Microbiology and Nitrogen Cycle in the Benthic Sediments of a Glacial Oligotrophic Deep Andean Lake as Analog of Ancient Martian Lake-Beds.
ABSTRACT: Potential benthic habitats of early Mars lakes, probably oligotrophic, could range from hydrothermal to cold sediments. Dynamic processes in the water column (such as turbidity or UV penetration) as well as in the benthic bed (temperature gradients, turbation, or sedimentation rate) contribute to supply nutrients to a potential microbial ecosystem. High altitude, oligotrophic, and deep Andean lakes with active deglaciation processes and recent or past volcanic activity are natural models to assess the feasibility of life in other planetary lake/ocean environments and to develop technology for their exploration. We sampled the benthic sediments (down to 269 m depth) of the oligotrophic lake Laguna Negra (Central Andes, Chile) to investigate its ecosystem through geochemical, biomarker profiling, and molecular ecology studies. The chemistry of the benthic water was similar to the rest of the water column, except for variable amounts of ammonium (up to 2.8 ppm) and nitrate (up to 0.13 ppm). A life detector chip with a 300-antibody microarray revealed the presence of biomass in the form of exopolysaccharides and other microbial markers associated to several phylogenetic groups and potential microaerobic and anaerobic metabolisms such as nitrate reduction. DNA analyses showed that 27% of the Archaea sequences corresponded to a group of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) similar (97%) to Nitrosopumilus spp. and Nitrosoarchaeum spp. (Thaumarchaeota), and 4% of Bacteria sequences to nitrite-oxidizing bacteria from the Nitrospira genus, suggesting a coupling between ammonia and nitrite oxidation. Mesocosm experiments with the specific AOA inhibitor 2-Phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl 3-oxide (PTIO) demonstrated an AOA-associated ammonia oxidation activity with the simultaneous accumulation of nitrate and sulfate. The results showed a rich benthic microbial community dominated by microaerobic and anaerobic metabolisms thriving under aphotic, low temperature (4°C), and relatively high pressure, that might be a suitable terrestrial analog of other planetary settings.
Project description:Nitrification, the oxidation of ammonia (NH3) via nitrite (NO2-) to nitrate (NO3-), is a key process of the biogeochemical nitrogen cycle. For decades, ammonia and nitrite oxidation were thought to be separately catalysed by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA), and by nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB). The recent discovery of complete ammonia oxidizers (comammox) in the NOB genus Nitrospira, which alone convert ammonia to nitrate, raised questions about the ecological niches in which comammox Nitrospira successfully compete with canonical nitrifiers. Here we isolate a pure culture of a comammox bacterium, Nitrospira inopinata, and show that it is adapted to slow growth in oligotrophic and dynamic habitats on the basis of a high affinity for ammonia, low maximum rate of ammonia oxidation, high growth yield compared to canonical nitrifiers, and genomic potential for alternative metabolisms. The nitrification kinetics of four AOA from soil and hot springs were determined for comparison. Their surprisingly poor substrate affinities and lower growth yields reveal that, in contrast to earlier assumptions, AOA are not necessarily the most competitive ammonia oxidizers present in strongly oligotrophic environments and that N. inopinata has the highest substrate affinity of all analysed ammonia oxidizer isolates except the marine AOA Nitrosopumilus maritimus SCM1 (ref. 3). These results suggest a role for comammox organisms in nitrification under oligotrophic and dynamic conditions.
Project description:We investigated the variability in ammonia oxidation (AO) rates and the presence of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and bacteria (AOB and AOA) over an annual cycle in the water column of a small, seasonnally ice covered, temperate shield lake. AO, the first step of nitrification, was measured in situ using 15N-labelled ammonium (NH4+) at 1% and 10% of photosynthetic active radiation during day and at the same depths during night. AO was active across seasons and light levels, ranging from undetectable to 333 nmol L-1 d-1 with peak activity in winter under ice cover. NH4+ concentration was the single most important positive predictor of AO rates. High NH4+ concentrations and reduced chlorophyll a concentrations under ice, which favoured AO, were coherent with high nitrate concentrations and super saturation in nitrous oxide. When targeting the ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) gene in samples from the photic zone, we found AOA to be omnipresent throughout the year while AOB were observed predominantly during winter. Our results demonstrate that AO is an ongoing process in sunlit surface waters of temperate lakes and at all seasons with pronounced nitrification activity observed during winter under ice. The combination of high NH4+ concentrations due to fall overturn, reduced light availability that limited phytoplankton competition, and the presence of AOB together with AOA apparently favoured these elevated rates under ice. We suggest that lake ice could be a control point for nitrification in oligotrophic temperate shield lakes, characterized as a moment and place that exerts disproportionate influence on the biogeochemical behaviour of ecosystems.
Project description:Communities of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) in freshwater sediments and those in association with the root system of the macrophyte species Littorella uniflora, Juncus bulbosus, and Myriophyllum alterniflorum were compared for seven oligotrophic to mesotrophic softwater lakes and acidic heathland pools. Archaeal and bacterial ammonia monooxygenase alpha-subunit (amoA) gene diversity increased from oligotrophic to mesotrophic sites; the number of detected operational taxonomic units was positively correlated to ammonia availability and pH and negatively correlated to sediment C/N ratios. AOA communities could be grouped according to lake trophic status and pH; plant species-specific communities were not detected, and no grouping was apparent for AOB communities. Relative abundance, determined by quantitative PCR targeting amoA, was always low for AOB (<0.05% of all prokaryotes) and slightly higher for AOA in unvegetated sediment and AOA in association with M. alterniflorum (0.01 to 2%), while AOA accounted for up to 5% in the rhizospheres of L. uniflora and J. bulbosus. These results indicate that (i) AOA are at least as numerous as AOB in freshwater sediments, (ii) aquatic macrophytes with substantial release of oxygen and organic carbon into their rhizospheres, like L. uniflora and J. bulbosus, increase AOA abundance; and (iii) AOA community composition is generally determined by lake trophy, not by plant species-specific interactions.
Project description:Effects of nitrogen (N) deposition on microbially-driven processes in oligotrophic freshwater ecosystems are poorly understood. We quantified guilds in the main N-transformation pathways in benthic habitats of 11 mountain lakes along a dissolved inorganic nitrogen gradient. The genes involved in denitrification (<i>nirS</i>, <i>nirK</i>, <i>nosZ</i>), nitrification (archaeal and bacterial <i>amoA</i>), dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA, <i>nrfA</i>) and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox, <i>hdh</i>) were quantified, and the bacterial 16S rRNA gene was sequenced. The dominant pathways and associated bacterial communities defined four main N-transforming clusters that differed across habitat types. DNRA dominated in the sediments, except in the upper layers of more productive lakes where <i>nirS</i> denitrifiers prevailed with potential N<sub>2</sub>O release. Loss as N<sub>2</sub> was more likely in lithic biofilms, as indicated by the higher <i>hdh</i> and <i>nosZ</i> abundances. Archaeal ammonia oxidisers predominated in the isoetid rhizosphere and rocky littoral sediments, suggesting nitrifying hotspots. Overall, we observed a change in potential for reactive N recycling via DNRA to N losses via denitrification as lake productivity increases in oligotrophic mountain lakes. Thus, N deposition results in a shift in genetic potential from an internal N accumulation to an atmospheric release in the respective lake systems, with increased risk for N<sub>2</sub>O emissions from productive lakes.
Project description:Ammonia oxidation is the first step of nitrification carried out by ammonia-oxidizing Archaea (AOA) and Bacteria (AOB). Lake Superior and Erie are part of the Great Lakes system differing in trophic status with Lake Superior being oligotrophic and Lake Erie meso- to eutrophic. Sediment samples were collected from both lakes and used to characterize abundance and diversity of AOA and AOB based on the ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) gene. Diversity was accessed by a pyro-sequencing approach and the obtained sequences were used to determine the phylogeny and alpha and beta diversity of the AOA and AOB populations. In Lake Erie copy numbers of bacterial amoA genes were in the same order of magnitude or even higher than the copy numbers of the archaeal amoA genes, while in Lake Superior up to 4 orders of magnitude more archaeal than bacterial amoA copies were detected. The AOB detected in the samples from Lake Erie belonged to AOB that are frequently detected in freshwater. Differences were detected between the phylogenetic affiliations of the AOA from the two lakes. Most sequences detected in Lake Erie clustered in the Nitrososphaera cluster (Thaumarchaeal soil group I.1b) where as most of the sequences in Lake Superior were found in the Nitrosopumilus cluster (Thaumarchaeal marine group I.1a) and the Nitrosotalea cluster. Pearson correlations and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) showed that the differences in abundance and diversity of AOA are very likely related to the sampling location and thereby to the different trophic states of the lakes.
Project description:Ammonia-oxidizing Archaea (AOA) play an important role in the oxidation of ammonia in terrestrial, marine, and geothermal habitats, as confirmed by a number of studies specifically focused on those environments. Much less is known about the ecological role of AOA in freshwaters. In order to reach a high resolution at the Thaumarchaea community level, the probe MGI-535 was specifically designed for this study and applied to fluorescence in situ hybridization and catalyzed reporter deposition (CARD-FISH) analysis. We then applied it to a fine analysis of diversity and relative abundance of AOA in the deepest layers of the oligotrophic Lake Maggiore, confirming previous published results of AOA presence, but showing differences in abundance and distribution within the water column without significant seasonal trends with respect to Bacteria. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis of AOA clone libraries from deep lake water and from a lake tributary, River Maggia, suggested the riverine origin of AOA of the deep hypolimnion of the lake.
Project description:Increasing evidence demonstrated the involvement of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) in the global nitrogen cycle, but the relative contributions of AOA and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) to ammonia oxidation are still in debate. Previous studies suggest that AOA would be more adapted to ammonia-limited oligotrophic conditions, which seems to be favored by protonation of ammonia, turning into ammonium in low-pH environments. Here, we investigated the autotrophic nitrification activity of AOA and AOB in five strongly acidic soils (pH<4.50) during microcosm incubation for 30 days. Significantly positive correlations between nitrate concentration and amoA gene abundance of AOA, but not of AOB, were observed during the active nitrification. (13)CO(2)-DNA-stable isotope probing results showed significant assimilation of (13)C-labeled carbon source into the amoA gene of AOA, but not of AOB, in one of the selected soil samples. High levels of thaumarchaeal amoA gene abundance were observed during the active nitrification, coupled with increasing intensity of two denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis bands for specific thaumarchaeal community. Addition of the nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD) completely inhibited the nitrification activity and CO(2) fixation by AOA, accompanied by decreasing thaumarchaeal amoA gene abundance. Bacterial amoA gene abundance decreased in all microcosms irrespective of DCD addition, and mostly showed no correlation with nitrate concentrations. Phylogenetic analysis of thaumarchaeal amoA gene and 16S rRNA gene revealed active (13)CO(2)-labeled AOA belonged to groups 1.1a-associated and 1.1b. Taken together, these results provided strong evidence that AOA have a more important role than AOB in autotrophic ammonia oxidation in strongly acidic soils.
Project description:Relative to their scarcity, large, deep lakes support a large proportion of the world's freshwater species. This biodiversity is threatened by human development and is in need of conservation. Direct comparison of biodiversity is the basis of biological monitoring for conservation but is difficult to conduct between large, insular ecosystems. The objective of our study was to conduct such a comparison of benthic biodiversity between three of the world's largest lakes: Lake Tahoe, USA; Lake Hövsgöl, Mongolia; and Crater Lake, USA. We examined biodiversity of common benthic organism, the non-biting midges (Chironomidae) and determined lake trophic status using chironomid-based lake typology, tested whether community structure was similar between the three lakes despite geographic distance; and tested whether chironomid diversity would show significant variation within and between lakes. Typology analysis indicated that Lake Hövsgöl was ultra-oligotrophic, Crater Lake was oligotrophic, and Lake Tahoe was borderline oligotrophic/mesotrophic. These results were similar to traditional pelagic measures of lake trophic status for Lake Hövsgöl and Crater Lake but differed for Lake Tahoe, which has been designated as ultra-oligotrophic by traditional pelagic measures such as transparency found in the literature. Analysis of similarity showed that Lake Tahoe and Lake Hövsgöl chironomid communities were more similar to each other than either was to Crater Lake communities. Diversity varied between the three lakes and spatially within each lake. This research shows that chironomid communities from these large lakes were sensitive to trophic conditions. Chironomid communities were similar between the deep environments of Lake Hövsgöl and Lake Tahoe, indicating that chironomid communities from these lakes may be useful in comparing trophic state changes in large lakes. Spatial variation in Lake Tahoe's diversity is indicative of differential response of chironomid communities to nutrient enrichment which may be an indication of changes in trophic state within and across habitats.
Project description:During the last decades, atmospheric nitrogen loading in mountain ranges of the Northern Hemisphere has increased substantially, resulting in high nitrate concentrations in many lakes. Yet, how increased nitrogen has affected denitrification, a key process for nitrogen removal, is poorly understood. We measured actual and potential (nitrate and carbon amended) denitrification rates in sediments of several lake types and habitats in the Pyrenees during the ice-free season. Actual denitrification rates ranged from 0 to 9 ?mol N2O m-2 h-1 (mean, 1.5?±?1.6?SD), whereas potential rates were about 10-times higher. The highest actual rates occurred in warmer sediments with more nitrate available in the overlying water. Consequently, littoral habitats showed, on average, 3-fold higher rates than the deep zone. The highest denitrification potentials were found in more productive lakes located at relatively low altitude and small catchments, with warmer sediments, high relative abundance of denitrification nitrite reductase genes, and sulphate-rich waters. We conclude that increased nitrogen deposition has resulted in elevated denitrification rates, but not sufficiently to compensate for the atmospheric nitrogen loading in most of the highly oligotrophic lakes. However, there is potential for high rates, especially in the more productive lakes and landscape features largely govern this.
Project description:Nitrification is an important biological link between oxidized and reduced forms of nitrogen (N). The efficiency of nitrification plays a key role in mitigating excess N in eutrophic systems, including those with cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (cyanoHABs), since it can be closely coupled with denitrification and removal of excess N. Recent work suggests that competition for ammonium (NH4 +) between ammonia oxidizers and cyanoHABs can help determine microbial community structure. Nitrification rates and ammonia-oxidizing archaeal (AOA) and bacterial (AOB) community composition and gene abundances were quantified in Lake Okeechobee and St. Lucie Estuary in southern Florida (United States). We sampled during cyanobacterial (Microcystis) blooms in July 2016 and August 2017 (2 weeks before Hurricane Irma) and 10 days after Hurricane Irma made landfall. Nitrification rates were low during cyanobacterial blooms in Lake Okeechobee and St. Lucie Estuary, while low bloom conditions in St. Lucie Estuary coincided with greater nitrification rates. Nitrification rates in the lake were correlated (R 2 = 0.94; p = 0.006) with AOA amoA abundance. Following the hurricane, nitrification rates increased by an order of magnitude, suggesting that nitrifiers outcompeted cyanobacteria for NH4 + under turbid, poor light conditions. After Irma, AOA and AOB abundances increased in St. Lucie Estuary, while only AOB increased in Lake Okeechobee. AOA sequences clustered into three major lineages: Nitrosopumilales (NP), Nitrososphaerales (NS), and Nitrosotaleales (NT). Many of the lake OTUs placed within the uncultured and uncharacterized NS ? and NT ? clades, suggesting that these taxa are ecologically important along this eutrophic, lacustrine to estuarine continuum. After the hurricane, the AOA community shifted toward dominance by freshwater clades in St. Lucie Estuary and terrestrial genera in Lake Okeechobee, likely due to high rainfall and subsequent increased turbidity and freshwater loading from the lake into the estuary. AOB community structure was not affected by the disturbance. AOA communities were consistently more diverse than AOB, despite fewer sequences recovered, including new, unclassified, eutrophic ecotypes, suggesting a wider ecological biogeography than the oligotrophic niche originally posited. These results and other recent reports contradict the early hypothesis that AOB dominate ammonia oxidation in high-nutrient or terrestrial-influenced systems.