interneurons deriving from distinct domains are predetermined to migrate in particular routes and whether this process underlies cell type-specific regulation. We found that POA- and MGE-derived cortical interneurons migrate within spatially segregated corridors. EphrinB3, expressed in POA-derived interneurons traversing the superficial route, acts as a repellent signal for deeply migrating interneurons born in the MGE, which is mediated by EphA4 forward signaling. In contrast, EphA4 induces repulsive ephrinB3 reverse signaling in interneurons generated in the POA, restricting this population to the superficial path. Perturbation of this bidirectional ephrinB3/EphA4 signaling in vitro and in vivo leads to a partial intermingling of cells in these segregated migratory pathways. Thus, we conclude that cell contact-mediated bidirectional ephrinB3/EphA4 signaling mediates the sorting of MGE- and POA-derived interneurons in the deep and superficial migratory stream.
Project description:Cortical interneurons arise from the ganglionic eminences in the ventral telencephalon and migrate tangentially to the cortex. Although RhoA and Cdc42, members of the Rho family of small GTPases, have been implicated in regulating neuronal migration, their respective roles in the tangential migration of cortical interneurons remain unknown. Here we show that loss of RhoA and Cdc42 in the ventricular zone (VZ) of the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) using Olig2-Cre mice causes moderate or severe defects in the migration of cortical interneurons, respectively. Furthermore, RhoA- or Cdc42-deleted MGE cells exhibit impaired migration in vitro. To determine whether RhoA and Cdc42 directly regulate the motility of cortical interneurons during migration, we deleted RhoA and Cdc42 in the subventricular zone (SVZ), where more fate-restricted progenitors are located within the ganglionic eminences, using Dlx5/6-Cre-ires-EGFP (Dlx5/6-CIE) mice. Deletion of either gene within the SVZ does not cause any obvious defects in cortical interneuron migration, indicating that cell motility is not dependent upon RhoA or Cdc42. These findings provide genetic evidence that RhoA and Cdc42 are required in progenitors of the MGE in the VZ, but not the SVZ, for proper cortical interneuron migration.
Project description:In the mammalian cortex, about 60% of GABAergic interneurons, mainly including parvalbumin-expressing (PV+) and somatostatin (SST+) interneurons are generated from the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) in the subpallium and tangentially migrate to the cortex. Here we analyze the role of the Sp9 transcription factor in regulating the development of MGE-derived cortical interneurons. We show that SP9 is widely expressed in the MGE subventricular zone (SVZ) and in MGE-derived migrating interneurons. By analyzing Sp9 null and conditional mutant mice, we demonstrate that Sp9 promotes MGE progenitor proliferation in the SVZ and is required for the normal patterning of tangential migration and the laminar distribution of MGE-derived cortical GABAergic interneurons. Loss of Sp9 function results in a ~50% reduction of MGE-derived cortical interneurons, an ectopic aggregation of MGE-derived neurons in the embryonic ventral telencephalon, and an increased ratio of SST+/PV+ cortical interneurons. Finally, we provide evidence that Sp9 regulates MGE derived cortical interneuron development through promoting expression of the Lhx6 and Lhx8 transcription factors. Overall design: Medial ganglionic eminence mRNA profiles of embryonic 12.5 wild type (WT) and sp9 null mutant mice were generated by deep sequencing, in triplicate, using using an illumina high-seq 2500
Project description:Cortical interneurons originating from the medial ganglionic eminence, MGE, are among the most diverse cells within the CNS. Different pools of proliferating progenitor cells are thought to exist in the ventricular zone of the MGE, but whether the underlying subventricular and mantle regions of the MGE are spatially patterned has not yet been addressed. Here, we combined laser-capture microdissection and multiplex RNA-sequencing to map the transcriptome of MGE cells at a spatial resolution of 50 μm.Distinct groups of progenitor cells showing different stages of interneuron maturation are identified and topographically mapped based on their genome-wide transcriptional pattern. Although proliferating potential decreased rather abruptly outside the ventricular zone, a ventro-lateral gradient of increasing migratory capacity was identified, revealing heterogeneous cell populations within this neurogenic structure.We demonstrate that spatially resolved RNA-seq is ideally suited for high resolution topographical mapping of genome-wide gene expression in heterogeneous anatomical structures such as the mammalian central nervous system.
Project description:<h4>Aims</h4>Medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) progenitors give rise to inhibitory interneurons and may serve as an alternative cell source for large-scale cell transplantation for epilepsy after in vitro expansion. We investigated whether modifications in the culture medium of MGE neurospheres affect neuronal differentiation and expression of MGE-specific genes. In vivo, we compared anticonvulsant effects and cell differentiation pattern among neurospheres grown in different culture media and compared them with freshly harvested MGE cells.<h4>Methods</h4>We used four variations of cell culture: standard, containing growth factors (EGF/FGF-2) (GF); addition of retinoic acid (GF-RA); withdrawal of EGF/FGF-2 (WD); and addition of retinoic acid and withdrawal of EGF/FGF-2 (WD-RA). Based on in vitro results neurosphere-grown (WD-RA or GF conditions) or fresh MGE cells were transplanted into the hippocampus.<h4>Results</h4>In vitro WD-RA showed increased neuronal population and higher expression of Dlx1, Nkx2.1, and Lhx6 genes in comparison with GF culture condition. After transplantation, fresh MGE cells and neurospheres (GF) showed anticonvulsant effects. However, fresh MGE cells differentiated preferentially into inhibitory neurons, while GF gave rise to glial cells.<h4>Conclusion</h4>We conclude that freshly isolated and neurosphere-grown MGE cells reduced seizures by different mechanisms (inhibitory interneurons vs. astrocytes). Fresh MGE cells appear more appropriate for cell therapies targeting inhibitory interneurons for conferring anticonvulsant outcomes.