Impact of gene polymorphism on the initiation and maintenance phases of warfarin therapy in Chinese patients undergoing heart valve replacement.
ABSTRACT: AIM:To determine whether VKORC1 rs9923231, CYP2C9 rs1057910, CYP4F2 rs2108622 and ORM1 rs17650 genotypes contribute to warfarin therapy in patients during initiation and maintenance anticoagulation treatment after heart valve surgery. METHODS:287 Chinese patients with warfarin treatment more than three month after heart valve replacement operations were enrolled. Blood was collected from each subject for DNA extraction and genotyping. Analyzing the relationship between genotypes and warfarin curative effect. RESULTS:Their mean age was 48.0 ± 10.5 years old. During the initiation phase, the growth rate of INR was partial correlated with VKORC1 rs9923231, CYP2C9 rs1057910 and ORM1 rs17650, respectively. Compared with AG or GG genotypes of VKORC1 c.-1639 carriers, patients with VKORC1 c.-1639AA reached target INR therapeutic range faster (P<0.001) and has a high risk of overanticoagulation (P<0.001). Carriers of at least one CYP2C9 *3 allele reached the target INR therapeutic range and supra-therapeutic INR were faster than CYP2C9 wild-type carriers (P=0.032, P=0.032, respectively). CYP4F2 rs2108622 could significantly influence on time to the target INR therapeutic range and time to INR above 3.0 after hierarchical analysis with VKORC1, CYP2C9 and ORM1 (P=0.011, P=0.044, respectively). VKORC1 rs9923231, CYP2C9 rs1057910 and ORM1 rs17650 were significantly influence the %TTR in three months (P=0.031, P=0.008, P=0.001, respectively). During the maintenance phase, VKORC1 c.-1639AA carriers spent more time at supra-therapeutic INRs (P<0.001). CYP2C9 rs1057910, CYP4F2 rs2108622 and ORM1 rs17650 gene variants did not affect outcome parameters in maintenance phase. CONCLUSIONS:This study found that genetic factors could significantly affected on warfarin therapy in Chinese. Meanwhile, genetic variations play a more important role in the initial phase than did in maintenance phase of warfarin therapy.
Project description:Differences in warfarin maintenance dosages based on the presence of polymorphisms in VKORC1, CYP2C9, CYP4F2, and ORM1 can be determined through dosage adjustment according to routine guidelines. Little is known about whether routine therapy could provide consensus anticoagulation control for patients with different genotypes. This study was carried out to compare anticoagulant control in patients with different genotypes. Six hundred seventy patients using warfarin according to Chinese guidelines were enrolled. Warfarin dosages and monitored international normalized ratios (INRs) were recorded. Genotypes of VKORC1 rs9923231, CYP4F2 rs2108622, CYP2C9 rs1057910, and ORM1 rs17650 polymorphisms were determined. Warfarin dosages and INR were compared between genotypes. Patients with the AGCC*F*F*1*1 polymorphism took longer than patients with the AACC*F*F*1*1 polymorphism (20 vs 5 days, P < .001) to achieve the targeted INR range. The INR values of patients with AACC*F*F*1*3 were unstable and did not enter the stable state control phase until after 35 days. The peak INR of patients with the AACC*F*F*1*3 polymorphism was exceedingly high, with some values exceeding the control range limit of 3.0. Patients with the AACC*F*S*1*1 or AACT*F*F*1*1 polymorphisms exhibited similar INR values as the patients with the AACC*F*F*1*1 polymorphism. This study found that routine medication with warfarin provides significantly different levels of anticoagulant control between patients with wild-type genotypes and patients with heterozygous polymorphism genotypes of VKORC1 rs9923231 or CYP2C9 rs1057910. Patients with heterozygous polymorphism genotypes of VKORC1 or CYP2C9 require genotype-directed therapy with warfarin to increase efficacy and safety in anticoagulant treatment.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>As the most frequently prescribed anticoagulant, warfarin has large inter-individual variability in dosage. Genetic polymorphisms could largely explain the differences in dosage requirement. rs9923231 (VKORC1), rs7294 (VKORC1), rs1057910 (CYP2C9), rs2108622 (CYP4F2), and rs699664 (GGCX) involved in the warfarin action mechanism and the circulatory vitamin K were selected to investigate their polymorphism characteristics and their effects on the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of warfarin in Chinese population.<h4>Methods</h4>220 patients with cardiac valve replacement were recruited. International normalized ratio and plasma warfarin concentrations were determined. The five genetic polymorphisms were genotyping by pyro-sequencing. The relationships of maintenance dose, plasma warfarin concentration and INR were assessed among groups categorized by genotypes.<h4>Results</h4>rs9923231 and rs7294 in VKORC1 had the analogous genotype frequencies (D': 0.969). 158 of 220 recruited individuals had the target INR (1.5-2.5). Patients with AA of rs9923231 and CC of rs7294 required a significantly lower maintenance dose and plasma concentration than those with AG and TC, respectively. The mean weekly maintenance dose was also significantly lower in CYP2C9 rs1057910 mutated heterozygote than in patients with the wild homozygote. Eliminating the influence from environment factors (age, body weight and gender), rs9923231 and rs1057910 could explain about 32.0% of the variability in warfarin maintenance dose; rs7294 could explain 26.7% of the variability in plasma concentration. For patients with allele G of rs9923231 and allele T of rs7294, higher plasma concentration was needed to achieve the similar goal INR.<h4>Conclusions</h4>A better understanding of the genetic variants in individuals can be the foundation of warfarin dosing algorithm and facilitate the reasonable and effective use of warfarin in Chinese.
Project description:Background:Vitamin K antagonists (VKA) are used as prophylaxis for thromboembolic events in patients with cardiovascular diseases. The most common VKA are warfarin and acenocoumarol. These drugs have a narrow therapeutic margin and high inter-individual response variability due to clinical and pharmacogenetic variables. Objective:The authors aim to develop an algorithm comprised of clinical and genetic factors to explain the variability in the therapeutic dose of acenocoumarol among Chilean patients. Methodology:DNA was obtained from 304 patients as a discovery cohort with an international normalized ratio (INR) range of 2.0-3.0. The non-genetic (demographic and clinical) variables were also recorded. Genotype analyses were performed using real-time PCR for VKORC1 (rs9923231), VKORC1 (rs7294), GGCx (rs11676382), CYP4F2 (rs2108622), ABCB1 (rs1045642), CYP2C9*2 (rs1799853), ApoE (rs429358), and CYP2C9*3 (rs1057910). Results:The clinical variables that significantly influenced the weekly therapeutic dose of VKA were age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and initial INR, collectively accounting for 19% of the variability, and the genetic variables with a significant impact were VKORC1 (rs9923231), CYP2C9*2 (rs1799853), and CYP2C9*3 (rs1057910), explaining for another 37% of the variability. Conclusion:We developed an algorithm that explains 49.99% of the variability in therapeutic VKA dosage in the Chilean population studied. Factors that significantly affected the dosage included VKORC1, CYP2C9*2, and CYP2C9*3 polymorphisms, as well as age, sex, BMI, and initial INR.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The anticoagulation of atrial fibrillation catheter ablation during the perioperative stage does matter and should be treated with discretion. We aimed to assess impact of three important genes participating in vitamin K cycle (i.e. VKORC1 rs9923231, CYP4F2 rs2108622 and NQO1 rs1800566) on the daily stable warfarin dose requirement in Sichuan Han Chinese patients with catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation. METHODS:A total of 222 atrial fibrillation patients taking stable warfarin therapy after catheter ablation operation were enrolled in this study. The study population included had high (?2) risk according to the CHA2DS2-VASc risk score. Genotypes of VKORC1 rs9923231, CYP4F2 rs2108622 and NQO1 rs1800566 were analyzed by using the polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism method (PCR-RFLP). Multiple linear regression analysis was applied to depict the impact of VKORC1 rs9923231, CYP4F2 rs2108622 and NQO1 rs1800566 on the daily stable warfarin dose requirement. RESULTS:Carriers of VKORC1 rs9923231 AG/GG genotypes required significantly higher warfarin dose (3.03?±?0.28 mg/day, 7.19 mg/day, respectively) than AA carriers (2.52?±?0.07 mg/day; P <?0.001). Carriers of CYP4F2 rs2108622 CT/TT genotypes required significantly higher warfarin dose (3.38?±?0.22 mg/day, 2.79?±?0.19 mg/day, respectively) than CC carriers (2.41?±?0.08 mg/day; P?<?0.001). However, the warfarin dose for carriers of NQO1 rs1800566 CT/TT genotypes (2.46?±?0.24 mg/day, 3.01?±?0.27 mg/day, respectively) was not significantly higher than that for the CC carriers (2.33?±?0.1 mg/day). The multiple linear regression model including genotypes and demographic characteristics, could explain 20.1% of individual variations in the daily stable warfarin dose in Sichuan Han Chinese. VKORC1 rs9923231 contributed most (15%) to the individual variations in daily stable warfarin dose, while CYP4F2 rs2108622 contributed least (3%). CONCLUSION:NQO1 rs1800566 is not a significant genetic factor of warfarin dose for Han Chinese, whereas VKORC1 rs9923231 and CYP4F2 rs2108622 are significant genetic factors, which could explain 15% and approximately 3% of individual variations in the daily stable warfarin dose respectively.
Project description:The effects of genetic variants on warfarin dosing vary among different ethnic groups, especially in the Chinese population. The objective of this study was to recruit patients through a rigorous experimental design and to perform a comprehensive screen to identify gene polymorphisms that may influence warfarin dosing in northern Han Chinese patients with mechanical heart valve replacement. Consenting patients (n?=?183) with a stable warfarin dose were included in this study. Ninety-six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 30 genes involved in warfarin pharmacological pathways were genotyped using the Illumina SNP GoldenGate Assay, and their associations with warfarin dosing were assessed using univariate regression analysis with post hoc comparison using least significant difference analysis. Multiple linear regression was performed by incorporating patients' clinical and genetic data to create a new algorithm for warfarin dosing. From the 96 SNPs analyzed, VKORC1 rs9923231, CYP1A2 rs2069514, CYP3A4 rs28371759, and APOE rs7412 were associated with higher average warfarin maintenance doses, whereas CYP2C9 rs1057910, EPHX1 rs2260863, and CYP4F2 rs2189784 were associated with lower warfarin doses (P?<?0.05). Multiple linear regression analysis could estimate 44.4% of warfarin dose variability consisting of, in decreasing order, VKORC1 rs9923231 (14.2%), CYP2C9*3 (9.6%), body surface area (6.7%), CYP1A2 rs2069514 (3.7%), age (2.7%), CYP3A4 rs28371759 (2.5%), CYP4F2 rs2108622 (1.9%), APOE rs7412 (1.7%), and VKORC1 rs2884737 (1.4%). In the dosing algorithm we developed, we confirmed the strongest effects of VKORC1, CYP2C9 on warfarin dosing. In the limited sample set, we also found that novel genetic predictors (CYP1A2, CYP3A4, APOE, EPHX1, CYP4F2, and VKORC1 rs2884737) may be associated with warfarin dosing. Further validation is needed to assess our results in larger independent northern Chinese samples.
Project description:Genetic polymorphisms in the gene encoding cytochrome P450 (CYP) 4F2, a vitamin K oxidase, affect stable warfarin dose requirements and time to therapeutic INR. CYP4F2 is part of the CYP4F gene cluster, which is highly polymorphic and exhibits a high degree of linkage disequilibrium, making it difficult to define causal variants. Our objective was to examine the effect of genetic variability in the CYP4F gene cluster on expression of the individual CYP4F genes and warfarin response. mRNA levels of the CYP4F gene cluster were quantified in human liver samples (n = 149) obtained from a well-characterized liver bank and fine mapping of the CYP4F gene cluster encompassing CYP4F2, CYP4F11, and CYP4F12 was performed. Genome-wide association study (GWAS) data from a prospective cohort of warfarin-treated patients (n = 711) was also analyzed for genetic variations across the CYP4F gene cluster. In addition, SNP-gene expression in human liver tissues and interactions between CYP4F genes were explored in silico using publicly available data repositories. We found that SNPs in CYP4F2, CYP4F11, and CYP4F12 were associated with mRNA expression in the CYP4F gene cluster. In particular, CYP4F2 rs2108622 was associated with increased CYP4F2 expression while CYP4F11 rs1060467 was associated with decreased CYP4F2 expression. Interestingly, these CYP4F2 and CYP4F11 SNPs showed similar effects with warfarin stable dose where CYP4F11 rs1060467 was associated with a reduction in daily warfarin dose requirement (?1 mg/day, Pc = 0.017), an effect opposite to that previously reported with CYP4F2 (rs2108622). However, inclusion of either or both of these SNPs in a pharmacogenetic algorithm consisting of age, body mass index (BMI), gender, baseline clotting factor II level, CYP2C9?2 rs1799853, CYP2C9?3 rs1057910, and VKORC1 rs9923231 improved warfarin dose variability only by 0.5-0.7% with an improvement in dose prediction accuracy of ?1-2%. Although there is complex regulation across the CYP4F gene cluster, the opposing effects between the two SNPs in the CYP4F gene cluster appear to compensate for each other and their effect on warfarin dose requirement is unlikely to be clinically significant.
Project description:CYP2C9 and VKORC1 are two major genetic factors associated with inter-individual variability in warfarin dose. Additionally, genes in the warfarin metabolism pathway have also been associated with dose variance. We analyzed Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in these genes to identify genetic factors that might confer warfarin sensitivity in Indonesian patients.Direct sequencing method was used to identify SNPs in CYP2C9, VKORC1, CYP4F2, EPHX1, PROC and GGCX genes in warfarin-treated patients. Multiple linear regressions were performed to model the relationship warfarin daily dose requirement with genetic and non-genetic variables measured and used to develop a novel algorithm for warfarin dosing.From the 40 SNPs analyzed, CYP2C9 rs17847036 and VKORC1 rs9923231 showed significant association with warfarin sensitivity. In our study population, no significant correlation could be detected between CYP2C9*3, CYP2C9C-65 (rs9332127), CYP4F2 rs2108622, GGCX rs12714145, EPHX1 rs4653436 and PROC rs1799809 with warfarin sensitivity.VKORC1 rs9923231 AA and CYP2C9 rs17847036 GG genotypes were associated with low dosage requirements of most patients (2.05 ± 0.77 mg/day and 2.09 ± 0.70 mg/day, respectively). CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genetic variants as well as non-genetic factors such as age, body weight and body height account for 15.4% of variance in warfarin dose among our study population. Additional analysis of this combination could allow for personalized warfarin treatment in ethnic Indonesians.
Project description:The aim of this study was to investigate the contributions of non-genetic and genetic factors on the variability of stable warfarin doses in Thai patients.A total of 250 Thai patients with stable warfarin doses were enrolled in the study. Demographics and clinical data, e.g., age, body mass index, indications for warfarin and concomitant medications, were documented. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms in the VKORC1 - 1639G > A, CYP2C9*3, CYP4F2 rs2108622, and UGT1A1 rs887829 genes were detected from gDNA using TaqMan allelic discrimination assays.The patients with variant genotypes of VKORC1 - 1639G > A required significantly lower warfarin stable weekly doses (SWDs) than those with wild-type genotype (p < 0.001). Similarly, the patients with CYP2C9*3 variant allele required significantly lower warfarin SWDs than those with homozygous wild-type (p = 0.006). In contrast, there were no significant differences in the SWDs between the patients who carried variant alleles of CYP4F2 rs2108622 and UGT1A1 rs887829 as compared to wild-type allele carriers. Multivariate analysis, however, showed that CYP4F2 rs2108622 TT genotype accounted for a modest part of warfarin dose variability (1.2%). In contrast, VKORC1 - 1639G > A, CYP2C9*3, CYP4F2 rs2108622 genotypes and non-genetic factors accounted for 51.3% of dose variability.VKORC1 - 1639G > A, CYP2C9*3, and CYP4F2 rs2108622 polymorphisms together with age, body mass index, antiplatelet drug use, amiodarone use, and current smoker status explained 51.3% of individual variability in stable warfarin doses. In contrast, the UGT1A1 rs887829 polymorphism did not contribute to dose variability.
Project description:The main aim of this study was to screen various genetic and nongenetic factors that are known to alter warfarin response and to generate a model to predict stable warfarin maintenance dose for Indian patients. The study comprised of 300 warfarin-treated patients. Followed by extensive literature review, 10 single-nucleotide polymorphisms, that is, VKORC1-1639 G>A (rs9923231), CYP2C9*2 (rs1799853), CYP2C9*3 (rs1057910), FVII R353Q (rs6046), GGCX 12970 C>G (rs11676382), CALU c.*4A>G (rs1043550), EPHX1 c.337T>C (rs1051740), GGCX: c.214+597G>A (rs12714145), GGCX: 8016G>A (rs699664), and CYP4F2 V433M (rs2108622), and 5 nongenetic factors, that is, age, gender, smoking, alcoholism, and diet, were selected to find their association with warfarin response. The univariate analysis was carried out for 15 variables (10 genetic and 5 nongenetic). Five variables, that is, VKORC1-1639 G>A, CYP2C9*2, CYP2C9*3, age, and diet, were found to be significantly associated with warfarin response in univariate analysis. These 5 variables were entered in stepwise and multiple regression analysis to generate a prediction model for stable warfarin maintenance dose. The generated model scored R2 of .67, which indicates that this model can explain 67% of warfarin dose variability. The generated model will help in prescribing more accurate warfarin maintenance dosing in Indian patients and will also help in minimizing warfarin-induced adverse drug reactions and a better quality of life in these patients.
Project description:The main objective of this study is to assess the effects of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 polymorphisms on warfarin sensitivity and responsiveness in a Jordanian population during the stabilization phase of treatment. This study was conducted at the Queen Alia Heart Institute (QAHI) anticoagulation clinic in Amman, Jordan. We assessed three CYP2C9 (rs1799853, rs1057910, rs4086116) and four VKORC1 (rs10871454, rs8050894, rs9934438, rs17708472) polymorphisms in 139 Jordanian cardiovascular patients. Demographic and clinical data were also collected. Of the 139 patients in the cohort, 80% had the VKORC1 polymorphisms rs10871454 and rs9934438, while 22.3% and 24.5% of patients had the rs1799853 and rs1057910 CYP2C9 alleles, respectively. Carriers of the CYP2C9 polymorphisms rs1057910 and rs4086116 had an increased risk of warfarin sensitivity compared to subjects with no or only one polymorphism. Similarly, carriers of all four VKORC1 variants had an increased risk of warfarin sensitivity (over anticoagulation) compared to those with no or only one polymorphism. Patients with a CYP2C9 or VKORC1 polymorphism required significantly lower doses than patients with no polymorphisms. The presence of any of CYP2C9 or VKORC1 polymorphisms is associated with sensitivity to warfarin during the stabilization period. Being a CYP2C9 or VKORC1 polymorphism carrier is associated with a variation in doses required to achieve the therapeutic INR compared to non-carrier patients.