Ligation state of nickel during C-O bond activation with monodentate phosphines.
ABSTRACT: The oxidative addition of phenolic electrophiles at Ni(0) in the presence of monodentate phosphine ligands was studied with both dispersion-free and dispersion-containing DFT methods. With the popular bulky ligand PCy3, consideration of dispersion has a striking effect on the predicted ligation state of nickel during oxidative addition of aryl sulfamates. Dispersioncontaining methods such as M06L indicate a clear preference for a bis-phosphine ligated transition state (TS), while dispersion free methods like B3LYP strongly favor a monophosphine ligated TS. This discrepancy in predicted ligation state is also found with small phosphines (PMe3) in combination with some aryl electrophiles (carbamates, acetates, pivalates, chlorides), but a bis-PMe3-ligated TS is predicted regardless of dispersion for other electrophiles (sulfamates, mesylates, tosylates). DFT calculations that include dispersion also offer a possible explanation for the observed poor efficacy of P t Bu3 as a ligand in Ni-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions.
Project description:Aryl sulfamates are valuable electrophiles for cross-coupling reactions because they can easily be synthesized from phenols and can act as directing groups for C-H bond functionalization prior to cross-coupling. Recently, it was demonstrated that (1-tBu-Indenyl)Pd(XPhos)Cl (XPhos = 2-dicyclohexylphosphino-2',4',6'-triisopropylbiphenyl) is a highly active precatalyst for room-temperature Suzuki-Miyaura couplings of a variety of aryl sulfamates. Herein, we report an in-depth computational investigation into the mechanism of Suzuki-Miyaura reactions with aryl sulfamates using an XPhos-ligated palladium catalyst. Particular emphasis is placed on the turnover-limiting oxidative addition of the aryl sulfamate C-O bond, which has not been studied in detail previously. We show that bidentate coordination of the XPhos ligand via an additional interaction between the biaryl ring and palladium plays a key role in lowering the barrier to oxidative addition. This result is supported by NBO and NCI-Plot analysis on the transition states for oxidative addition. After oxidative addition, the catalytic cycle is completed by transmetalation and reductive elimination, which are both calculated to be facile processes. Our computational findings explain a number of experimental results, including why elevated temperatures are required for the coupling of phenyl sulfamates without electron-withdrawing groups and why aryl carbamate electrophiles are not reactive with this catalyst.
Project description:Oxidative addition of aryl halides to Ni(0) is a ubiquitous elementary step in cross-coupling and related reactions, usually producing a square-planar Ni(II)-aryl intermediate. Here we show that a triphosphine ligand supports oxidative addition at a tris-ligated Ni(0) center to cleanly form stable five-coordinate Ni(II)-aryl compounds. Kinetic and computational studies support a concerted, two-electron mechanism rather than radical halogen abstraction. These results support the idea that oxidative addition to triphosphine Ni(0) species may be more generally involved in Ni/phosphine catalytic systems.
Project description:Using a recently discovered precatalyst, the first Pd-catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura reactions using aryl sulfamates that occur at room temperature are reported. In complementary work, it is demonstrated that a related precatalyst can facilitate the coupling of aryl silanolates, which are less toxic and reactive nucleophiles than boronic acids with aryl chlorides. By combining our results using modern electrophiles and nucleophiles, the first Hiyama-Denmark reactions using aryl sulfamates are reported.
Project description:Nickel precatalysts are potentially a more sustainable alternative to traditional palladium precatalysts for the Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reaction. Currently, there is significant interest in Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reactions involving readily accessible phenolic derivatives such as aryl sulfamates, as the sulfamate moiety can act as a directing group for the prefunctionalization of the aromatic backbone of the electrophile prior to cross-coupling. By evaluating complexes in the Ni(0), (I), and (II) oxidation states we report a precatalyst, (dppf)Ni(o-tolyl)(Cl) (dppf = 1,1'-bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene), for Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reactions involving aryl sulfamates and boronic acids, which operates at a significantly lower catalyst loading and at milder reaction conditions than other reported systems. In some cases it can even function at room temperature. Mechanistic studies on precatalyst activation and the speciation of nickel during catalysis reveal that Ni(I) species are formed in the catalytic reaction via two different pathways: (i) the precatalyst (dppf)Ni(o-tolyl)(Cl) undergoes comproportionation with the active Ni(0) species; and (ii) the catalytic intermediate (dppf)Ni(Ar)(sulfamate) (Ar = aryl) undergoes comproportionation with the active Ni(0) species. In both cases the formation of Ni(I) is detrimental to catalysis, which is proposed to proceed via a Ni(0)/Ni(II) cycle. DFT calculations are used to support experimental observations and provide insight about the elementary steps involved in reactions directly on the catalytic cycle, as well as off-cycle processes. Our mechanistic investigation provides guidelines for designing even more active nickel catalysts.
Project description:Aryl carbonates, a common protecting group in synthetic organic chemistry, are potentially valuable electrophiles in cross-coupling reactions. Here, after performing a thorough evaluation of different precatalysts, we demonstrate that (dcypf)Ni(2-ethylphenyl)(Br) (dcypf = 1,1-bis-(dicyclohexylphosphino)ferrocene) is an efficient precatalyst for Suzuki-Miyaura reactions using a variety of aryl carbonates as substrates. Mechanistic studies indicate that (dcypf)Ni(2-ethylphenyl)(Br), which contains a bidentate phosphine that binds in a trans geometry, is an effective precatalyst for these reactions for two reasons: (i) it rapidly forms the Ni(O) active species and (ii) it minimizes comproportionation reactions between the Ni(O) active species and both the unactivated Ni(II) precatalyst and on-cycle Ni(II) complexes to form catalytically inactive Ni(I) species. In contrast, the state of the art precatalyst (dppf)Ni(o-tolyl)(Cl) (dppf = 1,1-bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene), which contains a bidentate phosphine that binds in a cis geometry, forms Ni(I) species during activation and is essentially inactive for aryl carbonate couplings. Although the exact reasons on a molecular level why the dcypf system is more active than the dppf system are unclear, our results indicate that in general Ni catalysts supported by the dcypf ligand will give better performance for catalytic reactions involving substrates which undergo relatively slow oxidative addition, such as aryl carbonates.
Project description:Aryl sulfamates, tosylates, and mesylates undergo efficient Ni-catalyzed cross coupling with diverse organostannanes in the presence of relatively unhindered alkylphosphine ligands and KF. The coupling is valuable for difficult bond constructions, such as aryl- heteroaryl, aryl-alkenyl, and aryl-alkynyl, using non-triflate phenol derivatives. A combination of experimental and computational studies implicate an unusual mechanism for transmetalation involving an 8-centered cyclic transition state. This reaction is inhibited by chloride sources due to slow transmetalation of organostannanes at a Ni(II)-chloride intermediate. These studies help to explain why prior efforts to achieve Ni-catalyzed Stille coupling of phenol derivatives were unsuccessful.
Project description:The generation of arylzinc reagents (ArZnX) by direct insertion of zinc into the C-X bond of ArX electrophiles has typically been restricted to iodides and bromides. The insertions of zinc dust into the C-O bonds of various aryl sulfonates (tosylates, mesylates, triflates, sulfamates), or into the C-X bonds of other moderate electrophiles (X=Cl, SMe) are catalyzed by a simple NiCl2 -1,4-diazadiene catalyst system, in which 1,4-diazadiene (DAD) stands for diacetyl diimines, phenanthroline, bipyridine and related ligands. Catalytic zincation in DMF or NMP solution at room temperature now provides arylzinc sulfonates, which undergo typical catalytic cross-coupling or electrophilic substitution reactions.
Project description:A facile nickel-catalyzed method to achieve the amination of synthetically useful aryl sulfamates and carbamates is reported. Contrary to most Ni-catalyzed amination reactions, this user-friendly approach relies on an air-stable Ni(II) precatalyst, which, when employed with a mild reducing agent, efficiently delivers aminated products in good to excellent yields. The scope of the method is broad with respect to both coupling partners and includes heterocyclic substrates.
Project description:Achieving high selectivity in the Heck reaction of electronically unbiased alkenes has been a longstanding challenge. Using a nickel-catalyzed cationic Heck reaction, we were able to achieve excellent selectivity for branched products (?19:1 in all cases) over a wide range of aryl electrophiles and aliphatic olefins. A bidentate ligand with a suitable bite angle and steric profile was key to obtaining high branched/linear selectivity, whereas the appropriate base suppressed alkene isomerization of the product. Although aryl triflates are traditionally used to access the cationic Heck pathway, we have shown that, by using triethylsilyl trifluoromethanesulfonate, we can effect a counterion exchange of the catalytic nickel complex, such that cheaper and more stable aryl chlorides, mesylates, tosylates, and sulfamates can be used to yield the same branched products with high selectivity.
Project description:Monovalent NHC-nickel complexes bearing triarylphosphine, in which fluorine is incorporated onto the aryl groups, have been synthesized. Tris(3,5-di(trifluoromethyl)-phenyl)phosphine efficiently gave a monovalent nickel bromide complex, whose structure was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis for the first time. In the solid state, the Ni(I) complex was less susceptible to oxidation in air than the triphenylphosphine complex, indicating greatly improved solid-state stability. In contrast, the Ni(I) complex in solution can easily liberate the phosphine, high catalytic activity toward the Kumada-Tamao-Corriu coupling of aryl bromides.