Transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of genetic factors influencing adductor muscle coloration in QN Orange scallops.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Color polymorphism, a high-valued trait, is frequently observed in molluscan shellfish. The QN Orange scallop, a new scallop strain successively selected from the interspecific hybrids of the bay scallop (Argopecten irradians irradians) and the Peruvian scallop (Argopecten purpuratus), is distinguished from other scallops by its orange adductor muscles. In this study, to reveal the mechanisms of the formation of adductor muscle coloration in the QN Orange scallops, we compared the proteome and transcriptome of orange adductor muscles of the QN Orange and those of white adductor muscles of the Bohai Red scallop, another strain selected from the interspecific hybrids of the bay scallop and the Peruvian scallop. RESULTS:Transcriptomic analysis revealed 416 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between white and orange adductor muscles, among which 216 were upregulated and 200 were downregulated. Seventy-four differentially expressed proteins (DEPs), including 36 upregulated and 38 downregulated proteins, were identified through label-free proteomics. Among the identified DEGs and DEPs, genes related to carotenoids biosynthesis including apolipophorin, and Cytochrome P450 and those related to melanin biosynthesis including tyrosinase and Ras-related protein Rab-11A were found to express at higher levels in orange adductor muscles. The high expression levels of VPS (vacuolar protein sorting) and TIF (translation initiation factor) in orange adductor muscle tissues indicated that carotenoid accumulation may be affected by proteins outside of the carotenoid pathway. CONCLUSIONS:Our results implied that the coloration of orange adductor muscles in the QN Orange scallops may be controlled by genes modulating accumulation of carotenoids and melanins. This study may provide valuable information for understanding the mechanisms and pathways underlying adductor muscle coloration in molluscan shellfish.
Project description:Boihai Red is new strains of inter-specific hybridizing the bay scallop (Argopecten irradians irradians) with the Peruvian scallop (Argopecten purpuratus). Orange color variant of adductor muscle have been developed through successive selective breeding in this strain. In the present study, transcriptomic was conducted on orange and white adductor muscle tissues. Transcriptomic analysis showeds 416 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between white and orange adductor muscle tissues in Boihai Red Scallop, with 216 up regulated and 200 down. In DEGs, apolipophorin, CYP450 and tyrosinase were expressed highly in orange adductor muscle tissues, which related to carotenoids or melanin. It is probable that not only carotenoids, but also melanin act on orange color of adductor muscle. This study provides valuable genetic resources for understanding underlying mechanisms and pathways of adductor muscle color. Overall design: Total mRNA profiles of orange and white adductor muscle tissues were generated by deep sequencing, in triplicate.
Project description:Carotenoids are commonly deposited in the gonads of marine bivalves but rarely in their adductor muscles. An orange-adductor variant was identified in our breeding program for the bay scallop Argopecten irradians. In the present study, bay scallop genome survey sequencing was conducted, followed by genotyping by sequencing (GBS)-based case-control association analysis in a selfing family that exhibited segregation in adductor color. K-mer analysis (K=17) revealed that the bay scallop genome is about 990 Mb in length. De novo assembly produced 217,310 scaffold sequences, which provided 72.1% coverage of the whole genome and covered 72,187 transcripts, thereby yielding the most informative sequence resource for bay scallop to date. The average carotenoid content of the orange-adductor progenies was significantly higher than that of the white-adductor progenies. Thus, 20 individuals of each subgroup were sampled for case-control analysis. As many as 15,224 heterozygous loci were identified in the parent, among which 9280 were genotyped in at least 10 individuals of each of the two sub-groups. Association analysis indicated that 126 SNPs were associated with carotenoid accumulation in the adductor muscle and that 88 of these were significantly enriched on 28 scaffolds (FDR controlled P < 0.05). The SNPs and genes located on these scaffolds can serve as valuable candidates for further research into the mechanisms by which marine bivalves accumulate carotenoids in their adductor muscles.
Project description:Boihai Red is new strains of inter-specific hybridizing the bay scallop (Argopecten irradians irradians) with the Peruvian scallop (Argopecten purpuratus). Orange color variant of adductor muscle have been developed through successive selective breeding in this strain. In the present study,proteomic were conducted on orange and white adductor muscle tissues.Notably, 74 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were identified by lable free proteomics, including 36 up and 38 down regulated. In DEGs, apolipophorin, CYP450 and tyrosinase were expressed highly in orange adductor muscle tissues, which related to carotenoids or melanin. In DEPs, high expression of VPS and TIF in orange adductor muscle tissues indicated that proteins outside the carotenoid pathway might also affect carotenoid biosynthesis. In addition, RAB11A related to melanin was also expressed highly in orange adductor muscle tissues at protein level. It is probable that not only carotenoids, but also melanin act on orange color of adductor muscle. This study provides valuable genetic resources for understanding underlying mechanisms and pathways of adductor muscle color.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) is one kind of molecular chaperones, which plays a key role in protein metabolism under normal and stress conditions.<h4>Methodology</h4>In the present study, the mRNA expressions of HSP70 under normal physiological condition and after acute heat stress were investigated in gills of two bay scallop populations (Argopecten irradians irradians and A. i. concentricus). The heat resistant scallops A. i. concentricus showed significantly lower basal level and higher induction of HSP70 compared with that of the heat sensitive scallops A. i. irradians. The promoter sequence of HSP70 gene from bay scallop (AiHSP70) was cloned and the polymorphisms within this region were investigated to analyze their association with heat tolerance. Totally 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified, and four of them (-967, -480, -408 and -83) were associated with heat tolerance after HWE analysis and association analysis. Based on the result of linkage disequilibrium analysis, the in vitro transcriptional activities of AiHSP70 promoters with different genotype were further determined, and the results showed that promoter from A. i. concentricus exhibited higher transcriptional activity than that from A. i. irradians (P<0.05).<h4>Conclusions</h4>The results provided insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the thermal adaptation of different congener endemic bay scallops, which suggested that the increased heat tolerance of A. i. concentricus (compared with A. i. irradians) was associated with the higher expression of AiHSP70. Meanwhile, the -967 GG, -480 AA, -408 TT and -83 AG genotypes could be potential markers for scallop selection breeding with higher heat tolerance.
Project description:The northern bay scallop Argopecten irradians irradians (Lamarck) and the southern bay scallop Argopecten irradians concentricus (Say) were introduced into China in the 1980s and 1990s, and are now major aquaculture molluscs in China. Here, we report the transcriptome sequencing of the two subspecies and the subsequent association analysis on candidate gene on the trait of heat tolerance. In total, RNA from six tissues of 67 and 42 individuals of northern and southern bay scallops, respectively, were used and 55.5 and 34.9 million raw reads were generated, respectively. There were 82,267 unigenes produced in total, of which 32,595 were annotated. Altogether, 32,206 and 23,312 high-quality SNPs were identified for northern and southern bay scallops, respectively. For case-control analysis, two intercrossed populations were heat stress treated, and both heat-susceptible and heat-resistant individuals were collected. According to annotation and SNP allele frequency analysis, 476 unigenes were selected, and 399 pairs of primers were designed. Genotyping was conducted using the high-resolution melting method, and Fisher's exact test was performed for allele frequency comparison between the heat-susceptible and heat-resistant groups. SNP all-53308-760 T/C showed a significant difference in allele frequency between the heat-susceptible and heat-resistant groups. Notably, considerable difference in allele frequency at this locus was also observed between the sequenced natural populations. These results suggest that SNP all-53308-760 T/C may be related to the heat tolerance of the bay scallop. Moreover, quantitative expression analysis revealed that the expression level of all-53308 was negatively correlated with heat tolerance of the bay scallop.
Project description:The Peruvian scallop (Argopecten purpuratus) has been introduced to China and has successfully been hybridized with the bay scallop (A. irradians irradians). The F1 hybrids of these two scallops exhibited a large increase in production traits and some other interesting new characteristics. To understand the genetic basis of this heterosis, nuclear gene and partial mtDNA sequences, and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) were employed to analyze the genomic organization of the hybrids. Amplification of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) showed that the parental ITS sequences were present in all the hybrid individuals, illustrating that the hybrid offspring inherited nuclear DNA from both parents. Sequence analyses of the ITS region further confirmed that the hybrids harbored alleles from their parents; some recombinant variants were also detected, which revealed some alterations in the nuclear genetic material of the hybrids. The analysis of mitochondrial 16S rDNA showed that the hybrids possessed sequences that were identical to the 16S rDNA of the female parents, proving a matrilineal inheritance of mitochondrial genes in scallops. In addition, GISH clearly discriminated between the parental chromosomes and indicated a combination of haploid genomes of duplex parents in the hybrids. The genetic analyses in our study illustrated that the F1 hybrids inherited nuclear material from both parents and cytoplasmic genetic material maternally, and some variations occurred in the genome, which might contribute to a further understanding of crossbreeding and heterosis in scallop species.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The eye has evolved across 13 separate lineages of molluscs. Yet, there have been very few studies examining the molecular machinary underlying eye function of this group, which is due, in part, to a lack of genomic resources. The scallop (Bivalvia: Pectinidae) represents a compeling molluscan model to study photoreception due to its morphologically novel and separately evolved mirror-type eye. We sequenced the adult eye transcriptome of two scallop species to: 1) identify the phototransduction pathway components; 2) identify any additional light detection functions; and 3) test the hypothesis that molluscs possess genes not found in other animal lineages. RESULTS: A total of 3,039 contigs from the bay scallop, Argopecten irradians and 26,395 contigs from the sea scallop, Placopecten magellanicus were produced by 454 sequencing. Targeted BLAST searches and functional annotation using Gene Ontology (GO) terms and KEGG pathways identified transcripts from three light detection systems: two phototransduction pathways and the circadian clock, a previously unrecognized function of the scallop eye. By comparing the scallop transcriptomes to molluscan and non-molluscan genomes, we discovered that a large proportion of the transcripts (7,776 sequences) may be specific to the scallop lineage. Nearly one-third of these contain transmembrane protein domains, suggesting these unannotated transcripts may be sensory receptors. CONCLUSIONS: Our data provide the most comprehensive transcriptomic resource currently available from a single molluscan eye type. Candidate genes potentially involved in sensory reception were identified, and are worthy of further investigation. This resource, combined with recent phylogenetic and genomic data, provides a strong foundation for future investigations of the function and evolution of molluscan photosensory systems in this morphologically and taxonomically diverse phylum.
Project description:We report here that the catch and striated adductor muscle myosin heavy-chain (MHC) isoforms of scallop (Argopecten irradians, previously Aequipecten irradians) are generated by alternative RNA splicing from a single gene. Scallop catch muscle cDNA and genomic DNA were amplified by PCR using primers based on the previously sequenced scallop striated muscle MHC cDNA. Mapping of the exon/intron borders and sequencing of a full-length catch muscle MHC in overlapping fragments revealed that the 24-kb gene encodes the MHC polypeptide in 27 exons and that four sets of tandem exon pairs are alternatively spliced into a striated and a catch MHC isoform. An additional alternative exon was identified in catch cDNA and is apparently spliced into a minor MHC isoform. The striated muscle-specific isoform is not expressed in other tissues, whereas the catch-type isoforms were also detected in various smooth muscles, but not in the striated one. Of the alternative exons, exons 5 and 6 encode part of the ATP-binding region and the 25-kDa/50-kDa proteolytic junction; exon 13 encodes part of one of the actin-binding regions and extends to the active site; exon 20 encodes the middle of the rod hinge region; exon 26 in the striated-specific sequence starts with the stop codon, whereas the catch-specific exon codes for an additional 10 residues. Differences between the alternative exons presumably determine the lower ATPase activity of smooth muscle myosin, contribute to the different structure of the striated and smooth muscle thick filaments, and may also be important for the molecular mechanism of the catch phenomenon.
Project description:Due to the total and unexpected collapse of the Iceland scallop, Chlamys islandica, stocks around Iceland during the 2000s, a commercial fishing ban has been imposed on this valuable resource since 2003. Following the initial identification of an apicomplexan parasite in the scallops, a long-term surveillance program was established to evaluate the effect of the parasite on the population. The infections were highly prevalent in all shell sizes throughout the study. However, the parasite only impacts mature scallops where they cause severe macroscopic changes, characterized by an extensively diminished and abnormally coloured adductor muscle. A highly significant relationship was observed between infection intensity and gonad and adductor muscle indices. The first four years of the study, were characterized by high infection intensity and very poor condition of the adductor muscle and gonads, whilst during subsequent years, infections gradually decreased and the condition of the scallops improved. Histopathological changes were restricted to the presence of apicomplexan zoites which were widely distributed, causing varying degrees of pathology in all organs. In heavy infections, muscular and connective tissues were totally necrotized, destroying significant parts of numerous organs, especially the adductor muscle, digestive gland and gonads. The progression of the disease was in good synchrony with the mortality rates and the subsequent decline observed in the scallop stock and recruitment indices. Our findings strongly suggest that the apicomplexan parasite played a major role in the collapse of the Iceland scallop stock in Breidafjordur. In addition to causing mortality, the infections significantly impact gonad development which contributes further to the collapse of the stock in the form of lower larval recruitment. Furthermore, compelling evidence exists that this apicomplexan pathogen is causing serious disease outbreaks in other scallop populations. Similar abnormal adductor muscles and the parasite itself have been identified or observed in association with other mass mortality events in several different scallop species and commercial stocks in the northern hemisphere.
Project description:Non-lethal DNA sampling has long appealed to researchers studying population and conservation genetics, as it does not necessitate removing individuals permanently from their natural environment or destroying valuable samples. However, such an approach has not yet been well established in bivalves. In this study, we demonstrate that the gill represents a good source of tissue for non-lethal sampling in scallops. Removal of a few gill filaments caused no noticeable behavioral abnormalities or increased mortality rates in Zhikong scallop (Chlamys farreri) during a three-month period of observation. To facilitate rapid gill-based DNA extraction, six methods (MA-MF) were designed and evaluated, each requiring less than one hour of processing time. The optimal method was identified as MF, in terms of maintaining DNA integrity and genotyping accuracy. Further optimization of MF method by orthogonal experimental design suggested that the utilization of gills could be limited to 2 mg of sample, which is sufficient for performing up to 20,000 PCR reactions. We also demonstrate the excellent cross-species utility of MF in two additional scallop species, Yesso scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis) and bay scallop (Argopecten irradians). Taken together, our study provides a rapid and efficient approach for applying non-lethal DNA sampling in bivalve species, which would serve as a valuable tool for maintaining bivalve populations and conservation genetics, as well as in breeding studies.