Recruitment, loading, and activation of the Smc5-Smc6 SUMO ligase.
ABSTRACT: Duplication of the genome poses one of the most significant threats to genetic integrity, cellular fitness, and organismal health. Therefore, numerous mechanisms have evolved that maintain replication fork stability in the face of DNA damage and allow faithful genome duplication. The fission yeast BRCT-domain-containing protein Brc1, and its budding yeast orthologue Rtt107, has emerged as a "hub" factor that integrates multiple replication fork protection mechanisms. Notably, the cofactors and pathways through which Brc1, Rtt107, and their human orthologue (PTIP) act have appeared largely distinct. This either represents true evolutionary functional divergence, or perhaps an incomplete genetic and biochemical analysis of each protein. In this regard, we recently showed that like Rtt107, Brc1 supports key functions of the Smc5-Smc6 complex, including its recruitment into DNA repair foci, chromatin association, and SUMO ligase activity. Furthermore, fission yeast cells lacking the Nse5-Nse6 genome stability factor were found to exhibit defects in Smc5-Smc6 function, similar to but more severe than those in cells lacking Brc1. Here, we place these findings in context with the known functions of Brc1, Rtt107, and Smc5-Smc6, present data suggesting a role for acetylation in Smc5-Smc6 chromatin loading, and discuss wider implications for genome stability.
Project description:Conserved, multitasking DNA helicases mediate diverse DNA transactions and are relevant for human disease pathogenesis. These helicases and their regulation help maintain genome stability during DNA replication and repair. We show that the structural maintenance of chromosome complex Smc5-Smc6 restrains the replication fork regression activity of Mph1 helicase, but not its D loop disruptive activity. This regulatory mechanism enables flexibility in replication fork repair without interfering with DNA break repair. In vitro studies find that Smc5-Smc6 binds to a Mph1 region required for efficient fork regression, preventing assembly of Mph1 oligomers at the junction of DNA forks. In vivo impairment of this regulatory mechanism compensates for the inactivation of another fork regression helicase and increases reliance on joint DNA structure removal or avoidance. Our findings provide molecular insights into replication fork repair regulation and uncover a role of Smc5-Smc6 in directing Mph1 activity toward a specific biochemical outcome.
Project description:Efficient repair of DNA double-stranded breaks (DSB) requires a coordinated response at the site of lesion. Nucleolytic resection commits repair towards homologous recombination, which preferentially occurs between sister chromatids. DSB resection promotes recruitment of the Mec1 checkpoint kinase to the break. Rtt107 is a target of Mec1 and serves as a scaffold during repair. Rtt107 plays an important role during rescue of damaged replication forks, however whether Rtt107 contributes to the repair of DSBs is unknown. Here we show that Rtt107 is recruited to DSBs induced by the HO endonuclease. Rtt107 phosphorylation by Mec1 and its interaction with the Smc5-Smc6 complex are both required for Rtt107 loading to breaks, while Rtt107 regulators Slx4 and Rtt101 are not. We demonstrate that Rtt107 has an effect on the efficiency of sister chromatid recombination (SCR) and propose that its recruitment to DSBs, together with the Smc5-Smc6 complex is important for repair through the SCR pathway.
Project description:DNA replication errors are a major source of genome instability in all organisms. In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the DNA damage response protein Brc1 binds phospho-histone H2A (?H2A)-marked chromatin during S-phase, but how Brc1 protects genome integrity remains unclear. Here we report that the non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) protein Ku becomes critical for survival of replication stress in brc1? cells. Ku's protective activity in brc1? cells does not involve its canonical NHEJ function or its roles in protecting telomeres or shielding DNA ends from Exo1 exonuclease. In brc1? pku80? cells, nuclear foci of Rad52 homologous recombination (HR) protein increase and Mus81-Eme1 Holliday junction resolvase becomes critical, indicating increased replication fork instability. Ku's localization at a ribosomal DNA replication fork barrier associated with frequent replisome-transcriptosome collisions increases in brc1? cells and increased collisions correlate with an enhanced requirement for Brc1. These data indicate that Ku stabilizes replication forks in the absence of Brc1.
Project description:SMC5/6 is a highly conserved protein complex related to cohesin and condensin, which are the key components of higher-order chromatin structures. The SMC5/6 complex is essential for proliferation in yeast and is involved in replication fork stability and processing. However, the precise mechanism of action of SMC5/6 is not known. Here we present evidence that the NSE1/NSE3/NSE4 sub-complex of SMC5/6 binds to double-stranded DNA without any preference for DNA-replication/recombination intermediates. Mutations of key basic residues within the NSE1/NSE3/NSE4 DNA-binding surface reduce binding to DNA in vitro. Their introduction into the Schizosaccharomyces pombe genome results in cell death or hypersensitivity to DNA damaging agents. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis of the hypomorphic nse3 DNA-binding mutant shows a reduced association of fission yeast SMC5/6 with chromatin. Based on our results, we propose a model for loading of the SMC5/6 complex onto the chromatin.
Project description:DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) can arise during DNA replication, or after exposure to DNA-damaging agents, and their correct repair is fundamental for cell survival and genomic stability. Here, we show that the Smc5-Smc6 complex is recruited to DSBs de novo to support their repair by homologous recombination between sister chromatids. In addition, we demonstrate that Smc5-Smc6 is necessary to suppress gross chromosomal rearrangements. Our findings show that the Smc5-Smc6 complex is essential for genome stability as it promotes repair of DSBs by error-free sister-chromatid recombination (SCR), thereby suppressing inappropriate non-sister recombination events.
Project description:The detection of DNA damage activates DNA repair pathways and checkpoints to allow time for repair. Ultimately, these responses must be coordinated to ensure that cell cycle progression is halted until repair is completed. Several multiprotein complexes containing members of the structural maintenance of chromosomes family of proteins have been described, including the condensin and cohesin complexes, that are critical for chromosomal organization. Here we show that the Smc5/Smc6 (Smc5/6) complex is required for a coordinated response to DNA damage and normal chromosome integrity. Fission yeast cells lacking functional Smc6 initiate a normal checkpoint response to DNA damage, culminating in the phosphorylation and activation of the Chk1 protein kinase. Despite this, cells enter a lethal mitosis, presumably without completion of DNA repair. Another subunit of the complex, Nse1, is a conserved member of this complex and is also required for this response. We propose that the failure to maintain a checkpoint response stems from the lack of ongoing DNA repair or from defective chromosomal organization, which is the signal to maintain a checkpoint arrest. The Smc5/6 complex is fundamental to genome integrity and may function with the condensin and cohesin complexes in a coordinated manner.
Project description:Smc5 and Smc6 proteins form a heterodimeric SMC (structural maintenance of chromosome) protein complex like SMC1-SMC3 cohesin and SMC2-SMC4 condensin, and they associate with non-SMC proteins Nse1 and Nse2 stably and Rad60 transiently. This multiprotein complex plays an essential role in maintaining chromosome integrity and repairing DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). This study characterizes a Schizosaccharomyces pombe mutant rad62-1, which is hypersensitive to methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and synthetically lethal with rad2 (a feature of recombination mutants). rad62-1 is hypersensitive to UV and gamma rays, epistatic with rhp51, and defective in repair of DSBs. rad62 is essential for viability and genetically interacts with rad60, smc6, and brc1. Rad62 protein physically associates with the Smc5-6 complex. rad62-1 is synthetically lethal with mutations in the genes promoting recovery from stalled replication, such as rqh1, srs2, and mus81, and those involved in nucleotide excision repair like rad13 and rad16. These results suggest that Rad62, like Rad60, in conjunction with the Smc5-6 complex, plays an essential role in maintaining chromosome integrity and recovery from stalled replication by recombination.
Project description:The SMC5/6 protein complex consists of the Smc5, Smc6 and Non-Smc-Element (Nse) proteins and is important for genome stability in many species. To identify novel components in the DNA repair pathway, we carried out a genetic screen to identify mutations that confer reduced resistance to the genotoxic effects of caffeine, which inhibits the ATM and ATR DNA damage response proteins. This approach identified inactivating mutations in CG5524 and MAGE, homologs of genes encoding Smc6 and Nse3 in yeasts. The fact that Smc5 mutants are also caffeine-sensitive and that Mage physically interacts with Drosophila homologs of Nse proteins suggests that the structure of the Smc5/6 complex is conserved in Drosophila. Although Smc5/6 proteins are required for viability in S. cerevisiae, they are not essential under normal circumstances in Drosophila. However, flies carrying mutations in Smc5, Smc6 and MAGE are hypersensitive to genotoxic agents such as ionizing radiation, camptothecin, hydroxyurea and MMS, consistent with the Smc5/6 complex serving a conserved role in genome stability. We also show that mutant flies are not compromised for pre-mitotic cell cycle checkpoint responses. Rather, caffeine-induced apoptosis in these mutants is exacerbated by inhibition of ATM or ATR checkpoint kinases but suppressed by Rad51 depletion, suggesting a functional interaction involving homologous DNA repair pathways that deserves further scrutiny. Our insights into the SMC5/6 complex provide new challenges for understanding the role of this enigmatic chromatin factor in multi-cellular organisms.
Project description:Genome integrity is maintained by a network of DNA damage response pathways, including checkpoints and DNA repair processes. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the BRCT domain-containing protein Rtt107/Esc4 is required for the restart of DNA replication after successful repair of DNA damage and for cellular resistance to DNA-damaging agents. In addition to its well characterized interaction with the endonuclease Slx4, Rtt107 interacts with a number of other DNA repair and recombination proteins. These include the evolutionarily conserved SMC5/6 complex, which is involved in numerous chromosome maintenance activities, such as DNA repair, chromosome segregation, and telomere function. The interaction between Rtt107 and the SMC5/6 complex was mediated through the N-terminal BRCT domains of Rtt107 and the Nse6 subunit of SMC5/6 and was independent of methyl methane sulfonate-induced damage and Slx4. Supporting a shared function in the DNA damage response, Rtt107 was required for recruitment of SMC5/6 to DNA double strand breaks. However, this functional relationship did not extend to other types of DNA lesions such as protein-bound nicks. Interestingly, Rtt107 was phosphorylated when SMC5/6 function was compromised in the absence of DNA-damaging agents, indicating a connection beyond the DNA damage response. Genetic analyses revealed that, although a subset of Rtt107 and SMC5/6 functions was shared, these proteins also contributed independently to maintenance of genome integrity.
Project description:The evolutionarily conserved structural maintenance of chromosome (SMC) proteins forms the core structures of three multisubunit complexes as follows: cohesin, condensin, and the Smc5/6 complex. These complexes play crucial roles in different aspects of chromosomal organization, duplication, and segregation. Although the architectures of cohesin and condensin are better understood, that of the more recently identified Smc5/6 complex remains to be elucidated. We have previously shown that the Smc5/6 complex of Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains Smc5, Smc6, and six non-SMC elements (Nse1-6). In this study, we investigated the architecture of the budding yeast Smc5/6 complex employing the yeast two-hybrid assay as well as in vitro biochemical approaches using purified recombinant proteins. These analyses revealed that Smc5 and Smc6 associate with each other at their hinge regions and constitute the backbone of the complex, whereas the Nse1-6 subunits form three distinct subcomplexes/entities that interact with different regions of Smc5 and Smc6. The Nse1, -3, and -4 subunits form a stable subcomplex that binds to the head and the adjacent coiled-coil region of Smc5. Nse2 binds to the middle of the coiled-coil region of Smc5. Nse5 and Nse6 interact with each other and, as a heterodimer, bind to the hinge regions of Smc5 and Smc6. These findings provide new insights into the structures of the Smc5/6 complex and lay the foundation for further investigations into the mechanism of its functions.