Role of microRNA in CB1 antagonist-mediated regulation of adipose tissue macrophage polarization and chemotaxis during diet-induced obesity.
ABSTRACT: Although cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) antagonists have been shown to attenuate diet-induced obesity (DIO) and associated inflammation, the precise molecular mechanisms involved are not clear. In the current study, we investigated the role of microRNA (miR) in the regulation of adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) phenotype following treatment of DIO mice with the CB1 antagonist SR141716A. DIO mice were fed high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks and then treated daily with SR141716A (10 mg/kg) for 4 weeks while continuing HFD. Treated mice experienced weight loss, persistent reduction in fat mass, improvements in metabolic profile, and decreased adipose inflammation. CB1 blockade resulted in down-regulation of several miRs in ATMs, including the miR-466 family and miR-762. Reduced expression of the miR-466 family led to induction of anti-inflammatory M2 transcription factors KLF4 and STAT6, whereas down-regulation of miR-762 promoted induction of AGAP-2, a negative regulator of the neuroimmune retention cues, Netrin-1 and its coreceptor UNC5B. Furthermore, treatment of primary macrophages with SR141716A up-regulated KLF4 and STAT6, reduced secretion of Netrin-1, and increased migration toward the lymph node chemoattractant CCL19. These studies demonstrate for the first time that CB1 receptor blockade attenuates DIO-associated inflammation through alterations in ATM miR expression that promote M2 ATM polarization and macrophage egress from adipose tissue. The current study also identifies additional novel therapeutic targets for diet-induced obesity and metabolic disorder.
Project description:Obesity is characterized by chronic low-grade inflammation that contributes to development of cardiometabolic disorders. Cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) antagonists attenuate diet-induced obesity (DIO) and related inflammation, although the precise anti-inflammatory mechanisms involved have not been fully explored. In the current study we used a mouse model of DIO intervention to determine the microRNA (miRNA, miR)-mediated anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory effects of the CB1 antagonist, AM251. DIO mice that were fed high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks were treated with AM251 (10 mg/kg) for an additional 4 weeks. HFD + AM251 mice experienced rapid and prolonged weight loss and reduced inflammatory M1 adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) infiltration. To investigate miRNA-mediated regulation of ATMs, F4/80+ cells from stromal vascular fractions (SVF) of epididymal fat were subjected to miR microarray analysis. Several miRs were differentially expressed in AM251-treated mice that were independent of calorie restriction. Prominently, miR-30e-5p was upregulated in ATMs from HFD + AM251 mice while the miR-30e-5p target, DLL4, was downregulated. Consistent with a decrease in DLL4-Notch signaling, fat storage and pro-inflammatory cytokine/chemokine expression was reduced following AM251 treatment. Furthermore, we found that AM251-treated macrophages can suppress DLL4-mediated Th1 polarization in CD4+ T cells. Together these data demonstrate that blocking CB1 receptors leads to upregulation of miR-30e-5p and down regulation of DLL4 in ATMs, which in turn suppress DLL4-Notch signaling-induced polarization of inflammatory Th1 cells and adipocyte energy storage. This combined effect of ATMs and T cells leads to an anti-inflammatory state and attenuation of DIO. These data support therapeutic potential of miR-30 in the treatment of cardiometabolic disorders.
Project description:Obesity is characterized by chronic low-grade, systemic inflammation, altered gut microbiota, and gut barrier disruption. Additionally, obesity is associated with increased activity of endocannabinoid system (eCB). However, the clear connection between gut microbiota and the eCB system in the regulation of energy homeostasis and adipose tissue inflammation and metabolism, remains to be established. We investigated the effect of treatment of mice with a cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) antagonist on Diet-Induced Obesity (DIO), specifically whether such a treatment that blocks endocannabinoid activity can induce changes in gut microbiota and anti-inflammatory state in adipose tissue. Blockade of CB1 attenuated DIO, inflammatory cytokines and trafficking of M1 macrophages into adipose tissue. Decreased inflammatory tone was associated with a lower intestinal permeability and decreased metabolic endotoxemia as evidenced by reduced plasma LPS level, and improved hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. 16S rRNA metagenomics sequencing revealed that CB1 blockade dramatically increased relative abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila and decreased Lanchnospiraceae and Erysipelotrichaceae in the gut. Together, the current study suggests that blocking of CB1 ameliorates Diet-Induced Obesity and metabolic disorder by modulating macrophage inflammatory mediators, and that this effect is associated with alterations in gut microbiota and their metabolites.
Project description:SR141716A binds selectively to the brain cannabinoid (CB1) receptor and exhibits a potent inverse agonist/antagonist activity. Although SR141716A, also known as rimonabant, has been withdrawn from the market due to severe side effects, there remains interest in some of its many potential medical applications. Consequently, it is imperative to understand the mechanism by which SR141716A exerts its inverse agonist activity. As a result of using an approach combining mutagenesis and molecular dynamics simulations, we determined the binding mode of SR141716A. We found from the simulation of the CB1-SR141716A complex that SR141716A projects toward TM5 to interact tightly with the major binding pocket, replacing the coordinated water molecules, and secures the Trp-356(6.48) rotameric switch in the inactive state to promote the formation of an extensive water-mediated H-bonding network to the highly conserved SLAXAD and NPXXY motifs in TM2/TM7. We identify for the first time the involvement of the minor binding pocket formed by TM2/TM3/TM7 for SR141716A binding, which complements the major binding pocket formed by TM3/TM5/TM6. Simulation of the F174(2.61)A mutant CB1-SR141716A complex demonstrates the perturbation of TM2 that attenuates SR141716A binding indirectly. These results suggest SR141716A exerts inverse agonist activity through the stabilization of both TM2 and TM5, securing the Trp-356(6.48) rotameric switch and restraining it from activation.
Project description:Some inverse agonists of cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) have been demonstrated to be anorectic antiobesity drug candidates. However, the first generation of CB1 inverse agonists, represented by rimonabant (SR141716A), otenabant, and taranabant, are centrally active, with a high level of psychiatric side effects. Hence, the discovery of CB1 inverse agonists with a chemical scaffold distinct from these holds promise for developing peripherally active CB1 inverse agonists with fewer side effects. We generated a new CB1 inverse agonist, (4-(bis(4-fluorophenyl)methyl)piperazin-1-yl)(cyclohexyl)methanone hydrochloride (LDK1229), from the class of benzhydryl piperazine analogs. This compound binds to CB1 more selectively than cannabinoid receptor type 2, with a Ki value of 220 nM. Comparable CB1 binding was also observed by analogs 1-[bis(4-fluorophenyl)methyl]-4-cinnamylpiperazine dihydrochloride (LDK1203) and 1-[bis(4-fluorophenyl)methyl]-4-tosylpiperazine hydrochloride (LDK1222), which differed by the substitution on the piperazine ring where the piperazine of LDK1203 and LDK1222 are substituted by an alkyl group and a tosyl group, respectively. LDK1229 exhibits efficacy comparable with SR141716A in antagonizing the basal G protein coupling activity of CB1, as indicated by a reduction in guanosine 5'-O-(3-thio)triphosphate binding. Consistent with inverse agonist behavior, increased cell surface localization of CB1 upon treatment with LDK1229 was also observed. Although docking and mutational analysis showed that LDK1229 forms similar interactions with the receptor as SR141716A does, the benzhydryl piperazine scaffold is structurally distinct from the first-generation CB1 inverse agonists. It offers new opportunities for developing novel CB1 inverse agonists through the optimization of molecular properties, such as the polar surface area and hydrophilicity, to reduce the central activity observed with SR141716A.
Project description:Adipose dysfunction resulting from chronic inflammation and impaired adipogenesis has increasingly been recognized as a major contributor to obesity-mediated insulin resistance, but the molecular mechanisms that maintain healthy adipocytes and limit adipose inflammation remain unclear. Here, we used genetic and pharmacological approaches to delineate a novel role for sphingosine kinase 1 (SK1) in metabolic disorders associated with obesity. SK1 phosphorylates sphingosine to form sphingosine 1 phosphate (S1P), a bioactive sphingolipid with numerous roles in inflammation. SK1 mRNA expression was increased in adipose tissue of diet-induced obese (DIO) mice and obese type 2 diabetic humans. In DIO mice, SK1 deficiency increased markers of adipogenesis and adipose gene expression of the anti-inflammatory molecules IL-10 and adiponectin and reduced adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) recruitment and proinflammatory molecules TNF? and IL-6. These changes were associated with enhanced insulin signaling in adipose and muscle and improved systemic insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in SK1(-/-) mice. Specific pharmacological inhibition of SK1 in WT DIO mice also reduced adipocyte and ATM inflammation and improved overall glucose homeostasis. These data suggest that the SK1-S1P axis could be an attractive target for the development of treatments to ameliorate adipose inflammation and insulin resistance associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes.
Project description:Blockade of the CB1 receptor is one of the promising strategies for the treatment of obesity. Although antagonists suppress food intake and reduce body weight, the role of central versus peripheral CB1 activation on weight loss and related metabolic parameters remains to be elucidated. We therefore specifically assessed and compared the respective potential relevance of central nervous system (CNS) versus peripheral CB1 receptors in the regulation of energy homeostasis and lipid and glucose metabolism in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats.Both lean and DIO rats were used for our experiments. The expression of key enzymes involved in lipid metabolism was measured by real-time PCR, and euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamps were used for insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism studies.Specific CNS-CB1 blockade decreased body weight and food intake but, independent of those effects, had no beneficial influence on peripheral lipid and glucose metabolism. Peripheral treatment with CB1 antagonist (Rimonabant) also reduced food intake and body weight but, in addition, independently triggered lipid mobilization pathways in white adipose tissue and cellular glucose uptake. Insulin sensitivity and skeletal muscle glucose uptake were enhanced, while hepatic glucose production was decreased during peripheral infusion of the CB1 antagonist. However, these effects depended on the antagonist-elicited reduction of food intake.Several relevant metabolic processes appear to independently benefit from peripheral blockade of CB1, while CNS-CB1 blockade alone predominantly affects food intake and body weight.
Project description:AIMS:Endocannabinoids are lipid mediators involved in the regulation of glucose homeostasis. They interact with the canonical cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2, and it is now apparent that some cannabinoid receptor ligands are also agonists at GPR55. Thus, CB1 antagonists such as SR141716A, also known as rimonabant, and AM251 act as GPR55 agonists in some cell types. The complex pharmacological properties of cannabinoids make it difficult to fully identify the relative importance of CB1 and GPR55 in the functional effects of SR141716A, and AM251. Here, we determine whether SR141716A and AM251 regulation of mouse and human islet function is through their action as GPR55 agonists. METHODS:Islets isolated from Gpr55+/+ and Gpr55-/- mice and human donors were incubated in the absence or presence of 10 µM SR141716A or AM251, concentrations that are known to activate GPR55. Insulin secretion, cAMP, IP1, apoptosis and ?-cell proliferation were quantified by standard techniques. RESULTS:Our results provide the first evidence that SR141716A and AM251 are not GPR55 agonists in islets, as their effects are maintained in islets isolated from Gpr55-/- mice. Their signalling through Gq-coupled cascades to induce insulin secretion and human ?-cell proliferation, and protect against apoptosis in vitro, indicate that they have direct beneficial effects on islet function. CONCLUSION:These observations may be useful in directing development of peripherally restricted novel therapeutics that are structurally related to SR141716A and AM251, and which potentiate glucose-induced insulin secretion and stimulate ?-cell proliferation.
Project description:Cannabinoid CB1 receptor mRNA was detected using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in endothelial cells from human aorta and hepatic artery and in the ECV304 cell line derived from human umbilical vein endothelial cells. CB1 receptor-binding sites were detected by the high-affinity antagonist radioligand [(125)I]AM-251. In ECV304 cells, both the highly potent synthetic cannabinoid agonist HU-210 and the endogenous ligand anandamide induce activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, and the effect of HU-210 was completely blocked, whereas the effect of anandamide was partially inhibited by SR141716A, a selective CB1 receptor antagonist. Transfection of ECV304 cells with CB1 receptor antisense, but not sense, oligonucleotides caused the same pattern of inhibition as SR141716A. This provides more definitive evidence for the involvement of CB1 receptors in MAP kinase activation and suggests that anandamide may also activate MAP kinase via an additional, CB1 receptor-independent, SR141716A-resistant mechanism. The MAP kinase activation by anandamide in ECV304 cells requires genistein-sensitive tyrosine kinases and protein kinase C (PKC), and anandamide also activates p38 kinase and c-Jun kinase. These findings indicate that CB1 receptors located in human vascular endothelium are functionally coupled to the MAP kinase cascade. Activation of protein kinase cascades by anandamide may be involved in the modulation of endothelial cell growth and proliferation.
Project description:Impaired adipogenic differentiation during diet-induced obesity (DIO) promotes adipocyte hypertrophy and inflammation, thereby contributing to metabolic disease. Adenomatosis polyposis coli down-regulated 1 (APCDD1) has recently been identified as an inhibitor of Wnt signaling, a key regulator of adipogenic differentiation. Here we report a novel role for APCDD1 in adipogenic differentiation via repression of Wnt signaling and an epigenetic linkage between miR-130 and APCDD1 in DIO. APCDD1 expression was significantly up-regulated in mature adipocytes compared with undifferentiated preadipocytes in both human and mouse subcutaneous adipose tissues. siRNA-based silencing of APCDD1 in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes markedly increased the expression of Wnt signaling proteins (Wnt3a, Wnt5a, Wnt10b, LRP5, and ?-catenin) and inhibited the expression of adipocyte differentiation markers (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ? (C/EBP?) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?)) and lipid droplet accumulation, whereas adenovirus-mediated overexpression of APCDD1 enhanced adipogenic differentiation. Notably, DIO mice exhibited reduced APCDD1 expression and increased Wnt expression in both subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues and impaired adipogenic differentiation in vitro Mechanistically, we found that miR-130, whose expression is up-regulated in adipose tissues of DIO mice, could directly target the 3'-untranslated region of the APCDD1 gene. Furthermore, transfection of an miR-130 inhibitor in preadipocytes enhanced, whereas an miR-130 mimic blunted, adipogenic differentiation, suggesting that miR-130 contributes to impaired adipogenic differentiation during DIO by repressing APCDD1 expression. Finally, human subcutaneous adipose tissues isolated from obese individuals exhibited reduced expression of APCDD1, C/EBP?, and PPAR? compared with those from non-obese subjects. Taken together, these novel findings suggest that APCDD1 positively regulates adipogenic differentiation and that its down-regulation by miR-130 during DIO may contribute to impaired adipogenic differentiation and obesity-related metabolic disease.
Project description:Macrophages accumulate prominently in the visceral adipose tissue (VAT) of obese humans and high fat diet (HFD) fed mice, and this is linked to insulin resistance and type II diabetes. While the mechanisms regulating macrophage recruitment in obesity have been delineated, the signals directing macrophage persistence in VAT are poorly understood. We previously showed that the neuroimmune guidance cue netrin-1 is expressed in the VAT of obese mice and humans, where it promotes macrophage accumulation. To better understand the source of netrin-1 and its effects on adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) fate and function in obesity, we generated mice with myeloid-specific deletion of netrin-1 (Ntn1 fl/fl LysMCre +/-; Ntn1?mac). Interestingly, Ntn1?mac mice showed a modest decrease in HFD-induced adiposity and adipocyte size, in the absence of changes in food intake or leptin, that was accompanied by an increase in markers of adipocyte beiging (Prdm16, UCP-1). Using single cell RNA-seq, combined with conventional histological and flow cytometry techniques, we show that myeloid-specific deletion of netrin-1 caused a 50% attrition of ATMs in HFD-fed mice, particularly of the resident macrophage subset, and altered the phenotype of residual ATMs to enhance lipid handling. Pseudotime analysis of single cell transcriptomes showed that in the absence of netrin-1, macrophages in the obese VAT underwent a phenotypic switch with the majority of ATMs activating a program of genes specialized in lipid handling, including fatty acid uptake and intracellular transport, lipid droplet formation and lipolysis, and regulation of lipid localization. Furthermore, Ntn1?mac macrophages had reduced expression of genes involved in arachidonic acid metabolism, and targeted LCMS/MS metabololipidomics analysis revealed decreases in proinflammatory eicosanoids (5-HETE, 6-trans LTB4, TXB2, PGD2) in the obese VAT. Collectively, our data show that targeted deletion of netrin-1 in macrophages reprograms the ATM phenotype in obesity, leading to reduced adipose inflammation, and improved lipid handling and metabolic function.