Switching genetic effects of the flowering time gene Hd1 in LD conditions by Ghd7 and OsPRR37 in rice.
ABSTRACT: Flowering time control in plants is a major limiting factor on the range of species. Day length, perceived via the photoperiodic pathway, is a critical factor for the induction of flowering. The module of GIGANTEA (GI)-CONSTANS (CO)-FLOWERING LOCUS T in the long day (LD) plant Arabidopsis is conserved in diverse plant species including the short day (SD) plant rice, where this module comprises OsGI-Heading date 1 (Hd1)-Heading date 3a. Hd1, the rice ortholog of Arabidopsis CO, has dual functions in the regulation of flowering time, promoting flowering in SD conditions and delaying it in LD conditions. We herein show genetic interactions among three LD repressor genes: Hd1, Grain number, plant height and heading date 7 (Ghd7), and Oryza sativa Pseudo-Response Regulator37 (OsPRR37). Genetic analyses, including segregation analyses, evaluations of near isogenic lines, and transformation for flowering time demonstrated that Hd1 promoted flowering time in inductive SD and non-inductive LD conditions in genetic condition of loss-of-function Ghd7 and OsPRR37 (ghd7osprr37) in rice. Functional Ghd7 or OsPRR37 may switch the genetic effects of Hd1 from the promotion to the delay of flowering times in LD conditions.
Project description:Previous studies suggested that Hd1 promoted heading under short-day conditions (SD) and delayed heading under long-day conditions (LD). However in this study, Hd1 was demonstrated to consistently promote heading date in Zhenshan 97 (ZS97) background by upregulating Ehd1, Hd3a and RFT1 expression under both SD and LD. While the high photoperiod sensitivity of Hd1 was observed in Minghui 63 (MH63) background, with heading being suppressed in LD but promoted in SD. Comparative analysis of two sets of near isogenic lines of Hd1 in MH63 and ZS97 backgrounds indicated that the alternative functions of Hd1 in promoting or suppressing heading under LD are dependent on the previously cloned flowering repressor gene Ghd7. The interaction between proteins Ghd7 and Hd1 occurred through binding of the CCT domain of Ghd7 to the transcription-activating domain of Hd1, resulting in suppression of Ehd1 and florigen gene expression. The involvement of the transcription-activating domain of Hd1 in this protein-protein interaction probably blocked or weakened its transcriptional activity. These findings suggest that Hd1 alone essentially acts as a promoter of heading date, and the protein interaction between Ghd7 and Hd1 determines photoperiod sensitivity and integrated Hd1-mediated and Ehd1-mediated flowering pathways in rice.
Project description:Arabidopsis thaliana early flowering 3 (ELF3) as a zeitnehmer (time taker) is responsible for generation of circadian rhythm and regulation of photoperiodic flowering. There are two orthologs (OsELF3-1 and OsELF3-2) of ELF3 in rice (Oryza sativa), but their roles have not yet been fully identified. Here, we performed a functional characterization of OsELF3-1 and revealed it plays a more predominant role than OsELF3-2 in rice heading. Our results suggest OsELF3-1 can affect rice circadian systems via positive regulation of OsLHY expression and negative regulation of OsPRR1, OsPRR37, OsPRR73 and OsPRR95 expression. In addition, OsELF3-1 is involved in blue light signaling by activating early heading date 1 (Ehd1) expression to promote rice flowering under short-day (SD) conditions. Moreover, OsELF3-1 suppresses a flowering repressor grain number, plant height and heading date 7 (Ghd7) to indirectly accelerate flowering under long-day (LD) conditions. Taken together, our results indicate OsELF3-1 is essential for circadian regulation and photoperiodic flowering in rice.
Project description:Flowering time (or heading date) is controlled by intrinsic genetic programs in response to environmental cues, such as photoperiod and temperature. Rice, a facultative short-day (SD) plant, flowers early in SD and late in long-day (LD) conditions. Casein kinases (CKs) generally act as positive regulators in many signaling pathways in plants. In rice, Heading date 6 (Hd6) and Hd16 encode CK2? and CKI, respectively, and mainly function to delay flowering time. Additionally, the major LD-dependent floral repressors Hd2/Oryza sativa Pseudo-Response Regulator 37 (OsPRR37; hereafter PRR37) and Ghd7 also confer strong photoperiod sensitivity. In floral induction, Hd16 acts upstream of Ghd7 and CKI interacts with and phosphorylates Ghd7. In addition, Hd6 and Hd16 also act upstream of Hd2. However, whether CKI and CK2? directly regulate the function of PRR37 remains unclear. Here, we use in vitro pull-down and in vivo bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays to show that CKI and CK2? interact with PRR37. We further use in vitro kinase assays to show that CKI and CK2? phosphorylate different regions of PRR37. Our results indicate that direct posttranslational modification of PRR37 mediates the genetic interactions between these two protein kinases and PRR37. The significance of CK-mediated phosphorylation for PRR37 and Ghd7 function is discussed.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Heading date is crucial for rice reproduction and geographic expansion. Many heading date genes are sensitive to photoperiod and jointly regulate flowering time in rice. However, it is not clear how these genes coordinate rice heading. RESULTS:Here, we performed a genetic interaction analysis among four major rice heading date genes Ghd7, Ghd8, OsPRR37/Ghd7.1 (hereafter PRR37) and Hd1 in the near-isogenic background under both natural long-day (NLD) and natural short-day (NSD) conditions. The 4-gene segregating population exhibited a large heading date variation with more than 95 days under NLD and 42 days under NSD conditions. Tetragenic, trigenic and digenic interactions among these four genes were observed under both conditions but more significant under NLD conditions. In the functional Hd1 backgrounds, the strongest digenic interaction was Ghd7 by Ghd8 under NLD but was Ghd7 by PRR37 under NSD conditions. Interestingly, PRR37 acted as a flowering suppressor under NLD conditions, while it functioned alternatively as an activator or a suppressor under NSD conditions depending on the status of the other three genes. Based on the performances of 16 homozygous four-gene combinations, a positive correlation between heading date and spikelets per panicle (SPP) was found under NSD conditions, but changed to a negative correlation when heading date was over 90 days under NLD conditions. CONCLUSIONS:These results demonstrate the importance of genetic interactions in the rice flowering regulatory network and will help breeders to select favorable combinations to maximize rice yield potential for different ecological areas.
Project description:Rice is a facultative short-day plant (SDP), and the regulatory pathways for flowering time are conserved, but functionally modified, in Arabidopsis and rice. Heading date 1 (Hd1), an ortholog of Arabidopsis CONSTANS (CO), is a key regulator that suppresses flowering under long-day conditions (LDs), but promotes flowering under short-day conditions (SDs) by influencing the expression of the florigen gene Heading date 3a (Hd3a). Another key regulator, Early heading date 1 (Ehd1), is an evolutionarily unique gene with no orthologs in Arabidopsis, which acts as a flowering activator under both SD and LD by promoting the rice florigen genes Hd3a and RICE FLOWERING LOCUST 1 (RFT1). Here, we report the isolation and characterization of the flowering regulator Heading Date Repressor1 (HDR1) in rice. The hdr1 mutant exhibits an early flowering phenotype under natural LD in a paddy field in Beijing, China (39°54'N, 116°23'E), as well as under LD but not SD in a growth chamber, indicating that HDR1 may functionally regulate flowering time via the photoperiod-dependent pathway. HDR1 encodes a nuclear protein that is most active in leaves and floral organs and exhibits a typical diurnal expression pattern. We determined that HDR1 is a novel suppressor of flowering that upregulates Hd1 and downregulates Ehd1, leading to the downregulation of Hd3a and RFT1 under LDs. We have further identified an HDR1-interacting kinase, OsK4, another suppressor of rice flowering under LDs. OsK4 acts similarly to HDR1, suppressing flowering by upregulating Hd1 and downregulating Ehd1 under LDs, and OsK4 can phosphorylate HD1 with HDR1 presents. These results collectively reveal the transcriptional regulators of Hd1 for the day-length-dependent control of flowering time in rice.
Project description:Due to the remarkable adaptability to various environments, rice varieties with diverse flowering times have been domesticated or improved from Oryza rufipogon. Detailed knowledge of the genetic factors controlling flowering time will facilitate understanding the adaptation mechanism in cultivated rice and enable breeders to design appropriate genotypes for distinct preferences. In this study, four genes (Hd1, DTH8, Ghd7 and OsPRR37) in a rice long-day suppression pathway were collected and sequenced in 154, 74, 69 and 62 varieties of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) respectively. Under long-day conditions, varieties with nonfunctional alleles flowered significantly earlier than those with functional alleles. However, the four genes have different genetic effects in the regulation of flowering time: Hd1 and OsPRR37 are major genes that generally regulate rice flowering time for all varieties, while DTH8 and Ghd7 only regulate regional rice varieties. Geographic analysis and network studies suggested that the nonfunctional alleles of these suppression loci with regional adaptability were derived recently and independently. Alleles with regional adaptability should be taken into consideration for genetic improvement. The rich genetic variations in these four genes, which adapt rice to different environments, provide the flexibility needed for breeding rice varieties with diverse flowering times.
Project description:Growing cultivated rice with a moderate heading date is the key to expanding its cultivation area and maintaining stable yields. The genes that regulate heading date are largely cloned; however, it remains unclear how genetic mutations and their combinations affect the heading date and adaptability of cultivated rice. Here, we report the analysis of genetic variation in eight long-day flowering suppressor genes (Hd1, DTH8, Ghd7, OsCOL4, DTH7, Hd6, Se5, and PhyB) and the phylogenetic relationship of eight genes. Genetic variations in DTH8, Ghd7, Hd1, DTH7, PhyB, and OsCOL4 are correlated with differences in heading date and the correlation between the genetic diversity of Hd6 and Se5 and rice heading data are weak. One group of haplotypes of DTH8, Ghd7, Hd1, DTH7, PhyB, and OsCOL4 are associated with earlier heading dates and appear to have accumulated during the northward expansion of rice cultivation. A minimum of four group A alleles of DTH8, Ghd7, Hd1, DTH7, PhyB, and OsCOL4 are required for the growth of cultivated rice at latitudes above 30°N. This study presents a preliminary investigation of the genetic patterns and adaptation mechanisms of long-day flowering suppressor genes and provides a useful reference for the molecular breeding of rice cultivars for various environments and farming systems.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Flowering time is one of the most important agronomic characteristics that ultimately determine yield potential and eco-geographical adaptation in crops. Ghd8 and Ghd7, two major flowering genes, have similar functions and large pleiotropic effects in controlling the heading date, plant height and grain yield of rice. However, these gene interactions at the genetic and molecular levels have not been determined to date. RESULTS:In this study, we investigated the genetic interaction between Ghd8 and Ghd7 by using a set of near-isogenic lines and a panel of natural germplasm accessions in rice. We found that Ghd8 affected multiple agronomic traits in a functional Ghd7-dependent manner. Both functional Ghd8 and Ghd7 are pivotal for rice photoperiod sensitivity controlled by Hd1 and Hd3a. GHD8 could form a heterotrimeric complex with HD1 and OsHAP5b to activate the transcription of Ghd7 by binding directly to the promoter region of Ghd7, which contains the CCAAT-box motif. CONCLUSIONS:The results of this study help to elucidate the genetic and molecular bases of Ghd8 and Ghd7 interactions, indicating that Ghd8 acts upstream of Ghd7 to activate its transcription, which inhibits Hd3a expression and thus affects flowering time and rice adaptation.
Project description:Recent advances in rice flowering studies have shown that the accurate control of flowering by photoperiod is regulated by key mechanisms that involve the regulation of flowering genes including Heading date1 (Hd1), Early hd1 (Ehd1), Hd3a, and RFT1. The chromatin mechanism involved in the regulation of rice flowering genes is presently not well known. Here we show that the rice enhancer of zeste [E(z)] genes SDG711 and SDG718, which encode the polycomb repressive complex2 (PRC2) key subunit that is required for trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3), are respectively, involved in long day (LD) and short day (SD) regulation of key flowering genes. The expression of SDG711 and SDG718 is induced by LD and SD, respectively. Over-expression and down-regulation of SDG711 respectively, repressed and promoted flowering in LD, but had no effect in SD. By contrast, down-regulation of SDG718 had no effect in LD but delayed flowering in SD. SDG711 and SDG718 repressed OsLF (a repressor of Hd1) respectively in LD and SD, leading to a higher expression of Hd1 thus late flowering in LD and early flowering in SD. SDG711 was also found to be involved in the repression of Ehd1 in LD. SDG711 was shown to directly target to OsLF and Ehd1 loci to mediate H3K27me3 and gene repression. The function of the rice E(z) genes in LD repression and SD promotion of flowering suggests that PRC2-mediated epigenetic repression of gene expression is involved in the accurate photoperiod control of rice flowering.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Photoperiod-sensitive genic male sterile (PGMS) rice, Nongken 58S, was discovered in 1973. It has been widely used for the production of hybrid rice, and great achievements have been made in improving rice yields. However, the mechanism of the male sterility transition in PGMS rice remains to be determined. RESULTS: To investigate the transcriptome during the male sterility transition in PGMS rice, the transcriptome of Nongken 58S under short-day (SD) and long-day (LD) at the glume primordium differentiation and pistil/stamen primordium forming stages was compared. Seventy-three and 128 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified at the glume primordium differentiation and pistil/stamen primordium forming stages, respectively. Five and 22 genes were markedly up-regulated (≥ 5-fold), and two and five genes were considerably down-regulated (≥ 5-fold) under SD during the male sterility transition. Gene ontology annotation and pathway analysis revealed that four biological processes and the circadian rhythms and the flowering pathways coordinately regulated the male sterility transition. Further quantitative PCR analysis demonstrated that the circadian rhythms of OsPRR1, OsPRR37, OsGI, Hd1, OsLHY and OsDof in leaves were obviously different between Nongken 58S and Nongken 58 under LD conditions. Moreover, both OsPRR37 and Hd1 in the inflorescence displayed differences between Nongken 58S and Nongken 58 under both LD and SD conditions. CONCLUSION: The results presented here indicate that the transcriptome in Nongken 58S was significantly suppressed under LD conditions. Among these DEGs, the circadian rhythm and the flowering pathway were involved in the male sterility transition. Furthermore, these pathways were coordinately involved in the male sterility transition in PGMS rice.