Clear Cell Odontogenic Carcinoma: Occurrence of EWSR1-CREB1 as Alternative Fusion Gene to EWSR1-ATF1.
ABSTRACT: Clear cell odontogenic carcinoma (CCOC) is a rare, low-grade malignant epithelial neoplasm, occurring in the jawbones, mainly affecting the mandible of elderly patients. In addition to hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma of the salivary gland, it is one of the epithelial neoplasms known to harbor an EWSR1-ATF1 fusion. Therefore, a link between these tumors seems plausible. We describe six cases of CCOC showing EWSR1 rearrangements, with two cases being positive for the ATF1 partner gene using FISH analysis. In one case, an EWSR1-CREB1 fusion was identified using RT-PCR, which we report for the first time in this tumor type. The other three cases investigated by FISH were negative for ATF1, CREB1 and CREB3L2. In conclusion, our data show that EWSR1-CREB1 is an alternative fusion gene to EWSR1-ATF1 in CCOC.
Project description:Recurrent gene fusions involving EWSR1 with members of the cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) family (ATF1 and CREB1) have been reported in a diverse group of tumors including angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma (AFH), soft tissue and gastrointestinal clear cell sarcoma, primary pulmonary myxoid sarcoma, and hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma of salivary gland. We have recently encountered a group of 5 myxoid mesenchymal tumors positive for EWSR1 fusions with one of the CREB family member (ATF1, CREB1, and CREM), with histologic features distinct from any of the previously described pathologic entities. Tumors occurred in children or young adults (12 to 23 y; mean, 18 y), with equal sex distribution. All except 1 were intracranial (intra-axial, 2; meningeal, 2), whereas 1 was perirectal. Histologically, the tumors were well circumscribed, often lobulated, composed of uniform ovoid to round cells, and arranged in cord-like or reticular structures in a myxoid background. All except 1 displayed unique sunburst amianthoid fibers. Immunohistochemically, tumors were positive for epithelial membrane antigen (5/5; 4 focal, 1 diffuse) and desmin (3/5). A novel EWSR1-CREM fusion was identified by RNA sequencing in the perirectal tumor, which was further confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A second case with similar EWSR1-CREM fusion was identified by RT-PCR and FISH in a meningeal tumor. The remaining cases studied by FISH showed the presence of EWSR1-CREB1 fusion in 2 cases and EWSR1-ATF1 in 1. In conclusion, we report a distinct group of myxoid mesenchymal neoplasms occurring in children or young adults with a predilection for intracranial locations. Although the immunoprofile [epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), desmin] and the fusion type raise the possibility of a myxoid AFH, none of the typical histologic findings of AFH were present, suggesting a novel entity.
Project description:Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a rare, aggressive tumor often associated with asbestos exposure and characterized by complex genetic abnormalities, including deletions of chromosome 22. A gene fusion involving EWSR1 and YY1 gene on 14q32 has been reported in 2 patients over the age of 60 with peritoneal MM. However, the incidence of EWSR1 rearrangements in MM and the spectrum of its fusion partners remain unknown. We recently encountered 2 MM cases with EWSR1-ATF1 fusions and sought to investigate the prevalence and clinicopathologic features associated with this abnormality. As both index cases occurred as intra-abdominal tumors in young adults, we searched our files for pleural and peritoneal MM occurring in adults younger than age of 40. All cases were tested by fluorescence in situ hybridization using custom bacterial artificial chromosomes probes for EWSR1, FUS, and ATF1 genes. When available, immunohistochemistry for BAP1 was performed. A total of 25 MM from patients aged 40 or less were screened, either from peritoneum (n=13) or pleura (n=12), with a median age of 31 (range: 7 to 40 y). Two additional ATF1-rearranged tumors were identified at pleural and peritoneal sites with EWSR1 and FUS as fusion partners, respectively, for a total of 4 cases (16%, 4/25). The fusion-positive cases displayed classic epithelioid morphology, immunoreactivity for cytokeratins and WT1, and negativity for S100. BAP1 expression was retained in the 3 fusion-positive cases with available material, and in 80% (12/15) of the fusion-negative cases. Our results expand the spectrum of tumor types harboring EWSR1/FUS-ATF1 gene fusions to include a subgroup of conventional epithelioid MM. Other features of this unique MM subset include young age at presentation, lack of asbestos exposure and retained BAP1 expression.
Project description:Malignant gastrointestinal neuroectodermal tumor (GNET) is an aggressive rare tumor, primarily occurring in young adults with frequent local-regional metastases and recurrence after local control. The tumor is characterized by the presence of EWSR1-ATF1 or EWSR1-CREB1 and immunohistochemical positivity for S-100 protein without melanocytic marker positivity. Due to poor responses to standard sarcoma regimens, GNET has a poor prognosis, and development of effective systemic therapy is desperately needed to treat these patients. Herein, we present a patient with a small bowel GNET who experienced recurrent hepatic and skeletal metastases after a primary resection. Comprehensive genomic profiling (CGP) in the course of clinical care with DNA and RNA sequencing demonstrated the presence of an exon 7 to exon 6 EWSR1-CREB1 fusion in the context of a diploid genome with no other genomic alterations. In a clinical trial, the patient received a combination of 250 mg crizotinib with 600 mg pazopanib quaque die and achieved partial response and durable clinical benefit for over 2.8 years, and with minimal toxicity from therapy. Using a CGP database of over 50,000 samples, we identified 11 additional cases that harbor EWSR1-CREB1 and report clinicopathologic characteristics, as these patients may also benefit from such a regimen.
Project description:The cAMP response element binding protein 1 (CREB1) and activating transcription factor 1 (ATF1) are closely related members of the bZIP superfamily of transcription factors. Both are activated in response to a wide array of stimuli, including cellular stress. This study was conducted to assess the CREB1/ATF1 pathway in photoreceptor disease and protection.The expression levels of p-CREB1, CREB1, and ATF1 were examined by immunoblot and immunohistochemistry in normal canine retina and retinas of several canine models of retinal degeneration (rcd1, rcd2, erd, prcd, XLPRA1, XLPRA2, T4R RHO). Humans retinas affected with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) were also examined. p-CREB1/ATF1 immunolabeling was assessed in normal and rcd1 dogs treated with ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), to examine the effect of a neuroprotective stimulus on activation of CREB1/ATF1.Native CREB1 and ATF1 as well as phosphorylated CREB1/ATF1 was examined in normal canine retina by immunoblot. The p-CREB1 antibody identified phosphorylated CREB1 and ATF1 and labeled the inner retina only in normal dogs. In degenerate canine and human retinas, strong immunolabeling appeared in rod and cone photoreceptors, indicating increased expression of native CREB1 and ATF1, as well as increased phosphorylation of these proteins. Retinal protection by CNTF in rcd1 dogs was accompanied by a significant increase in the number of p-CREB1/ATF1-labeled photoreceptor nuclei.Positive association of CREB1/ATF1 phosphorylation with photoreceptor protection suggests that it may contribute to an innate protective response. These data identify a signaling mechanism in rods and cones of potential importance for therapies of RP and AMD.
Project description:The genetics of myoepithelial tumors (ME) of soft tissue and bone have recently been investigated, with EWSR1-related gene fusions being seen in approximately half of the tumors. The fusion partners of EWSR1 so far described include POU5F1, PBX1, ZNF444 and, in a rare case, ATF1. We investigated by RNA sequencing an index case of EWSR1-rearranged ME of the tibia, lacking a known fusion partner, and identified a novel EWSR1-PBX3 fusion. The fusion was further validated by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). To evaluate if this is a recurrent event, an additional cohort of 22 EWSR1-rearranged ME cases lacking a fusion partner were screened by FISH for abnormalities in PBX3 gene. Thus, two additional cases were identified showing an EWSR1-PBX3 gene fusion. One of them was also intraosseous involving the ankle, while the other occurred in the soft tissue of the index finger. The morphology of the EWSR1-PBX3 fusion positive cases showed similar findings, with nests or sheets of epithelioid to spindle cells in a partially myxoid to collagenous matrix. All three cases showed expression of S100 and EMA by immunohistochemistry. In summary, we report a novel EWSR1-PBX3 gene fusion in a small subset of ME, thereby expanding the spectrum of EWSR1-related gene fusions seen in these tumors. This gene fusion seems to occur preferentially in skeletal ME, with two of the three study cases occurring in intraosseous locations.
Project description:Sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma (SEF) is a rare soft tissue tumor exhibiting considerable morphologic overlap with low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS). Moreover, both SEF and LGFMS show MUC4 expression by immunohistochemistry. While the majority of LGFMS cases are characterized by a FUS-CREB3L1 fusion, both FUS-CREB3L2 and EWSR1-CREB3L1 fusions were recently demonstrated in a small number of LGFMS and SEF/LGFMS hybrid tumors. In contrast, recent studies pointed out that SEF harbor frequent EWSR1 rearrangements, with only a minority of cases showing FUS-CREB3L2 fusions. In an effort to further characterize the molecular characteristics of pure SEF and hybrid SEF/LGFMS lesions, we undertook a clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical and genetic analysis of a series of 10 SEF and 8 hybrid SEF/LGFMS tumors. The mortality rate was similar between the two groups, 44% within the pure SEF group and 37% in the hybrid SEF/LGFMS with a mean overall follow-up of 66 months. All but one pure SEF and all hybrid SEF/LGFMS-tested cases showed MUC4 immunoreactivity. The majority (90%) of pure SEF cases showed EWSR1 gene rearrangements by fluorescence in situ hybridization with only one case exhibiting FUS rearrangement. Of the nine EWSR1 positive cases, six cases harbored CREB3L1 break-apart, two had CREB3L2 rearrangement (a previously unreported finding) and one lacked evidence of CREB3L1/2 abnormalities. In contrast, all hybrid SEF/LGFMS tumors exhibited FUS and CREB3L2 rearrangements. These results further demarcate a relative cytogenetic dichotomy between pure SEF, often characterized by EWSR1 rearrangements, and hybrid SEF/LGFMS, harboring FUS-CREB3L2 fusion; the latter group recapitulating the genotype of LGFMS.
Project description:The mechanism whereby the fusion of EWSR1 with the ETS transcription factor FLI1 contributes to malignant transformation in Ewing sarcoma remains unclear. We show that injection of human or zebrafish EWSR1/FLI1 mRNA into developing zebrafish embryos leads to mitotic defects with multipolar and disorganized mitotic spindles. Expression of human EWSR1/FLI1 in HeLa cells also results in mitotic defects, along with mislocalization of Aurora kinase B, a key regulator of mitotic progression. Because these mitotic abnormalities mimic those observed with the knockdown of EWSR1 in zebrafish embryos and HeLa cells, we investigated whether EWSR1/FLI1 interacts with EWSR1 and interferes with its function. EWSR1 coimmunoprecipitates with EWSR1/FLI1, and overexpression of EWSR1 rescues the mitotic defects in EWSR1/FLI1-transfected HeLa cells. This interaction between EWSR1/FLI1 and EWSR1 in Ewing sarcoma may induce mitotic defects leading to genomic instability and subsequent malignant transformation.
Project description:We report the first 2 genetically confirmed cases of primary renal sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma (SEF), occurring in a 17-year-old boy and a 61-year-old woman. In both cases, the tumors demonstrated the typical epithelioid clear cell morphology associated with extensive hyalinizing fibrosis, raising the differential diagnosis of solitary fibrous tumor, metanephric stromal tumor, and the sclerosing variant of clear cell sarcoma of the kidney. Both neoplasms demonstrated diffuse immunoreactivity for MUC4, a highly specific marker for SEF, and both demonstrated evidence of rearrangement of both the EWSR1 and CREB3L1 genes, which have recently been shown to be fused in this entity. Both neoplasms presented with metastatic disease. Primary renal SEF represents yet another translocation-associated sarcoma now shown to arise primarily in the kidney.
Project description:The Ewing sarcoma breakpoint region 1 (EWSR1) gene is known to fuse with various partner genes to promote the development of the Ewing sarcoma family of tumors and other sarcomas. In contrast, the association of EWSR1 chimeric fusion genes with leukemia has rarely been reported. We identified a novel EWSR1-associated chimeric fusion gene in a patient with acute myeloid leukemia harboring 46, XY, t (11; 22) (p13; q12) karyotype abnormality. The patient was refractory to intensified chemotherapy including hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Total RNA paired-end sequencing identified a novel chimeric fusion gene as EWSR1/ELF5, a member of the E26 transformation-specific transcription factor family. Transduction of EWSR1/ELF5 to NIH3T3 cells induced transformation by attenuating with the p53/p21-dependent pathway. The injection of EWSR1/ELF5-transduced NIH3T3 cells into NSG-SCID mice systematically induced the development of tumors in vivo. These results revealed the oncogenic potency of EWSR1/ELF5.
Project description:Myoepithelial (ME) tumors of soft tissue and bone display a heterogeneous histologic spectrum and in about half of the cases harbor EWSR1 gene rearrangements. Despite rare case reports, the prevalence of fused in sarcoma (FUS) gene abnormalities and its related fusion partners remains undetermined among ME tumors. Therefore, we screened 66 EWSR1-negative ME tumors for FUS abnormalities by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). In an index FUS-rearranged case, 3'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) was applied to identify the fusion partner. Results were further confirmed by reverse transcription-PCR, followed by FISH screening the entire cohort of FUS-rearranged and EWSR1-positive ME lesions lacking a known fusion partner. The correlation between genotype and clinicopathological features was also investigated. As a result, six (9%) FUS-rearranged cases were identified, spanning divergent age groups, tumor locations, and morphologic features. A novel FUS-KLF17 fusion was identified by 3'-RACE in an 11-year-old girl with a foot lesion associated with locoregional metastases. Three additional cases with FUS-KLF17 fusions were identified and one KLF17 rearrangement (6.3%) was found among the 16 EWSR1-positive cases tested. The KLF17-related ME tumors affected younger patients and often exhibited trabecular growth in a myxohyaline stroma, but this genotype did not correlate with a malignant phenotype. In conclusion, a small subset of ME tumors harbor FUS rearrangements, two thirds of them being associated with KLF17 fusion. FUS FISH analysis is recommended in EWSR1-negative lesions in which a ME diagnosis is suspected. KLF17 is also a rare gene fusion partner to EWSR1-rearranged ME tumors.