A cluster randomised, double-blind pilot and feasibility trial of an active behavioural physiotherapy intervention for acute whiplash-associated disorder (WAD)II.
ABSTRACT: Whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) causes substantial social and economic burden, with ?70% patients classified as WADII (neck complaint and musculoskeletal sign(s)). Effective management in the acute stage is required to prevent development of chronicity; an issue for 60% of patients. An Active Behavioural Physiotherapy Intervention (ABPI) was developed to address both physical and psychological components of WAD. The ABPI is a novel complex intervention designed through a rigorous sequential multiphase project to prevent transition of acute WAD to chronicity. An external pilot and feasibility cluster randomised double-blind (assessor, participants) parallel two-arm clinical trial was conducted in the UK private sector. The trial compared ABPI versus standard physiotherapy to evaluate trial procedures and feasibility of the ABPI for managing acute WADII in preparation for a future definitive trial. Six private physiotherapy clinics were recruited and cluster randomised using a computer-generated randomisation sequence. Twenty-eight (20 ABPI, 8 standard physiotherapy) participants [median age 38.00 (IQR = 21.50) years] were recruited. Data were analysed descriptively with a priori establishment of success criteria. Ninety-five percent of participants in the ABPI arm fully recovered (Neck Disability Index ?4, compared to 17% in the standard physiotherapy arm); required fewer treatment sessions; and demonstrated greater improvement in all outcome measures (pain intensity, Cervical Range of Motion, Pressure Pain Threshold, EuroQol-5 Dimensions) except for the Impact of Events Scale and Fear Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire. The findings support the potential value of the ABPI, and that an adequately powered definitive trial to evaluate effectiveness (clinical, cost) is feasible with minor modifications to procedures.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Non-specific neck pain causes pain and disability and contributes substantial socioeconomic burden internationally. Up to 50% of adults experience neck pain annually, leading to reduced the quality of life. An active behavioural physiotherapy intervention (ABPI) may be feasible to manage patients with acute non-specific neck pain to prevent transition to chronicity. A recent pilot and feasibility trial investigating an acute whiplash-associated disorder population found potential value of the ABPI with 95% of participants fully recovered (Neck Disability Index: NDI ?4, compared with 17% in the standard physiotherapy arm); supporting a definitive trial. Qualitative findings from the physiotherapists supported the potential of the ABPI in a non-specific neck pain population.<h4>Methods and analysis</h4>Two phases: (1) Pragmatic cluster randomised double-blind, parallel 2-arm (ABPI vs standard physiotherapy intervention) pilot and feasibility trial to evaluate the procedures and feasibility of the ABPI for the management of acute non-specific neck pain. Six physiotherapy departments from six public hospitals in Thailand will be recruited and cluster randomised by a computer-generated randomisation sequence with block sampling. Sixty participants (30 each arm, 10 per hospital) will be assessed at baseline and 3 months following baseline for NDI, Numerical Rating Scale for pain intensity, cervical range of motion, fear-avoidance beliefs questionnaire and EuroQol-5 dimensions 5 levels outcomes, and (2) Embedded qualitative study using semistructured interviews to explore acceptability of the ABPI to participants (n=12) and physiotherapists (n=3). Descriptive analysis of the quantitative data and interpretative phenomenological analysis to code and analyse qualitative data (deductive and inductive) will inform feasibility for a future definitive trial.<h4>Ethics and dissemination</h4>This trial is approved by the Naresuan University Institutional Review Board (NUIRB_0380/61).<h4>Trial registration number and status</h4>TCTR20180607001; Recruiting commenced 1 February 2019.
Project description:BackgroundPatellar instability is a relatively common condition that leads to disability and restriction of activities. People with recurrent instability may be given the option of physiotherapy or surgery though this is largely driven by clinician preference rather than by a strong evidence base. We sought to determine the feasibility of conducting a definitive trial comparing physiotherapy with surgical treatment for people with recurrent patellar instability.MethodsThis was a pragmatic, open-label, two-arm feasibility randomised control trial (RCT) with an embedded interview component recruiting across three NHS sites comparing surgical treatment to a package of best conservative care; ‘Personalised Knee Therapy’ (PKT). The primary feasibility outcome was the recruitment rate per centre (expected rate 1 to 1.5 participants recruited each month). Secondary outcomes included the rate of follow-up (over 80% expected at 12 months) and a series of participant-reported outcomes taken at 3, 6 and 12 months following randomisation, including the Norwich Patellar Instability Score (NPIS), the Kujala Patellofemoral Disorder Score (KPDS), EuroQol-5D-5L, self-reported global assessment of change, satisfaction at each time point and resources use.ResultsWe recruited 19 participants. Of these, 18 participants (95%) were followed-up at 12 months and 1 (5%) withdrew. One centre recruited at just over one case per month, one centre was unable to recruit, and one centre recruited at over one case per month after a change in participant screening approach. Ten participants were allocated into the PKT arm, with nine to the surgical arm. Mean Norwich Patellar Instability Score improved from 40.6 (standard deviation 22.1) to 28.2 (SD 25.4) from baseline to 12 months.ConclusionThis feasibility trial identified a number of challenges and required a series of changes to ensure adequate recruitment and follow-up. These changes helped achieve a sufficient recruitment and follow-up rate. The revised trial design is feasible to be conducted as a definitive trial to answer this important clinical question for people with chronic patellar instability.Trial registrationThe trial was prospectively registered on the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number registry on the 22/12/2016 (reference number: ISRCTN14950321). http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN14950321
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To assess the cost-effectiveness of an enhanced transtheoretical model of behaviour change in conjunction with physiotherapy compared with standard care (physiotherapy) in patients with chronic lower back pain (CLBP). DESIGN:Cost-utility and cost-effectiveness analyses alongside a multicentre controlled trial from a healthcare perspective with a 1-year time horizon. SETTING:The trial was conducted in eight centres within the Sharon district in Israel. PARTICIPANTS:220 participants aged between 25 and 55 years who suffered from CLBP for a minimum of 3 months were recruited. INTERVENTIONS:The intervention used a model of behaviour change that sought to increase the adherence and implementation of physical activity in conjunction with physiotherapy. The control arm received standard care in the form of physiotherapy. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY MEASURES:The primary outcome was the incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) of the intervention arm compared with standard care. The secondary outcome was the incremental cost per Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire point. RESULTS:The cost per QALY point estimate was 10 645 New Israeli shekels (NIS) (£1737.11). There was an 88% chance the intervention was cost-effective at NIS50 000 per QALY threshold. Excluding training costs, the intervention dominated the control arm, resulting in fewer physiotherapy and physician visits while improving outcomes. CONCLUSIONS:The enhanced transtheoretical model intervention appears to be a very cost-effective intervention leading to improved outcomes for low cost. Given limitations within this study, there is justification for examining the intervention within a larger, long-term randomised controlled trial. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:NCT01631344; Pre-results.
Project description:Background:Postoperative complications and delayed physical recovery are significant problems following emergency abdominal surgery. Physiotherapy aims to aid recovery and prevent complications in the acute phase after surgery and is commonplace in most first-world hospitals. Despite ubiquitous service provision, no well-designed, adequately powered, parallel-group, randomised controlled trial has investigated the effect of physiotherapy on the incidence of respiratory complications, paralytic ileus, rate of physical recovery, ongoing need for formal sub-acute rehabilitation, hospital length of stay, health-related quality of life, and mortality following emergency abdominal surgery. We hypothesise that an enhanced physiotherapy care package of additional education, breathing exercises, and early rehabilitation prevents postoperative complications and improves physical recovery following emergency abdominal surgery compared to standard care alone. Methods:The Incidence of Complications following Emergency Abdominal surgery: Get Exercising (ICEAGE) trial is a pragmatic, investigator-initiated, multicentre, patient- and assessor-blinded, parallel-group, active-placebo controlled randomised trial, powered for superiority. ICEAGE will compare standard care physiotherapy to an enhanced physiotherapy care package in 288 participants admitted for emergency abdominal surgery at three Australian hospitals. Participants will be randomised using concealed allocation to receive either standard care physiotherapy (education, single session of coached breathing exercises, and daily early ambulation for 15 min) or an enhanced physiotherapy care package (education, twice daily coached breathing exercises for a minimum 2 days, and 30 min of daily supervised early rehabilitation for minimum five postoperative days). The primary outcome is a respiratory complication within the first 14 postoperative hospital days assessed daily with standardised diagnostic criteria. Secondary outcomes include referral for sub-acute rehabilitation services, discharge destination, paralytic ileus, hospital length of stay and costs, intensive care unit utilisation, 90-day patient-reported complications and health-related quality of life and physical capacity, and mortality at 30 days and at 1 year following surgery. Discussion:The morbidity, mortality, and fiscal burdens following emergency abdominal surgery are some of the worst within surgery. Physiotherapy may be an effective, low-cost, minimal harm intervention to improve outcomes and reduce hospital utilisation following this surgery type. ICEAGE will test the benefits of this commonly provided intervention within a methodologically robust, multicentre, double-blinded, active-placebo controlled randomised trial. Trial registration:ACTRN 12615000318583. Registered 8 April 2015.
Project description:BACKGROUND:There is insufficient knowledge of pathophysiological parameters to understand the mechanism behind prolonged whiplash associated disorders (WAD), and it is not known whether or not changes can be restored by rehabilitation. The aims of the projects are to investigate imaging and molecular biomarkers, cervical kinaesthesia, postural sway and the association with pain, disability and other outcomes in individuals with longstanding WAD, before and after a neck-specific exercise intervention. Another aim is to compare individuals with WAD with healthy controls. METHODS:Participants are a sub-group (n?=?30) of individuals recruited from an ongoing randomized controlled study (RCT). Measurements in this experimental prospective study will be carried out at baseline (before intervention) and at a three month follow-up (end of physiotherapy intervention), and will include muscle structure and inflammation using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), brain structure and function related to pain using functional MRI (fMRI), muscle function using ultrasonography, biomarkers using samples of blood and saliva, cervical kinaesthesia using the "butterfly test" and static balance test using an iPhone app. Association with other measures (self-reported and clinical measures) obtained in the RCT (e.g. background data, pain, disability, satisfaction with care, work ability, quality of life) may be investigated. Healthy volunteers matched for age and gender will be recruited as controls (n?=?30). DISCUSSION:The study results may contribute to the development of improved diagnostics and improved rehabilitation methods for WAD. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Clinicaltrial.gov Protocol ID: NCT03664934, initial release 09/11/2018.
Project description:Low back pain causes more global disability than any other condition. Once the acute pain becomes chronic, about two-thirds of sufferers will not fully recover after 1-2 years. There is a paucity of effective treatments for non-specific, chronic low back pain. It has been noted that low back pain is associated with changes in the connective tissue in the affected area, and a very low-impact treatment, Esoteric Connective Tissue Therapy (ECTT), has been developed to restore flexibility in connective tissue. ECTT uses patterns of very small, circular movements, to the legs, arms, spine, sacrum and head, which anecdotally are effective in pain relief. In an unpublished single-arm phase I/II trial with chronic pain patients, ECTT showed a 56% reduction in pain after five treatments and 45% and 54% improvements at 6 months and 7-9 years of follow-up respectively.The aim of this randomised controlled trial is to compare ECTT with physiotherapy for reducing pain and improving physical function and physical and mental well-being in patients with chronic low back pain. The trial will be held at two hospitals in Vietnam. One hundred participants with chronic low back pain greater than or equal to 40/100 on the visual analogue scale will be recruited and randomised to either ECTT or physiotherapy. Four weekly treatments will be provided by two experienced ECTT practitioners (Treatment Group, 40 minutes each) and hospital-employed physiotherapy nurses (Control Group, 50 minutes). The primary outcomes will be changes in pain, physical function per the Quebec Pain Functionality Questionnaire and physical and mental well-being recorded by the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), with mixed modelling used as the primary statistical tool because the data are longitudinal. Initial follow-up will be at either 4 or 8 months, with a second follow-up after 12 months.The trial design has important strengths, because it is to be conducted in hospitals under medical supervision, because ECTT is to be compared with a standard therapy and because the assessor and analyst are to be blinded. The findings from this trial will provide evidence of the efficacy of ECTT for chronic low back pain compared with standard physiotherapy treatment.Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, ACTRN12616001196437 . Registered on 30 August 2016.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The self-management of osteoarthritis (OA) and low back pain (LBP) through activity and skills (SOLAS) theory-driven group-based complex intervention was developed primarily for the evaluation of its acceptability to patients and physiotherapists and the feasibility of trial procedures, to inform the potential for a definitive trial. METHODS:This assessor-blinded multicentre two-arm parallel cluster randomised controlled feasibility trial compared the SOLAS intervention to usual individual physiotherapy (UP; pragmatic control group). Patients with OA of the hip, knee, lumbar spine and/or chronic LBP were recruited in primary care physiotherapy clinics (i.e. clusters) in Dublin, Ireland, between September 2014 and November 2015. The primary feasibility objectives were evaluated using quantitative methods and individual telephone interviews with purposive samples of participants and physiotherapists. A range of secondary outcomes were collected at baseline, 6?weeks (behaviour change only), 2?months and 6?months to explore the preliminary effects of the intervention. Analysis was by intention-to-treat according to participants' cluster allocation and involved descriptive analysis of the quantitative data and inductive thematic analysis of the qualitative interviews. A linear mixed model was used to contrast change over time in participant secondary outcomes between treatment arms, while adjusting for study waves and clusters. RESULTS:Fourteen clusters were recruited (7 per trial arm), each cluster participated in two waves of recruitment, with the average cluster size below the target of six participants (intervention: mean (SD)?=?4.92 (1.31), range 2-7; UP: mean (SD)?=?5.08 (2.43), range 1-9). One hundred twenty participants (83.3% of n?=?144 expected) were recruited (intervention n?=?59; UP n?=?61), with follow-up data obtained from 80.8% (n?=?97) at 6?weeks, 84.2% (n?=?101) at 2?months and 71.7% (n?=?86) at 6?months. Most participants received treatment as allocated (intervention n?=?49; UP n?=?54). The qualitative interviews (12 participants; 10 physiotherapists (PTs) found the intervention and trial procedures acceptable and appropriate, with minimal feasible adaptations required. Linear mixed methods showed improvements in most secondary outcomes at 2 and 6?months with small between-group effects. CONCLUSIONS:While the SOLAS intervention and trial procedures were acceptable to participants and PTs, the recruitment of enough participants is the biggest obstacle to a definitive trial. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ISRCTN ISRCTN49875385 . Registered on 26 March 2014.
Project description:In Australia, the New South Wales (NSW) State Insurance Regulatory Authority has been continuously developing and implementing clinical practice guidelines to address the health and economic burden from whiplash associated disorders (WAD). Despite this, it is uncertain the extent to which the guidelines are followed. This study aimed to determine insurer and health professional compliance with recommendations of the 2014 NSW clinical practice guidelines for the management of acute WAD; and explore factors related to adherence.This was an observational study involving an audit of 288 randomly-selected claimant files from 4 insurance providers in NSW, Australia between March and October 2016. Data extracted included demographic, claim and injury details, use of health services, and insurer and health professional practices related to the guidelines. Analyses involved descriptive statistics and correlation analysis.Median time for general practitioner medical consultation was 4 days post-injury and 25 days for physical treatment (e.g. physiotherapy). Rates of x-ray investigations were low (21.5%) and most patients (90%) were given active treatments in line with the guideline recommendations. The frequency of other practices recommended by the guidelines suggested lower guideline adherence in some areas such as; using the Quebec Task Force classification (19.9%); not using specialised imaging for WAD grades I and II (e.g. MRI, 45.8%); not using routine passive treatments (e.g. manual therapy, 94.0%); and assessing risk of non-recovery using relevant prognostic tools (e.g. Neck Disability Index, 12.8%). Over half of the claimants (59.0%) were referred to other professionals at 9-12 weeks post-injury, among which 31.2% were to psychologists and 68.8% to specialists (surgical specialists, 43.6%; WAD specialists, 20.5%). Legal representation and lodgment of full claim were associated with increased number of medical visits and imaging (? 0.23 to 0.3; p?<?0.01).There is evidence of positive uptake of some guideline recommendations by insurers and health professionals; however, there are practices that are not compliant and might lead to poor health outcomes and greater treatment cost. Organisational, regulatory and professional implementation strategies may be considered to change practice, improve scheme performance and ultimately improve outcomes for people with WAD.
Project description:Acute kidney injury is a common and devastating complication of critical illness, for which renal replacement therapy is frequently needed to manage severe cases. While a recent systematic review suggested that "earlier" initiation of renal replacement therapy improves survival, completed trials are limited due to small size, single-centre status, and use of variable definitions to define "early" renal replacement therapy initiation.This is an open-label pilot randomized controlled trial. One hundred critically ill patients with severe acute kidney injury will be randomly allocated 1:1 to receive "accelerated" initiation of renal replacement therapy or "standard" initiation at 12 centers across Canada. In the accelerated arm, participants will have a venous catheter placed and renal replacement therapy will be initiated within 12 hours of fulfilling eligibility. In the standard initiation arm, participants will be monitored over 7 days to identify indications for renal replacement therapy. For participants in the standard arm with persistent acute kidney injury, defined as a serum creatinine not declining >50% from the value at the time of eligibility, the initiation of RRT will be discouraged unless one or more of the following criteria are fulfilled: serum potassium ?6.0 mmol/L; serum bicarbonate ?10 mmol/L; severe respiratory failure (PaO?/FiO?<200) or persisting acute kidney injury for ?72 hours after fulfilling eligibility. The inclusion criteria are designed to identify a population of critically ill adults with severe acute kidney injury who are likely to need renal replacement therapy during their hospitalization, but not immediately. The primary outcome is protocol adherence (>90%). Secondary outcomes include measures of feasibility (proportion of eligible patients enrolled in the trial, proportion of enrolled patients followed to 90 days for assessment of vital status and the need for renal replacement therapy) and safety (occurrence of adverse events).The optimal timing of renal replacement therapy initiation in patients with severe acute kidney injury remains uncertain, representing an important knowledge gap and a priority for high-quality research. This pilot trial is necessary to establish protocol feasibility, confirm the safety of participants and obtain estimated events rates for design of a large definitive trial.NCT01557361.