Elevated cytokine levels in tears and saliva of patients with primary Sjogren's syndrome correlate with clinical ocular and oral manifestations.
ABSTRACT: Investigating cytokines in tear fluid and saliva may offer valuable information for understanding the pathogenesis of primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). Cytokine profiles in both tear fluid and saliva of pSS patients, non-Sjögren's syndrome (non-SS) subjects with sicca symptoms, and healthy controls without sicca complaints were analysed. Furthermore, relationships associating the severity of clinical ocular and oral manifestations with the upregulated cytokines were assessed. In tear fluid, pSS patients showed elevated levels of IL-1ra, IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-12p70, IL-17A, IFN-γ, IP-10, MIP-1b, and Rantes compared to non-SS subjects and healthy controls. The increased cytokine levels (except IP-10) correlated significantly with reduced tear production, less stable tear film, and greater ocular surface damage. In saliva, pSS patients had a higher IP-10 level, which correlated with higher candida score; and an elevated MIP-1a level, which correlated significantly with lower unstimulated and stimulated whole saliva secretion rates. The upregulated cytokines identified in tear fluid and saliva of pSS patients show a clear interplay between innate and adaptive immune responses that may contribute to disease pathogenesis. The increase of IP-10 and MIP in both tears and saliva further emphasises the essential role of macrophages and innate immunity in pSS.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Mononuclear cell infiltration of exocrine glands, production of Ro/SSA and La/SSB autoantibodies, along with oral and ocular dryness, are characteristic features of primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). Non-SS sicca subjects, an underexplored group in relation to pSS, display similar sicca symptoms, with possible mild signs of inflammation in their salivary glands, yet with no serological detection of autoantibody production. In this study, we investigated inflammatory manifestations in the salivary gland tissue, tear fluid and saliva of non-SS subjects, as compared to pSS patients and healthy individuals. METHODS:Fifteen non-SS, 10 pSS and 10 healthy subjects were included in the analyses. Histological evaluation of salivary gland biopsies was performed. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was conducted on tear fluid and stimulated whole saliva, and proteomic biomarker profiles were generated. Extracellular vesicle (EVs) isolation and characterisation from both fluids were also combined with LC-MS. The LC-MS data were analysed for quantitative differences between patient and control groups using Scaffold. Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) and Functional Enrichment Analysis Tool (FunRich) were applied for functional analyses. RESULTS:Histopathological evaluation of salivary gland biopsies showed implications of milder inflammation in non-SS subjects through mononuclear cell infiltration, fibrosis and fatty replacement, as compared to pSS patients. Although unaffected in the non-SS group, upregulation of proinflammatory pathways and proteins involved in ubiquitination (LMO7 and HUWE1) and B cell differentiation (TPD52) were detected in tear fluid of pSS patients. Moreover, overexpression of proteins STOM, ANXA4 and ANXA1, regulating cellular innate and adaptive immunological pathways, were further identified in EVs from tear fluid of pSS patients. Finally, whole saliva and EVs isolated from whole saliva of pSS patients expressed proteins vital for innate MHC class I cellular regulation (NGAL) and T cell activation (CD44). CONCLUSIONS:Non-SS sicca subjects may show implications of mild inflammation in their glandular tissue, while their protein profile was strikingly more similar to healthy controls than to pSS patients. Hence, the tear and salivary biomarkers identified could be implemented as potential non-invasive diagnostic tools that may aid in increasing diagnostic accuracy when evaluating non-SS subjects and pSS patients and monitoring disease progression.
Project description:Understanding the impact of the disease on quality of life is crucial in patient management. In this cross-sectional study, general and oral health-related quality of life questionnaires, and thorough examinations of oral and ocular dryness were performed in age- and sex-matched patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS group), non-Sjögren's syndrome sicca (non-SS group) and healthy controls. General and oral health-related quality of life were investigated with the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey and the 14-Item Oral Health Impact Profile questionnaires, respectively. Subjective symptoms of xerostomia and ocular dryness were recorded using the Summated Xerostomia Inventory and Ocular Surface Disease Index, respectively. Clinical examinations included evaluation of clinical oral dryness scores, candida counts, unstimulated and stimulated saliva secretory rates, tear osmolarity, tear film break-up time, Schirmer I test and ocular surface staining. Both patient groups had pronounced signs and symptoms of xerostomia and ocular dryness. Even though the non-SS patients had less severe clinical signs than the pSS patients, they demonstrated much poorer general and oral health-related quality of life. In conclusion, non-SS patients require more attention in order to improve their quality of life.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Salivary gland (SG) progenitor cells (SGPCs) maintain SG homeostasis. We have previously shown that in primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS), SGPCs are likely to be senescent, and may underpin SG dysfunction. This study assessed the extent of senescence of cells in a SGPC niche in pSS patients' SGs, and its correlation with functional and clinical parameters. METHODS:The expression of p16 and p21 as markers of senescence in both total SG epithelium and a SGPC niche (basal striated duct cells, BSD) was examined in SGs of pSS (n?=?35), incomplete pSS (n?=?13) (patients with some signs of pSS, but not fulfilling all classification criteria) and non-SS sicca control (n?=?21) patients. This was correlated with functional and clinical parameters. RESULTS:pSS patient SGs contained significantly more p16+ cells both in the epithelium in general (P <0.01) and in the BSD layer (P <0.001), than non-SS SGs. Significant correlations were found in pSS patients between p16+ BSD cells and secretion of unstimulated whole saliva, stimulated whole saliva, stimulated parotid saliva, CD45+ infiltrate, ultrasound total score and ACR-EULAR classification score, but not with EULAR Sjögren's syndrome disease activity index (ESSDAI) and EULAR Sjögren's Syndrome Patient Reported Index (ESSPRI) scores. Correlations with total epithelium p16+ cells were weaker. Incomplete pSS patients also had increased numbers of p16+ epithelial and BSD cells. Based on protein and mRNA expression, p21+ appears not to play a significant role in the SG in pSS. CONCLUSION:These findings suggest SGPC senescence may be an early feature of primary Sjögren's syndrome and may contribute to defective SG function in pSS but not to systemic disease activity.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Primary Sjögren syndrome (pSS) is characterized by T and B cell infiltration of exocrine glands. The cysteine protease cathepsin S (CatS) is crucially involved in MHCII processing and T cell stimulation, and elevated levels have been found in patients with RA, psoriasis and pSS. However, little is known about the functional characteristics and mechanisms of SS-A- and SS-B-specific T cells in pSS patients. We herein investigated the inhibition of CatS activity in different biocompartments of pSS patients including antigen-specific T cell responses. METHODS:Ex vivo CatS activity was assessed in tears, plasma and saliva of 15 pSS patients and 13 healthy controls (HC) and in the presence or absence of the specific CatS inhibitor RO5459072. In addition, antigen (SS-A (60kD), SS-B, influenza H3N2, tetanus toxoid and SEB)-specific T cell responses were examined using ex vivo IFN-γ/IL-17 Dual ELISPOT and Bromdesoxyuridin (BrdU) proliferation assays in the presence or absence of RO5459072. Supernatants were analysed for IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, IL-21, IL-22 and IL-23, using conventional ELISA. RESULTS:CatS activity was significantly elevated in tear fluid, but not other biocompartments, was inversely associated with exocrinic function in pSS patients and could significantly be suppressed by RO5459072. Moreover, CatS inhibition by RO5459072 led to strong and dose-dependent suppression of SS-A/SS-B-specific T cell effector functions and cytokine secretion by CD14+ monocytes. However, RO5459072 was incapable of suppressing SS-A/SS-B-induced secretion of cytokines in CD14+ monocytes when T cells were absent, confirming a CatS/MHCII-mediated mechanism of suppression. CONCLUSION:CatS activity in tear fluid seems to be a relevant biomarker for pSS disease activity. Conversely, CatS inhibition diminishes T cell and associated monokine responses towards relevant autoantigens in pSS. Thus, CatS inhibition may represent a promising novel treatment strategy in pSS.
Project description:It is not known if there is a difference in the immune response to syphilis between HIV-infected and uninfected individuals.We prospectively recruited all patients with a new diagnosis of syphilis and tested their plasma for IFN?, IFN?, IL-1?, IL-12p40, IL-12p70, IP-10, MCP-1, MIP-1?, MIP-1?, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10 and IL-17A at baseline pre-treatment and 6 months following therapy.A total of 79 HIV-infected [44 primary/secondary syphilis (PSS) and 35 latent syphilis (LS)] and 12 HIV-uninfected (10 PSS and 2 LS) cases of syphilis and 30 HIV-infected controls were included in the study. At the baseline visit, compared to the control group, concentrations of IL-10 were significantly elevated in the HIV-infected and uninfected groups. The level of IL-10 was significantly higher in the HIV-infected compared to the HIV-uninfected PSS group (25.3 pg/mL (IQR, 4.56-41.76) vs 2.73 pg/mL (IQR, 1.55-9.02), P?=?0.0192). In the HIV-infected PSS group (but not the HIV-infected LS or HIV-uninfected PSS groups) the IP-10, MIP-1b, IL-6 and IL-8 were raised compared to the controls. IL-10 levels decreased but did not return to control baseline values by 6 months in HIV infected PSS and LS and HIV uninfected PSS.PSS and LS in HIV-infected individuals is characterized by an increase in inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-10. The increase of IL-10 is greater in HIV-infected than uninfected individuals. Further work is required to ascertain if this is part of an immunological profile that correlates with adverse outcomes such as serofast syphilis and neurosyphilis, in HIV-infected individuals.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Gross cystic disease fluid protein-15(GCDFP-15)/prolactin-inducible protein (PIP) is a secretory acinar glycoprotein of 14 KDa which we have recently described as significantly lower in salivary samples of patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) in comparison to healthy volunteers by proteomic analysis. AIMS OF THE STUDY:(1) to validate our previous data on the decrease of GCDFP-15/PIP protein in a larger number of subjects with pSS (2) to integrate the proteomic results with complementary immunoassays in order better clarify the pathophysiological relevance of GCDFP-15/PIP in pSS exocrinopathy (3) to assess both the glandular expression of the GCDFP-15/PIP and the levels of glandular GCDFP-15/PIP mRNA in the patients' minor salivary gland (MSG) biopsies in order to verify whether the observed reduction of GCDFP-15/PIP in saliva may be related to a decrease in the protein production. PATIENTS AND METHODS:A total of 123 salivary samples from patients affected by pSS, no-SS sicca syndrome and sex- age-matched healthy volunteers were analyzed by different proteomic techniques (SELDI-TOF-MS, 2DE, MALDI-TOF-MS). The expression of GCDFP-15/PIP was then validated by western blot analysis. Real Time PCR and immunohistochemistry for GCDFP-15/PIP in the minor salivary glands (MSG) biopsies were then carried out. RESULTS:By using complementary proteomic analysis we found that a putative peak of 16547 m/z was among the best independent biomarkers for pSS able to discriminate between patients and healthy controls with a sensitivity of 96 % and a specificity of 70%, with a global cross validated error of 29%. We identified the peak as the GCDFP-15/PIP protein and verified that the intensity of GCDFP-15/PIP was significantly lower in pSS patients when compared to both no-SS sicca subjects and healthy controls (p<0.0001). GCDFP-15/PIP expression also correlated with both the salivary flow rate (r=0.312, p=0.023) and MSG biopsies focus score (r=-0.377, p=0.04). Finally, immunohistochemistry confirmed that GCDFP-15/PIP staining was faint in mucus acini and Real Time PCR showed that GCDFP-15/PIP mRNA was significantly lower in pSS patients when compared to both no-SS sicca subjects and healthy controls (p=0.023) thus supporting the hypothesis that the observed reduction of GCDFP-15/PIP in pSS saliva may be related to a decrease in the protein production. CONCLUSION:In this study by different complementary-omic techniques we confirmed the potential role of GCDFP-15/PIP as a novel biomarker for pSS. This finding might also be functionally important as GCDFP-15/PIP has previously been shown to bind to Aquaporin 5 (AQP5), a salivary gland water channel, critical to saliva formation that is known to be downregulated in pSS. It is likely that exploring the GCDFP-15/PIP/AQP5 axis will help better understand the mechanism of salivary gland dysfunction in pSS.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) shares clinical features and pathogenetic mechanisms with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). SLE is associated with an increased thromboembolic risk; however, it is unclear whether pSS patients are susceptible to thromboembolic diseases. In this study, we examined ex vivo blood clot formation (clot strength, rates of clot formation and lysis) in pSS using thromboelastography (TEG) and platelet aggregation to common agonists using multiple electrode aggregometry (MEA). We also investigated the relationship between TEG/MEA parameters and clinical/laboratory features of pSS.<h4>Design</h4>Case control.<h4>Setting</h4>Secondary care, single centre.<h4>Participants</h4>34 pSS patients, 11 SLE patients and 13 healthy volunteers (all women) entered and completed the study.<h4>Primary and secondary outcome measures</h4><h4>Primary outcomes</h4>TEG and MEA parameters between three subject groups.<h4>Secondary outcomes</h4>The relationships between TEG/MEA and clinical/laboratory parameters analysed using bivariate correlation analysis with corrections for multiple testing.<h4>Results</h4>All TEG and MEA parameters were similar for the three subject groups. After corrections for multiple testing, interleukin (IL)-1? and Macrophage inflammatory proteins (MIP)-1? remain correlated inversely with clot strength (r=-0.686, p=0.024 and r=-0.730, p=0.012, respectively) and overall coagulability (r=-0.640, p=0.048 and r=-0.648, p=0.048). Stepwise regression analysis revealed that several cytokines such as MIP-1?, IL-17a, IL-1? and Interferon (IFN)-? may be key predictors of clot strength and overall coagulability in pSS.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Clot kinetics and platelet receptor function are normal in pSS. Several cytokines correlate with clot strength and overall coagulability in pSS.
Project description:Ocular dryness is a characteristic feature of primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). This may result in dry eye disease (DED), leading to damage of the ocular surface. Additional, non-invasive diagnostic techniques are needed when evaluating pSS patients. Hence, screening for disease-specific biomarkers in biological fluid could be promising. We have previously examined the proteome of tear fluid from pSS patients through Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), and conducted a thorough ocular evaluation of patients with pSS. In this study we further explored the association between dry eye manifestations and protein expression in tear fluid of pSS patients. Medical history of 27 patients and 32 healthy controls was gathered. Subjective complaints were registered through questionnaires. Objective findings including tear osmolarity, tear film break up time (TFBUT), Schirmer's test, and ocular and corneal surface staining were also recorded. LC-MS was conducted formerly on tear fluid from all subjects in order to generate proteomic biomarker profiles. Scaffold was employed to analyse the LC-MS data for quantitative differences between patient and control groups, and the mean spectral counts were calculated for the five most upregulated proteins in relation to DED manifestations. Dysregulated cellular processes were identified in pSS patients using FunRichv3 enrichment analysis. The five most upregulated proteins previously identified in pSS patients were DNA (apurinic or apyrimidinic site) lyase (APEX1), thioredoxin-dependent peroxidase reductase (PRDX3), copine (CPNE1), aconitate hydratase (ACO2), and LIM domain only protein 7 (LMO7), in descending order. A significant increase in mean spectral counts for these proteins were observed in pSS patients with pathological DED manifestations compared to healthy controls (p<0.0001). Consequently, dysregulated cellular pathways involving innate and adaptive immunity were also detected. In conclusion, our observations suggest a relationship between presence of dry eye signs and upregulated proteins in tear fluid from patients with pSS. Further studies are needed in order to replicate the concepts explored and analyses performed in a greater cohort of pSS patients, where sensitivity and specificity of the methods conducted can also be verified further.
Project description:Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) is a systemic auto-immune disease typified by dryness of the mouth and eyes. A majority of patients with pSS have a type-I interferon (IFN)-signature, which is defined as the increased expression of IFN-induced genes in circulating immune cells and is associated with increased disease activity. As plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) are the premier type-I IFN-producing cells and are present at the site of inflammation, they are thought to play a significant role in pSS pathogenesis. Considering the lack of data on pDC regulation and function in pSS patients, we here provided the first in-depth molecular characterization of pSS pDCs. In addition, a group of patients with non-Sjögren's sicca (nSS) was included; these poorly studied patients suffer from complaints similar to pSS patients, but are not diagnosed with Sjögren's syndrome. We isolated circulating pDCs from two independent cohorts of patients and controls (each n = 31) and performed RNA-sequencing, after which data-driven networks and modular analysis were used to identify robustly reproducible transcriptional "signatures" of differential and co-expressed genes. Four signatures were identified, including an IFN-induced gene signature and a ribosomal protein gene-signature, that indicated pDC activation. Comparison with a dataset of in vitro activated pDCs showed that pSS pDCs have higher expression of many genes also upregulated upon pDC activation. Corroborating this transcriptional profile, pSS pDCs produced higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including type-I IFN, upon in vitro stimulation with endosomal Toll-like receptor ligands. In this setting, cytokine production was associated with expression of hub-genes from the IFN-induced and ribosomal protein gene-signatures, indicating that the transcriptional profile of pSS pDCs underlies their enhanced cytokine production. In all transcriptional analyses, nSS patients formed an intermediate group in which some patients were molecularly similar to pSS patients. Furthermore, we used the identified transcriptional signatures to develop a discriminative classifier for molecular stratification of patients with sicca. Altogether, our data provide in-depth characterization of the aberrant regulation of pDCs from patients with nSS and pSS and substantiate their perceived role in the immunopathology of pSS, supporting studies that target pDCs, type-I IFNs, or IFN-signaling in pSS.
Project description:<i>Purpose</i>. To characterize the profiles for inflammatory cytokines in the vitreous fluid from patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) by comparing those of other vitreoretinal diseases and to analyze the correlation between intravitreal cytokines and clinical features. <i>Materials and Methods</i>. Vitreous fluid was obtained at the time of surgery from 28 RRD eyes. Vitreous fluid was similarly collected from patients with macular hole (MH), epiretinal membrane, proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), and retinal vein occlusion as controls. Twenty-seven cytokines were measured. Intravitreal cytokine profiles in RRD were characterized by comparing these with those in other vitreoretinal diseases. We also analyzed the correlations between vitreous cytokines and clinical features. <i>Results</i>. There were statistical differences in the MCP-1, MIP-1<i>?</i>, and IP-10 between the RRD and MH, while the IL-6 and IL-8 exhibited levels that were between those for the PDR and MH. MIP-1<i>?</i> was significantly correlated to both the extent and duration of the RRD, while IL-8 was significantly correlated to the extent of the RRD. <i>Conclusions</i>. MCP-1, MIP-1<i>?</i>, and IP-10 may modify the pathologic features of RRD. The levels of these cytokines are related in part to the clinical features and the level of photoreceptor damage.