Gene expression profiling analysis to investigate the role of remote ischemic postconditioning in ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Blood flow restoration is a definitive therapy for salvaging the myocardium following ischemic injury. Nevertheless, the sudden restoration of blood flow to the ischemic myocardium can induce ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). RESULTS:Herein, we investigated the cardioprotective effect of remote ischemic postconditioning (RPostC) through our in vivo rat model of myocardial IRI. The study included three groups: the control group, the IRI group, and the IRI?+?RPostC group. Ischemia-reperfusion treatment led to an increase in the myocardial infarction area, which was inhibited by RPostC. In contrast to that in the control group, the myocardial apoptosis level was enhanced in the IRI group, whereas RPostC treatment decreased IRI-induced cellular apoptosis. Affymetrix Rat Gene 2.0 ST chip data identified a total of 265 upregulated genes and 267 downregulated genes between the IRI and IRI?+?RPostC groups. A group of differentially expressed noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), such as MTA_TC0600002772.mm, MTA_TC1300002394.mm, U7 small nuclear RNA (Rnu7) and RGD7543256_1, were identified. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis indicated that the positive regulation of some molecular functions, such as GTPase activity, GTP binding, cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity and cytokine activity, may contribute to the cardioprotective role of RPostC. Moreover, pathway enrichment analysis using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) suggested the potential implication of the TNF signaling pathway and Toll-like receptor signaling pathway. Global signal transduction network analysis, co-expression network analysis and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis further identified several core genes, including Pdgfra, Stat1, Lifr and Stfa3. CONCLUSION:Remote ischemic postconditioning treatment can decrease IRI-mediated myocardial apoptosis by regulating multiple processes and pathways, such as GTPase activity, cytokine activity, and the TNF and Toll-like receptor signaling pathways. The potential role of the above ncRNAs and core genes in IRI-induced cardiac damage merits further study as well.
Project description:Restoration of blood flow is the definitive therapy to salvage myocardium following ischemic injury. However, sudden restoration of blood flow to the ischemic myocardium causes ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI). Here, the cardioprotective effect of remote ischemic postconditioning (RPostC) was investigated, based on our in vitro rat model of myocardial IRI. Three groups, including Sham, IRI, and IRI+ RPostC, were utilized for the analysis of Affymetrix Rat Gene 2.0 ST chip. Overall design: Total RNAs were extracted and purified from the heart tissues of three groups using TRIzol reagent (Life Technologies) and RNeasy mini kit (Qiagen). Next, we synthesized the cDNA using an Ambion WT Expression Kit (Affymetrix), and obtained the cRNA by using a GeneChip WT Terminal Labeling and Controls Kit (Affymetrix, Inc.). Affymetrix Human Transcriptome Array 2.0 was then utilized to hybridize the fragmented cRNA product. After washing and staining in the GeneChip Fluidics Station 450, Affymetrix® GeneChip Command Console (AGCC) and robust multichip analysis (RMA) algorithms were used to scan the arrays and analyze the data
Project description:Purpose:Emerging evidence has shown that pinocembrin protects the myocardium from ischemic injury in animals. However, it is unknown whether it has cardioprotection when given at the onset of reperfusion. Also, mechanisms mediating the cardioprotective actions of pinocembrin were largely unknown. Thus, this study is aimed at investigating the effects of pinocembrin postconditioning on ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury and the underlying mechanisms. Methods:The in vivo mouse model of myocardial I/R injury, ex vivo isolated rat heart with global I/R, and in vitro hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury model for primary cardiomyocytes were used. Results:We found that pinocembrin postconditioning significantly reduced the infarct size and improved cardiac contractile function after acute myocardial I/R. Mechanically, in primary cardiomyocytes, we found that pinocembrin may confer protection in part via direct stimulation of cardiac glycolysis via promoting the expression of the glycolytic enzyme, PFKFB3. Besides, PFKFB3 inhibition abolished pinocembrin-induced glycolysis and protection in cardiomyocytes. More importantly, PFKFB3 knockdown via cardiotropic adeno-associated virus (AAV) abrogated cardioprotective effects of pinocembrin. Moreover, we demonstrated that HIF1? is a key transcription factor driving pinocembrin-induced PFKFB3 expression in cardiomyocytes. Conclusions:In conclusion, these results established that the acute cardioprotective benefits of pinocembrin are mediated in part via enhancing PFKFB3-mediated glycolysis via HIF1?, which may provide a new therapeutic target to impede the progression of myocardial I/R injury.
Project description:Ischemic preconditioning (PreC) and postconditioning (PostC) are the most potent cardioprotective strategies inhibiting ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injuries.The aim of our study was to identify the gene profiles regulated upon preconditioning and postconditioning in the mouse heart in vivo. Overall design: Analysis used myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (IR) RNA as control samples for comparison to the experimental samples taken after an ischemic preconditioning (PreC), a postconditioning (PosC) or a 30min delayed PostC (Post30) treatment. Comparisons were made across multiple arrays with raw data pulled from different channels for data analysis and comparison to the control data.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Prognosis of myocardial infarction tends to be worse when serum C-reactive protein (CRP) level is high. miRNAs are also known to be involved in different pathogeneses of heart diseases such as myocardial infarction. However, how CRP is involved in myocardial infarction has not been fully elucidated. We hypothesized that serum CRP changes the miRNA profile during ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) of the myocardium. To confirm this hypothesis, we performed global miRNA expression profiling of myocardium using IRI and CRP infusion rat model. METHODS:After ligation of the coronary artery of rat hearts, human serum CRP was intravenously injected, and reperfusion was performed (I/R+CRP group, n = 6). Control group consisted of the sham group (n = 3), IV CRP infusion group (CRP only, n = 3), and the I/R-only group (I/R only, n = 5). We evaluated 423 miRNA expression in non-ischemic areas and areas at risk (AAR) of each group using NanoString nCounter miRNA expression assay. RESULTS:MiR-124 was downregulated in non-ischemic myocardium in CRP-only group. In AAR, 7 miRNAs were commonly upregulated in both I/R-only and I/R+CRP groups. And additional 6 miRNAs were upregulated in the I/R+CRP group (miR-33, miR-409-3p, miR-384-3p, miR-3562, miR-101a, and miR-340-5p). Similarly, in the non-ischemic areas, 6 miRNAs were commonly upregulated in both I/R-only and I/R+CRP groups, and additional 5 miRNAs changed in the I/R+CRP group (upregulation of miR-3559-5p, miR-499, and miR-21 and downregulation of miR-500 and miR-532-3p). CONCLUSION:We showed that when serum CRP level is high, IRI results in multiple miRNA profile changes not only in ischemic areas but also in non-ischemic myocardium. Our results may provide a strong basis for studying the role of CRP and miRNAs in ischemic heart disease.
Project description:Sevoflurane postconditioning (sevo postC) is an attractive and amenable approach that can protect the myocardium against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-injury. Unlike ischemic preconditioning (IPC), sevo postC does not require additional induced ischemic periods to a heart that is already at risk. IPC was previously shown to generate myocardial protection against I/R-injury through regulation of iron homeostasis and de novo ferritin synthesis, a process found to be impaired in the diabetic state. The current study investigated whether alterations in iron homeostasis and ferritin mRNA and protein accumulation are also involved in the cardioprotective effects generated by sevo postC. It was also investigated whether the protective effects of sevo postC in the diabetic state can be salvaged by simvastatin, through inducing nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability/activity, in isolated streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic hearts (DH). Isolated rat hearts from healthy Controls and diabetic animals were retrogradely perfused using the Langendorff configuration and subjected to prolonged ischemia and reperfusion, with and without (2.4 and 3.6%) sevo postC and/or pre-treatment with simvastatin (0.5 mg/kg). Sevo postC significantly reduced infarct size and improved myocardial function in healthy Controls but not in isolated DH. The sevo postC mediated myocardial protection against I/R-injury was not associated with de novo ferrtin synthesis. Furthermore, simvastatin aggravated myocardial injury after sevo postC in STZ-induced DHs, likely due to increasing NO levels. Despite the known mechanistic overlaps between PC and postC stimuli, distinct differences underlie the cardioprotective interventions against myocardial I/R-injury and are impaired in the DH. Sevo postC mediated cardioprotection, unlike IPC, does not involve de novo ferritin accumulation and cannot be rescued by simvastatin in STZ-induced DHs.
Project description:Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)-mediated myocardial inflammation serves an important role in promoting myocardial ischemic/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Previous studies have shown that miR?499 is critical for cardioprotection after ischemic postconditioning (IPostC). Therefore, the present study evaluated the protective effect of IPostC on the myocardium by inhibiting TLR2, and also assessed the involvement of microRNA (miR)?499. Rat hearts were subjected to 30 min of ischemia and 2 h of reperfusion. The IPostC was 3 cycles of 30 sec of reperfusion and 30 sec of re?occlusion prior to reperfusion. In total, 90 rats were randomly divided into six groups (n=15 per group): Sham; I/R; IPostC; miR?499 negative control adeno?associated virus (AAV) vectors + IPostC; miR?499 inhibitor AAV vectors + IPostC; and miR?499 mimic AAV vectors + IPostC. It was identified that IPostC significantly decreased the I/R?induced cardiomyocyte apoptotic index (29.4±2.03% in IPostC vs. 42.64±2.27% in I/R; P<0.05) and myocardial infarct size (48.53±2.49% in IPostC vs. 66.52±3.1% in I/R; P<0.05). Moreover, these beneficial effects were accompanied by increased miR?499 expression levels (as demonstrated by reverse transcription?quantitative PCR) in the myocardial tissue and decreased TLR2, protein kinase C (PKC), interleukin (IL)?1? and IL?6 expression levels (as demonstrated by western blotting and ELISA) in the myocardium and serum. The results indicated that IPostC + miR?499 mimics significantly inhibited inflammation and the PKC signaling pathway and enhanced the anti?inflammatory and anti?apoptotic effects of IPostC. However, IPostC + miR?499 inhibitors had the opposite effect. Therefore, it was speculated that IPostC may have a miR?499?dependent cardioprotective effect. The present results suggested that miR?499 may be involved in IPostC?mediated ischemic cardioprotection, which may occur via local and systemic TLR2 inhibition, subsequent inhibition of the PKC signaling pathway and a decrease in inflammatory cytokine release, including IL?1? and IL?6. Moreover, these effects will ultimately lead to a decrease in the myocardial apoptotic index and myocardial infarct size via the induction of the anti?apoptotic protein Bcl?2, and inhibition of the pro?apoptotic protein Bax in myocardium.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Sevoflurane postconditioning (S-post) has similar cardioprotective effects as ischemic preconditioning. However, the underlying mechanism of S-post has not been fully elucidated. Janus kinase signaling transduction/transcription activator (JAK2-STAT3) plays an important role in cardioprotection. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the cardioprotective effects of S-post are associated with activation of the JAK2-STAT3 signal pathway. METHODS:An adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat model of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury was established using the Langendorff isolated heart perfusion apparatus. At the beginning of reperfusion, 2.4% sevoflurane alone or in combination with AG490 (a JAK2 selective inhibitor) was used as a postconditioning treatment. The cardiac function indicators, myocardial infarct size, lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) release, mitochondrial ultrastructure, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation rates, ATP content, protein expression of p-JAK, p-STAT3, Bcl-2 and Bax were measured. RESULTS:Compared with the I/R group, S-post significantly increased the expression of p-JAK, p-STAT3 and Bcl-2 and reduced the protein expression of Bax, which markedly decreased the myocardial infarction areas, improved the cardiac function indicators and the mitochondrial ultrastructure, decreased the mitochondrial ROS and increased the ATP content. However, the cardioprotective effects of S-post were abolished by treatment with a JAK2 selective inhibitor (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION:This study demonstrates that the cardioprotective effects of S-post are associated with the activation of JAK2-STAT3. The mechanism may be related to an increased expression of p-JAK2 and p-STAT3 after S-post, which reduced mitochondrial ROS generation and increased mitochondrial ATP content, thereby reducing apoptosis and myocardial infarct size.
Project description:Consumption of L-arginine contributes to reduced bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO) that is critical for the development of ischemia-reperfusion injury. The aim of the study was to determine myocardial arginase expression and activity in ischemic-reperfusion myocardium and whether local inhibition of arginase within the ischemic myocardium results in increased NO production and protection against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion. Anesthetized pigs were subjected to coronary artery occlusion for 40 min followed by 4 h reperfusion. The pigs were randomized to intracoronary infusion of vehicle (n = 7), the arginase inhibitor N-hydroxy-nor-L-arginine (nor-NOHA, 2 mg/min, n = 7), the combination of nor-NOHA and the NO synthase inhibitor N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA, 0.35 mg/min, n = 6) into the jeopardized myocardial area or systemic intravenous infusion of nor-NOHA (2 mg/min, n = 5) at the end of ischemia and start of reperfusion. The infarct size of the vehicle group was 80 ± 4% of the area at risk. Intracoronary nor-NOHA reduced infarct size to 46 ± 5% (P<0.01). Co-administration of L-NMMA abrogated the cardioprotective effect mediated by nor-NOHA (infarct size 72 ± 6%). Intravenous nor-NOHA did not reduce infarct size. Arginase I and II were expressed in cardiomyocytes, endothelial, smooth muscle and poylmorphonuclear cells. There was no difference in cytosolic arginase I or mitochondrial arginase II expression between ischemic-reperfused and non-ischemic myocardium. Arginase activity increased 2-fold in the ischemic-reperfused myocardium in comparison with non-ischemic myocardium. In conclusion, ischemia-reperfusion increases arginase activity without affecting cytosolic arginase I or mitochondrial arginase II expression. Local arginase inhibition during early reperfusion reduces infarct size via a mechanism that is dependent on increased bioavailability of NO.
Project description:In this study, we evaluated the effect of astragaloside IV (Ast IV) post-ischemia treatment on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury (IRI). We also examined whether hypoxia inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) and its downstream gene-inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS) play roles in the cardioprotective effect of Ast IV. Cultured cardiomyocytes and perfused isolated rat hearts were exposed to Ast IV during reperfusion in the presence or absence of the HIF-1? inhibitor 2-methoxyestradiol (2-MeOE2). The post-ischemia treatment with Ast IV protected cardiomyocytes from the apoptosis and death induced by simulated IRI (SIRI). Additionally, in cardiomyocytes, 2-MeOE2 and HIF-1? siRNA treatment each not only abolished the anti-apoptotic effect of post-ischemia treatment with Ast IV but also reversed the upregulation of HIF-1? and iNOS expression. Furthermore, after treatment with Ast IV, post-ischemic cardiac functional recovery and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release in the coronary flow (CF) were improved, and the myocardial infarct size was decreased. Moreover, the number of apoptotic cells was reduced, and the upregulation of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl2 and downregulation of the pro-apoptotic protein Caspase3 were reversed. 2-MeOE2 reversed these effects of Ast IV on IR-injured hearts. These results suggest that post-ischemia treatment with Ast IV can attenuate IRI by upregulating HIF-1? expression, which transmits a survival signal to the myocardium.
Project description:Numerous studies have studied the effect of halogenated agents on the myocardium, highlighting the beneficial cardiac effect of the pharmacological mechanism (preconditioning and postconditioning) when employed before and after ischemia in patients with ischemic heart disease. Anesthetic preconditioning is related to the dose-dependent signal, while the degree of protection is related to the concentration of the administered drug and the duration of the administration itself. Triggers for postconditioning and preconditioning might have numerous pathways in common; mitochondrial protection and a decrease in inflammatory mediators could be the major biochemical elements. Several pathways have been identified, including attenuation of NFκB activation and reduced expression of TNFα, IL-1, intracellular adhesion molecules, eNOS, the hypercontraction reduction that follows reperfusion, and antiapoptotic activating kinases (Akt, ERK1/2). It appears that the preconditioning and postconditioning triggers have numerous similar paths. The key biochemical elements are protection of the mitochondria and reduction in inflammatory mediators, both of which are developed in various ways. We have studied this issue, and have published several articles on cardioprotection with halogenated gases. Our results confirm greater cardioprotection through myocardial preconditioning in patients anesthetized with sevoflurane compared with propofol, with decreasing levels of troponin and N-terminal brain natriuretic peptide prohormone. The difference between our studies and previous studies lies in the use of sedation with sevoflurane in the postoperative period. The results could be related to a prolonged effect, in addition to preconditioning and postconditioning, which could enhance the cardioprotective effect of sevoflurane in the postoperative period. With this review, we aim to clarify the importance of various mechanisms involved in preconditioning and postconditioning with halogenated gases, as supported by our studies.