Deep Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) Network Evolution, Response to Abiotic Stress, and Regulation of Fiber Development in Cotton.
ABSTRACT: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important molecules in the plant, which are involved in many biological processes, including fiber development and adaptation to abiotic stress in cotton. We carried out transcription analysis to determine the evolution of the ROS genes and analyzed their expression levels in various tissues of cotton plant under abiotic stress conditions. There were 515, 260, and 261 genes of ROS network that were identified in Gossypium hirsutum (AD? genome), G. arboreum (A genome), and G. raimondii (D genome), respectively. The ROS network genes were found to be distributed in all the cotton chromosomes, but with a tendency of aggregating on either the lower or upper arms of the chromosomes. Moreover, all the cotton ROS network genes were grouped into 17 families as per the phylogenetic tress analysis. A total of 243 gene pairs were orthologous in G. arboreum and G. raimondii. There were 240 gene pairs that were orthologous in G. arboreum, G. raimondii, and G. hirsutum. The synonymous substitution value (Ks) peaks of orthologous gene pairs between the At subgenome and the A progenitor genome (G. arboreum), D subgenome and D progenitor genome (G. raimondii) were 0.004 and 0.015, respectively. The Ks peaks of ROS network orthologous gene pairs between the two progenitor genomes (A and D genomes) and two subgenomes (At and Dt subgenome) were 0.045. The majority of Ka/Ks value of orthologous gene pairs between the A, D genomes and two subgenomes of TM-1 were lower than 1.0. RNA seq. analysis and RT-qPCR validation, showed that, CSD1,2,3,5,6; FSD1,2; MSD1,2; APX3,11; FRO5.6; and RBOH6 played a major role in fiber development while CSD1, APX1, APX2, MDAR1, GPX4-6-7, FER2, RBOH6, RBOH11, and FRO5 were integral for enhancing salt stress in cotton. ROS network-mediated signal pathway enhances the mechanism of fiber development and regulation of abiotic stress in Gossypium. This study will enhance the understanding of ROS network and form the basic foundation in exploring the mechanism of ROS network-involving the fiber development and regulation of abiotic stress in cotton.
Project description:The PIN-FORMED (PIN) protein, the most important polar auxin transporter, plays a critical role in the distribution of auxin and controls multiple biological processes. However, characterizations and functions of this gene family have not been identified in cotton. Here, we identified the PIN family in Gossypium hirsutum, Gossypium arboreum, and Gossypium raimondii. This gene family was divided into seven subgroups. A chromosomal distribution analysis showed that GhPIN genes were evenly distributed in eight chromosomes and that the whole genome and dispersed duplications were the main duplication events for GhPIN expansion. qRT-PCR analysis showed a tissue-specific expression pattern for GhPIN. Likely due to the cis-element variations in their promoters, transcripts of PIN6 and PIN8 genes from the At (tetraploid genome orginated from G. arboreum) subgenome and PIN1a from the Dt (tetraploid genome orginated from G. raimondii) subgenome in G. hirsutum was significantly increased compared to the transcripts in the diploids. The differential regulation of these PIN genes after the polyploidization may be conducive to fiber initiation and elongation. Exogenously applied auxin polar transport inhibitor significantly suppressed fiber growth, which is consistent with the essential function of these PIN genes for regulating cotton fiber development. Furthermore, the overexpression of GhPIN1a_Dt, GhPIN6_At, and GhPIN8_At in Arabidopsis promoted the density and length of trichomes in leaves.
Project description:The nonexpressor of pathogenesis-related 1 (NPR1) family plays diverse roles in gene regulation in the defense and development signaling pathways in plants. Less evidence is available regarding the significance of the NPR1-like gene family in cotton (Gossypium species). Therefore, to address the importance of the cotton NPR1-like gene family in the defense pathway, four Gossypium species were studied: two tetraploid species, G.hirsutum and G. barbadense, and their two potential ancestral diploids, G. raimondii and G. arboreum. In this study, 12 NPR1-like family genes in G. hirsutum were recognized, including six genes in the A-subgenome and six genes in the D-subgenome. Based on the phylogenetic analysis, gene and protein structural features, cotton NPR-like proteins were grouped into three different clades. Our analysis suggests the significance of cis-regulatory elements in the upstream region of cotton NPR1-like genes in hormonal signaling, biotic stress conditions, and developmental processes. The quantitative expression analysis for different developmental tissues and fiber stages (0 to 25 days post-anthesis), as well as salicylic acid induction, confirmed the distinct function of different cotton NPR genes in defense and fiber development. Altogether, this study presents specifications of conservation in the cotton NPR1-like gene family and their functional divergence for development of fiber and defense properties.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Salt stress is one of the most damaging abiotic stresses in production of Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). Upland cotton is defined as a medium salt-tolerant crop. Salinity hinders root development, shoots growth, and reduces the fiber quality. RESULTS:Our previous study verified a GhCIPK6a gene response to salt stress in G. hirsutum. The homologs of GhCIPK6a were analyzed in A2 (G. arboreum), D5 (G. raimondii), and AD1 (G. hirsutum) genomes. GhCIPK6a localized to the vacuole and cell membrane. The GhCBL1-GhCIPK6a and GhCBL8-GhCIPK6a complexes localized to the nucleus and cytomembrane. Overexpression of GhCIPK6a enhanced expression levels of co-expressed genes induced by salt stress, which scavenged ROS and involved in MAPK signaling pathways verified by RNA-seq analysis. Water absorption capacity and cell membrane stability of seeds from GhCIPK6a overexpressed lines was higher than that of wild-type seeds during imbibed germination stage. The seed germination rates and seedling field emergence percentages of GhCIPK6a overexpressed lines were higher than that of control line under salt stress. Moreover, overexpressing of GhCIPK6a in cotton increased lint percentage, and fiber length uniformity under salt stress. CONCLUSIONS:We verified the function of GhCIPK6a by transformation and RNA-seq analysis. GhCIPK6a overexpressed lines exhibited higher tolerance to abiotic stresses, which functioned by involving in ROS scavenging and MAPK pathways. Therefore, GhCIPK6a has the potential for cotton breeding to improve stress-tolerance.
Project description:The CAMTA gene family is crucial in managing both biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. Our comprehensive analysis of this gene family in cotton resulted in the identification of 6, 7 and 9 CAMTAs in three sequenced cotton species, i.e., Gossypium arboreum, Gossypium raimondii, and Gossypium hirsutum, respectively. All cotton CAMTAs were localized in the nucleus and possessed calmodulin-binding domain (CaMBD) as identified computationally. Phylogenetically four significant groups of cotton CAMTAs were identified out of which, Group II CAMTAs experienced higher evolutionary pressure, leading to a faster evolution in diploid cotton. The expansion of cotton CAMTAs in the genome was mainly due to segmental duplication. Purifying selection played a significant role in the evolution of cotton CAMTAs. Expression profiles of GhCAMTAs revealed that GhCAMTA2A.2 and GhCAMTA7A express profoundly in different stages of cotton fiber development. Positive correlation between expression of these two CAMTAs and fiber strength confirmed their functional relevance in fiber development. The promoter region of co-expressing genes network of GhCAMTA2A.2 and GhCAMTA7A showed a higher frequency of occurrence of CAMTA binding motifs. Our present study thus contributes to broad probing into the structure and probable function of CAMTA genes in Gossypium species.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The glycogen synthase kinase 3/shaggy kinase (GSK3) is a serine/threonine kinase with important roles in animals. Although GSK3 genes have been studied for more than 30?years, plant GSK genes have been studied only since the last decade. Previous research has confirmed that plant GSK genes are involved in diverse processes, including floral development, brassinosteroid signaling, and responses to abiotic stresses. RESULT:In this study, 20, 15 (including 5 different transcripts) and 10 GSK genes were identified in G. hirsutum, G. raimondii and G. arboreum, respectively. A total of 65 genes from Arabidopsis, rice, and cotton were classified into 4 clades. High similarities were found in GSK3 protein sequences, conserved motifs, and gene structures, as well as good concordance in gene pairwise comparisons (G. hirsutum vs. G. arboreum, G. hirsutum vs. G. raimondii, and G. arboreum vs. G. raimondii) were observed. Whole genome duplication (WGD) within At and Dt sub-genomes has been central to the expansion of the GSK gene family. Furthermore, GhSK genes showed diverse expression patterns in various tissues. Additionally, the expression profiles of GhSKs under different stress treatments demonstrated that many are stress-responsive genes. However, none were induced by brassinolide treatment. Finally, nine co-expression sub-networks were observed for GhSKs and the functional annotations of these genes suggested that some GhSKs might be involved in cotton fiber development. CONCLUSION:In this present work, we identified 45 GSK genes from three cotton species, which were divided into four clades. The gene features, muti-alignment, conversed motifs, and syntenic blocks indicate that they have been highly conserved during evolution. Whole genome duplication was determined to be the dominant factor for GSK gene family expansion. The analysis of co-expressed sub-networks and tissue-specific expression profiles suggested functions of GhSKs during fiber development. Moreover, their different responses to various abiotic stresses indicated great functional diversity amongst the GhSKs. Briefly, data presented herein may serve as the basis for future functional studies of GhSKs.
Project description:In this study, 40 phospholipase D (PLD) genes were identified from allotetraploid cotton Gossypium hirsutum, and 20 PLD genes were examined in diploid cotton Gossypium raimondii. Combining with 19 previously identified Gossypium arboreum PLD genes, a comparative analysis was performed among the PLD gene families among allotetraploid and two diploid cottons. Based on the orthologous relationships, we found that almost each G. hirsutum PLD had a corresponding homolog in the G. arboreum and G. raimondii genomes, except for GhPLD?3A, whose homolog GaPLD?3 may have been lost during the evolution of G. arboreum after the interspecific hybridization. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all of the cotton PLDs were unevenly classified into six numbered subgroups: ?, ?/?, ?, ?, ? and ?. An N-terminal C2 domain was found in the ?, ?/?, ? and ? subgroups, while phox homology (PX) and pleckstrin homology (PH) domains were identified in the ? subgroup. The subgroup ? possessed a single peptide instead of a functional domain. In each phylogenetic subgroup, the PLDs showed high conservation in gene structure and amino acid sequences in functional domains. The expansion of GhPLD and GrPLD gene families were mainly attributed to segmental duplication and partly attributed to tandem duplication. Furthermore, purifying selection played a critical role in the evolution of PLD genes in cotton. Quantitative RT-PCR documented that allotetraploid cotton PLD genes were broadly expressed and each had a unique spatial and developmental expression pattern, indicating their functional diversification in cotton growth and development. Further analysis of cis-regulatory elements elucidated transcriptional regulations and potential functions. Our comparative analysis provided valuable information for understanding the putative functions of the PLD genes in cotton fiber.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The U-box gene encodes a ubiquitin ligase that contain U-box domain. The plant U-box gene (PUB) plays an important role in the response to stresses, but few reports about PUBs in cotton were available. Therefore research on PUBs is of great importance and a necessity when studying the mechanisms of stress- tolerance in cotton. RESULTS:In this study, we identified 93, 96, 185 and 208 PUBs from four sequenced cotton species G. raimondii (D5), G. arboreum (A2), G. hirsutum (AD1) and G. barbadense (AD2), respectively. Prediction analysis of subcellular localization showed that the PUBs in cotton were widely localized in cells, but primarily in the nucleus. The PUBs in cotton were classified into six subfamilies (A-F) on the basis of phylogenetic analysis, which was testified by the analysis of conserved motifs and exon-intron structures. Chromosomal localization analysis showed that cotton PUBs were unevenly anchored on all chromosomes, varying from 1 to 14 per chromosome. Through multiple sequence alignment analysis, 3 tandem duplications and 28 segmental duplications in cotton genome D5, 2 tandem duplications and 25 segmental duplications in A2, and 143 homologous gene pairs in A2 and D5 were found; however no tandem duplications in A2 or D5 were found. Additionally, 105, 14 and 17 homologous gene pairs were found in the intra-subgenome of At and Dt, At sub-genome and Dt sub-genome of G. hirsutum, respectively. Functional analysis of GhPUB85A and GhPUB45D showed that these genes positively responded to abiotic stresses, but the expression patterns were different. In addition, although the expression levels of these two homologous genes were similar, their contributions were different when responding to stresses, specifically showing different responses to abiotic stresses and functional differences between the two subgenomes of G. hirsutum. CONCLUSIONS:This study reported the genome-wide identification, structure, evolution and expression analysis of PUBs in cotton, and the results showed that the PUBs were highly conserved throughout the evolutionary history of cotton. All PUB genes were involved in the response to abiotic stresses (including salt, drought, hot and cold) to varying degrees.
Project description:Metacaspases (MCs) are cysteine proteases that are important for programmed cell death (PCD) in plants. In this study, we identified 89 MC genes in the genomes of four Gossypium species (Gossypium raimondii, Gossypium barbadense, Gossypium hirsutum, and Gossypium arboreum), and classified them as type-I or type-II genes. All of the type-I and type-II MC genes contain a sequence encoding the peptidase C14 domain. During developmentally regulated PCD, type-II MC genes may play an important role related to fiber elongation, while type-I genes may affect the thickening of the secondary wall. Additionally, 13 genes were observed to be differentially expressed between two cotton lines with differing fiber strengths, and four genes (GhMC02, GhMC04, GhMC07, and GhMC08) were predominantly expressed in cotton fibers at 5-30 days post-anthesis (DPA). During environmentally induced PCD, the expression levels of four genes were affected in the root, stem, and leaf tissues within 6 h of an abiotic stress treatment. In general, the MC gene family affects the development of cotton fibers, including fiber elongation and fiber thickening while four prominent fiber- expressed genes were identified. The effects of the abiotic stress and hormone treatments imply that the cotton MC gene family may be important for fiber development. The data presented herein may form the foundation for future investigations of the MC gene family in Gossypium species.
Project description:The protein phosphatase (PP2C) gene family, known to participate in cellular processes, is one of the momentous and conserved plant-specific gene families that regulate signal transduction in eukaryotic organisms. Recently, PP2Cs were identified in Arabidopsis and various other crop species, but analysis of PP2C in cotton is yet to be reported. In the current research, we found 87 (Gossypium arboreum), 147 (Gossypium barbadense), 181 (Gossypium hirsutum), and 99 (Gossypium raimondii) PP2C-encoding genes in total from the cotton genome. Herein, we provide a comprehensive analysis of the PP2C gene family in cotton, such as gene structure organization, gene duplications, expression profiling, chromosomal mapping, protein motif organization, and phylogenetic relationships of each species. Phylogenetic analysis further categorized PP2C genes into 12 subgroups based on conserved domain composition analysis. Moreover, we observed a strong signature of purifying selection among duplicated pairs (i.e., segmental and dispersed) of Gossypium hirsutum. We also observed the tissue-specific response of GhPP2C genes in organ and fiber development by comparing the RNA-sequence (RNA-seq) data reported on different organs. The qRT-PCR validation of 30 GhPP2C genes suggested their critical role in cotton by exposure to heat, cold, drought, and salt stress treatments. Hence, our findings provide an overview of the PP2C gene family in cotton based on various bioinformatic tools that demonstrated their critical role in organ and fiber development, and abiotic stress tolerance, thereby contributing to the genetic improvement of cotton for the resistant cultivar.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Transcription factors operate as important switches of transcription networks, and NAC (NAM, ATAF, and CUC) transcription factors are a plant-specific family involved in multiple biological processes. However, this gene family has not been systematically characterized in cotton. RESULTS:Here we identify a large number of genes with conservative NAC domains in four cotton species, with 147 found in Gossypium arboreum, 149 in G. raimondii, 267 in G. barbadense and 283 in G. hirsutum. Predicted membrane-bound NAC genes were also identified. Phylogenetic analysis showed that cotton NAC proteins clustered into seven subfamilies and homologous protein pairs showed similar characteristics. Evolutionary property analysis revealed that purifying selection of NAC genes occurred between diploid and polyploid cotton species, and variation analysis showed GhNAC genes may have been subjected to selection and domestication. NAC proteins showed extensive transactivation and this was dependent on the C-terminus. Some development and stress related cis-elements were enriched in the promoters of GhNAC genes. Comprehensive expression analysis indicated that 38 GhNAC genes were candidates for involvement in fiber development, and 120 in stress responses. Gene co-expression network analysis revealed relationships between fiber-associated NAC genes and secondary cell wall (SCW) biosynthesis genes. CONCLUSIONS:NAC genes were identified in diploid and tetraploid cotton, revealing new insights into their evolution, variation and homology relationships. Transcriptome analysis and co-expression network indicated roles for GhNAC genes in cotton fiber development and stress response, and NAC genes may prove useful in molecular breeding programmes.