Project description:BACKGROUND:Differentiating between cancer patients who will experience metastasis within a short time and who will be long-term survivors without metastasis is a critical aim in healthcare. The microsatellite instability (MSI)-high tumor phenotype is such a differentiator in colorectal cancer, as patients with these tumors are unlikely to experience metastasis. Our aim in this study was to determine if germline genetic variations could further differentiate colorectal cancer patients based on the long-term risk and timing of metastasis. METHODS:The patient cohort consisted of 379 stage I-III Caucasian colorectal cancer patients with microsatellite stable or MSI-low tumors. We performed univariable analysis on 810,622 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) under different genetic models. Depending on the long-term metastasis-free survival probability estimates, we applied a mixture cure model, Cox proportional hazards regression model, or log-rank test. For SNPs reaching Bonferroni-corrected significance (p?<?6.2?×?10-?8) having valid genetic models, multivariable analysis adjusting for significant baseline characteristics was conducted. RESULTS:After adjusting for significant baseline characteristics, specific genotypes of ten polymorphisms were significantly associated with time-to-metastasis. These polymorphisms are three intergenic SNPs, rs5749032 (p?=?1.28?×?10-?10), rs2327990 (p?=?9.59?×?10-?10), rs1145724 (p?=?3?×?10-?8), and seven SNPs within the non-coding sequences of three genes: FHIT (p?=?2.59?×?10-?9), EPHB1 (p?=?8.23?×?10-?9), and MIR7515 (p?=?4.87?×?10-?8). CONCLUSIONS:Our results suggest novel associations of specific genotypes of SNPs with early metastasis in Caucasian colorectal cancer patients. These associations, once replicated in other patient cohorts, could assist in the development of personalized treatment strategies for colorectal cancer patients.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Cattle temperament is an important factor that affects the profitability of beef cattle enterprises, due to its relationship with productivity traits, animal welfare and labor safety. Temperament is a complex phenotype often assessed by measuring a series of behavioral traits, which result from the effects of multiple environmental and genetic factors, and their interactions. The aims of this study were to perform a genome-wide association study and detect genomic regions, potential candidate genes and their biological mechanisms underlying temperament, measured by flight speed (FS) test in Nellore cattle. MATERIALS AND METHODS:The genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed using a single-step procedure (ssGBLUP) which combined simultaneously all 16,600 phenotypes from genotyped and non-genotyped animals, full pedigree information of 162,645 animals and 1,384 genotyped animals in one step. The animals were genotyped with High Density Bovine SNP BeadChip which contains 777,962 SNP markers. After quality control (QC) a total of 455,374 SNPs remained. RESULTS:Heritability estimated for FS was 0.21 ± 0.02. Consecutive SNPs explaining 1% or more of the total additive genetic variance were considered as windows associated with FS. Nine candidate regions located on eight different Bos taurus chromosomes (BTA) (1 at 73 Mb, 2 at 65 Mb, 5 at 22 Mb and 119 Mb, 9 at 98 Mb, 11 at 67 Mb, 15 at 16 Mb, 17 at 63 Kb, and 26 at 47 Mb) were identified. The candidate genes identified in these regions were NCKAP5 (BTA2), PARK2 (BTA9), ANTXR1 (BTA11), GUCY1A2 (BTA15), CPE (BTA17) and DOCK1 (BTA26). Among these genes PARK2, GUCY1A2, CPE and DOCK1 are related to dopaminergic system, memory formation, biosynthesis of peptide hormone and neurotransmitter and brain development, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:Our findings allowed us to identify nine genomic regions (SNP windows) associated with beef cattle temperament, measured by FS test. Within these windows, six promising candidate genes and their biological functions were identified. These results may contribute to a better comprehension into the genetic control of temperament expression in Nellore cattle.
Project description:RATIONALE:Acute kidney injury is a common and severe complication of critical illness and cardiac surgery. Despite significant attempts at developing treatments, therapeutic advances to attenuate acute kidney injury and expedite recovery have largely failed. OBJECTIVES:Identifying genetic loci associated with increased risk of acute kidney injury may reveal novel pathways for therapeutic development. METHODS:We conducted an exploratory genome-wide association study to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with genetic susceptibility to in-hospital acute kidney injury. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:We genotyped 609,508 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and performed genotype imputation in 760 acute kidney injury cases and 669 controls. We then evaluated polymorphisms that showed the strongest association with acute kidney injury in a replication patient population containing 206 cases with 1,406 controls. We observed an association between acute kidney injury and four single-nucleotide polymorphisms at two independent loci on metaanalysis of discovery and replication populations. These include rs62341639 (metaanalysis P = 2.48 × 10-7; odds ratio [OR], 0.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.55-0.76) and rs62341657 (P = 3.26 × 10-7; OR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.55-0.76) on chromosome 4 near APOL1-regulator IRF2, and rs9617814 (metaanalysis P = 3.81 × 10-6; OR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.60-0.81) and rs10854554 (P = 6.53 × 10-7; OR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.57-0.79) on chromosome 22 near acute kidney injury-related gene TBX1. CONCLUSIONS:Our findings reveal two genetic loci that are associated with acute kidney injury. Additional studies should be conducted to functionally evaluate these loci and to identify other common genetic variants contributing to acute kidney injury.
Project description:After liver transplantation, the liver function of a patient is gradually restored over a period of time that can be divided into a convalescence period (CP) and a stabilizing period (SP). The plasma concentration of tacrolimus, an immunosuppressant commonly used to prevent organ rejection, varies as a result of variations in its metabolism. The effects of genetic and clinical factors on the plasma concentration of tacrolimus appear to differ in the CP and SP. To establish a model explaining the variation in tacrolimus trough concentration between individuals in the CP and SP, we conducted a retrospective, single-center, discovery study of 115 pairs of patients (115 donors and 115 matched recipients) who had undergone liver transplantation. Donors and recipients were genotyped by a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using an exome chip. Novel exons were identified that influenced tacrolimus trough concentrations and were verified with bootstrap analysis. In donors, two single-nucleotide polymorphisms showed an effect on the CP (rs1927321, rs1057192) and four showed an effect on the SP (rs776746, rs2667662, rs7980521, rs4903096); in recipients, two single-nucleotide polymorphisms showed an effect in the SP (rs7828796, rs776746). Genetic factors played a crucial role in tacrolimus metabolism, accounting for 44.8% in the SP, which was higher than previously reported. In addition, we found that CYP3A5, which is known to affect the metabolism of tacrolimus, only influenced tacrolimus pharmacokinetics in the SP.
Project description:The availability of very large number of markers by modern technology makes genome-wide association studies very popular. The usual approach is to test single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) one at a time for association with disease status. However, it may not be possible to detect marginally significant effects by single-SNP analysis. Simultaneous analysis of SNPs enables detection of even those SNPs with small effect by evaluating the collective impact of several neighboring SNPs. Also, false-positive signals may be weakened by the presence of other neighboring SNPs included in the analysis. We analyzed the North American Rheumatoid Arthritis Consortium data of Genetic Analysis Workshop 16 using HLasso, a new method for simultaneous analysis of SNPs. The simultaneous analysis approach has excellent control of type I error, and many of the previously reported results of single-SNP analyses were confirmed by this approach.
Project description:To investigate the relationship between c.343A>G and c.2216A>C polymorphism sites in the CDH17 gene and colorectal carcinoma.Ninety-three non-consanguineous colorectal carcinoma patients admitted to the Department of Oncology at the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University were included in this study. Ninety-three peripheral venous blood samples, of approximately one milliliter from each patient, were collected between December 2009 and August 2010. The genomic DNA of these peripheral venous blood samples were extracted and purified using a Fermentas Genomic DNA Purification Kit (Fermentas, CA) according to the manufacturer's protocol. The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the liver-intestine cadherin (CDH17) gene c.343A>G and c.2216A>C were determined by the polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism method (PCR-SSCP) in 93 peripheral venous blood samples from patients suffering with colorectal carcinoma. Typical samples that showed different migration bands in SSCP were confirmed by sequencing. Directed DNA sequencing was used to check the correctness of the genotype results from the PCR-SSCP method.There was a significant association between the c.2216 A>C SNPs of the CDH17 gene and the tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) grade, as well as with lymph node status, in 93 peripheral venous blood samples from colorectal carcinoma patients. The genotype frequencies of A/C, A/A, and C/C were 12.90%, 33.33% and 53.76%, respectively. There was a significant correlation between lymph node metastasis, TNM grade, and the genotype distribution (P < 0.05). The C/C genotype raised the risk of lymph node metastasis and the TNM grade. There was a significant difference in the TNM grade and lymph node metastasis between the A/A and C/C genotypes (P = 0.003 and P = 0.013, respectively). Patients with colorectal carcinoma carrying the C allele tended to have a higher risk of lymph node metastasis and have a higher TNM grade. The difference between the TNM grades, as well as the lymph node metastasis of the two alleles, was statistically significant (P < 0.01).The SNPs of the CDH17 gene c.2216 A>C might be clinically important in the prognosis of colorectal carcinoma.
Project description:PURPOSE: Two previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of high myopia in a Japanese population found several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with the disease. The present study examined whether these markers are associated with myopia in a Chinese population. METHODS: Individuals with or without complex myopia were recruited from Chinese university students, and probands with early onset high myopia were identified in the Pediatric and Genetic Eye Clinic of the Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center. DNA was prepared from venous leukocytes. Three SNPs, rs577948 and rs11218544 at chromosome position 11q24.1 and rs2839471 at chromosome position 21q22.3, were genotyped. The allele and genotype frequencies of these SNPs were compared between the myopia cases and controls using a χ(2) test. RESULTS: A total of 2,870 subjects were examined in this study, including 1,255 individuals with complex myopia (-10.00 diopter (D)<spherical refraction≤-4.00 D), 563 with early onset high myopia (spherical refraction≤-6.00 D), and 1,052 healthy controls (-0.50 D≤spherical equivalent≤ +2.00 D). There were no statistically significant differences found for the genotype or allele frequencies of the three SNPs between the myopia cases and controls in the Chinese population under study. CONCLUSIONS: We did not find evidence for the association of myopia with rs577948, rs11218544, or rs2839471 in the Chinese population studied.
Project description:We conducted a genome-wide association study testing single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and copy number variants (CNVs) for association with early-onset myocardial infarction in 2,967 cases and 3,075 controls. We carried out replication in an independent sample with an effective sample size of up to 19,492. SNPs at nine loci reached genome-wide significance: three are newly identified (21q22 near MRPS6-SLC5A3-KCNE2, 6p24 in PHACTR1 and 2q33 in WDR12) and six replicated prior observations (9p21, 1p13 near CELSR2-PSRC1-SORT1, 10q11 near CXCL12, 1q41 in MIA3, 19p13 near LDLR and 1p32 near PCSK9). We tested 554 common copy number polymorphisms (>1% allele frequency) and none met the pre-specified threshold for replication (P < 10(-3)). We identified 8,065 rare CNVs but did not detect a greater CNV burden in cases compared to controls, in genes compared to the genome as a whole, or at any individual locus. SNPs at nine loci were reproducibly associated with myocardial infarction, but tests of common and rare CNVs failed to identify additional associations with myocardial infarction risk.
Project description:Following liver transplantation, the liver function of a patient is gradually restored over a period of time, which is divided into a convalescence period (CP) and a stabilizing period (SP). Tacrolimus (TAC), a commonly-used immunosuppressant for the prevention of organ rejection, shows variability in plasma concentration in these patients as a result of variation in its metabolism. The effects of genetic and clinical factors on its plasma levels seem to differ in the CP and SP. To establish a model explaining TAC trough concentration variation between individuals in both the CP and SP, we conducted a retrospective, single-center, discovery study, involving 115 pairs of patients (115 donors and 115 matched recipients) who had undergone liver transplantation. Donors and recipients were genotyped by genomewide association study (GWAS) using an exome chip. Overall design: Paired 115 liver transplant patients (115 donor + 115 recipient livers)
Project description:We studied several methods for selecting single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a disease association study. Two major categories for analytical strategy are the univariate and the set selection approaches. The univariate approach evaluates each SNP marker one at a time, while the set selection approach tests disease association of a set of SNP markers simultaneously. We examined various test statistics that can be utilized in testing disease association and also reviewed several multiple testing procedures that can properly control the family-wise error rates when the univariate approach is applied to multiple markers. The set association methods were then briefly reviewed. Finally, we applied these methods to the data from Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA).