Accessory gene regulator (agr) dysfunction was unusual in Staphylococcus aureus isolated from Chinese children.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) with accessory gene regulator (agr) dysfunction occurs in health care settings. This study evaluated the prevalence and the molecular and drug resistance characteristics of S. aureus with dysfunctional agr in a pediatric population in Beijing, China. RESULTS:A total of 269 nonduplicate S. aureus clinical isolates were isolated from Beijing Children's Hospital, including 211 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) from September 2010-2017 and 58 methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) from February 2016-2017. Only 8 MRSA and 2 MSSA isolates were identified as agr dysfunction, and the overall prevalence rate was 3.7%. For MRSA isolates, ST59-SCCmec IV and ST239-SCCmec III were the most common clones, and the prevalence rate of agr dysfunction in ST239-SCCmec III isolates (17.39%) was significantly higher than in ST59-SCCmec IV (1.69%) and other genotype strains (P?=?0.006). Among the agr dysfunctional isolates, only one MRSA ST59 isolate and one MSSA ST22 isolate harbored pvl. No significant difference was detected between agr dysfunction and agr functional isolates regarding the biofilm formation ability (P?=?0.4972); however, 9/10 agr dysfunctional isolates could effectuate strong biofilm formation and multidrug resistance. Among MRSA, the non-susceptibility rates to ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole were significantly higher in agr dysfunctional isolates than in isolates with functional agr (P?
Project description:The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus as an aggressive pathogen resistant to multiple antibiotics causing nosocomial and community-acquired infections is increasing with limited therapeutic options. Macrolide-lincosamide streptogramin B (MLSB) family of antibiotics represents an important alternative therapy for staphylococcal infections. This study was conducted over a period of five years from August 2013 to July 2018 to investigate the prevalence and molecular epidemiology in Iran of inducible resistance in S. aureus. In the current study, 126 inducible methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) (n = 106) and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) (n = 20) isolates were characterized by in vitro susceptibility analysis, resistance and virulence encoding gene distribution, phenotypic and genotypic analysis of biofilm formation, prophage typing, S. aureus protein A locus (spa) typing, staphylocoagulase (SC) typing, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing, and multilocus sequence typing. Of the 126 isolates, 76 (60.3%) were classified as hospital onset, and 50 (39.7%) were classified as community onset (CO). Biofilm formation was observed in 97 strains (77%). A total of 14 sequence types (STs), 26 spa types, 7 coagulase types, 9 prophage types, 3 agr types (no agr IV), and 9 clonal complexes (CCs) were identified in this study. The prevalence of the inducible MLSB (iMLSB) S. aureus increased from 7.5% (25/335) to 21.7% (38/175) during the study period. The iMLSB MRSA isolates were distributed in nine CCs, whereas the MSSA isolates were less diverse, which mainly belonged to CC22 (7.95%) and CC30 (7.95%). High-level mupirocin-resistant strains belonged to ST85-SCCmec IV/t008 (n = 4), ST5-SCCmec IV/t002 (n = 4), ST239-SCCmec III/t631 (n = 2), and ST8-SCCmec IV/t064 (n = 2) clones, whereas low-level mupirocin-resistant strains belonged to ST15-SCCmec IV/t084 (n = 5), ST239-SCCmec III/t860 (n = 3), and ST22-SCCmec IV/t790 (n = 3) clones. All the fusidic acid-resistant iMLSB isolates were MRSA and belonged to ST15-SCCmec IV/t084 (n = 2), ST239-SCCmec III/t030 (n = 2), ST1-SCCmec V/t6811 (n = 1), ST80-SCCmec IV/t044 (n = 1), and ST59-SCCmec IV/t437 (n = 1). The CC22 that was predominant in 2013-2014 (36% of the isolates) had almost disappeared in 2017-2018, being replaced by the CC8, which represented 39.5% of the 2017-2018 isolates. This is the first description of temporal shifts of iMLSB S. aureus isolates in Iran that identifies predominant clones and treatment options for iMLSB S. aureus-related infections.
Project description:Staphylococcus aureus, or methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), is a significant pathogen in both nosocomial and community infections. Community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) strains tend to be multi-drug resistant and to invade hospital settings. This study aimed to assess the antimicrobial resistance and molecular characteristicsof nasal S. aureus among newlyadmitted inpatients.In the present study, 66 S. aureus isolates, including 10 healthcare-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA), 8 CA-MRSA, and 48 methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) strains, were found in the nasal cavities of 62 patients by screening 292 newlyadmitted patients. Antimicrobial resistance and molecular characteristics of these isolates, including spa-type, sequence type (ST) and SCCmec type, were investigated. All isolates were sensitive to linezolid, teicoplanin, and quinupristin/dalfopristin, but high levels of resistance to penicillin and erythromycin were detected. According to D-test and erm gene detection results, the cMLS(B) and iMLS(B) phenotypes were detected in 24 and 16 isolates, respectively. All 10 HA-MRSA strains displayed the cMLS(B) phenotypemediated by ermA or ermA/ermC, while the cMLS(B) CA-MRSA and MSSA strains carried the ermB gene. Molecular characterization revealedall 10 HA-MRSA strains were derived from the ST239-SCCmec III clone, and four out of eight CA-MRSA strains were t437-ST59-SCCmec V. The results suggest that patients play an indispensable role in transmitting epidemic CA-MRSA and HA-MRSA strains.
Project description:Prevalence, drug resistance and genetic characteristics were analysed for a total of 128 clinical isolates of staphylococci obtained from a tertiary hospital in Myanmar. The dominant species were S. aureus (39%) and S. haemolyticus (35%), followed by S. epidermidis (6%) and S. saprophyticus (5%). The majority of S. haemolyticus isolates (71.1%) harboured mecA, showing high resistance rates to ampicillin, cephalosporins, erythromycin and levofloxacin, while methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was only 8% (four isolates) among S. aureus with type IV SCCmec. Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes were detected in 20 isolates of S. aureus (40%), among which only one isolate was MRSA belonging to sequence type (ST) 88/agr-III/coa-IIIa, and the other 19 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates were classified into six STs (ST88, ST121, ST1153, ST1155, ST1930, ST3206). An ST1153 MSSA isolate with PVL was revealed to belong to a novel coa type, XIIIa. ST121 S. aureus was the most common in the PVL-positive MSSA (47%, 9/19), harbouring genes of bone sialoprotein and variant of elastin binding protein as a distinctive feature. Although PVL-positive MSSA was susceptible to most of the antimicrobial agents examined, ST1930 isolates were resistant to erythromycin and levofloxacin. ST59 PVL-negative MRSA and MSSA had more resistance genes than other MRSA and PVL-positive MSSA, showing resistance to more antimicrobial agents. This study indicated higher prevalence of mecA associated with multiple drug resistance in S. haemolyticus than in S. aureus, and dissemination of PVL genes to multiple clones of MSSA, with ST121 being dominant, among hospital isolates in Myanmar.
Project description:OBJECTIVES: Staphylococcus aureus or methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been an important pathogen causing bloodstream infections. Our study aimed to investigate the epidemiological and genetic diversity of clinical S. aureus isolates from patients with bloodstream infection in four hospitals of Shanghai from 2009 to 2011. METHODS: A collection of S. aureus isolates causing bloodstream infection from four hospitals in the central part of Shanghai was carried out. Antimicrobial susceptibility testings of collected isolates were performed according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines, and spa-type, multi-locus sequence typing, agr type and toxin gene profiling were performed to explore the molecular diversity. Moreover, MRSA strains were also characterized by Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing. RESULTS: The drugs such as linezolid, teicoplanin and vancomycin were efficacious for treating S. aureus including MRSA bloodstream infection. Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) strains displayed distinct diversity in molecular characterization and toxin genes, and three virulent MSSA strains encoding at least five toxins were detected. Five community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) strains were found, but the majority (88.7%) of MRSA strains belonged to two epidemic clones (ST239-MRSA- III and ST5-MRSA- II) with different toxin gene profiles among patients with bloodstream infection. CONCLUSIONS: Healthcare-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA) strains were still the main pathogen causing bloodstream infections in spite of the emergence of CA-MRSA strains in hospital setting.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Staphylococcus aureus causes a variety of severe infections such as bacteremia and sepsis. At present, 60-80% of S. aureus isolates from Taiwan are methicillin resistant (MRSA). It has been shown that certain MRSA clones circulate worldwide. The goals of this study were to identify MRSA clones in Taiwan and to correlate the molecular types of isolates with their phenotypes.<h4>Methods</h4>A total of 157 MRSA isolates from bacteremic patients were collected from nine medical centers. They were typed based on polymorphisms in agr, SCCmec, MLST, spa, and dru. Phenotypes characterized included Panton-Valentine leucocidin (pvl), inducible macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance (MLSBi), vancomycin (VA) and daptomycin (DAP) minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC), and superantigenic toxin gene profiles. Difference between two consecutive samples was determined by Mann-Whitney-U test, and difference between two categorical variables was determined by Fisher's exact test.<h4>Results</h4>Four major MRSA clone complexes CC1, CC5, CC8, and CC59 were found, including 4 CC1, 9 CC5, 111 CC8, and 28 CC59 isolates. These clones had the following molecular types: CC1: SCCmecIV and ST573; CC5: SCCmecII and ST5; CC8: SCCmecIII, ST239, and ST241, and CC59: SCCmecIV, SCCmecV(T), ST59, and ST338. The toxin gene profiles of these clones were CC1: sec-seg-(sei)-sell-selm-(seln)-selo; CC5: sec-seg-sei-sell-selm-(seln)-selp-tst1; CC8: sea-selk-selq, and CC59: seb-selk-selq. Most isolates with SCCmecV(T), ST59, spat437, and dru11 types were pvl(+) (13 isolates), while multidrug resistance (?4 antimicrobials) were associated with SCCmecIII, ST239, spa t037, agrI, and dru14 (119 isolates) (p<0.001). One hundred and twenty four isolates with the following molecular types had higher VA MIC: SCCmecII and SCCmecIII; ST5, ST239, and ST241; spa t002, t037, and t421; dru4, dru10, dru12, dru13, and dru14 (p<0.05). No particular molecular types were found to be associated with MLSBi phenotype.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Four major MRSA clone complexes were found in Taiwan. Further studies are needed to delineate the evolution of MRSA isolates.
Project description:This study aimed to investigate the clinical and molecular epidemiology and biofilm formation of Staphylococcus aureus (SA) isolated from pediatricians in China.SA strains were isolated from Beijing Children's hospital from February 2016 to January 2017. Isolates were typed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), spa and SCCmec typing (for Methicillin-resistant SA [MRSA] only). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by agar dilution method except sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim (E-test method). Biofilm formation and biofilm associated genes were detected.Totally 104 children (41 females and 63 males; median age, 5.2 months) were enrolled in this study, in which 60 patients suffered from MRSA infection. Among the 104 cases, 54.8% were categorized as community associated SA (CA-SA) infections. The children under 3 years were more likely to occur CA-SA infections compared with older ones (P?=?0.0131). ST59-SCCmec IV-t437 (61.7%) was the most prevalent genotype of MRSA, and ST22-t309 (18.2%), ST5-t002 (9.1%), ST6-t701 (9.1%), ST188-t189 (9.1%) were the top four genotypes of methicillin-sensitive SA (MSSA). All the present isolates were susceptible to linezolid, vancomycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, mupirocin, tigecyclin, fusidic acid. No erythromycin-susceptible isolate was determined, and only a few isolates (3.8%) were identified as susceptible to penicillin. Multi-drug resistant isolates were reponsible for 83.8% of the ST59-SCCmec IV-t437 isolates. The isolates with strong biofilm formation were found in 85% of MRSA and 53.2% of MSSA, and in 88.7% of ST59-SCCmec IV-t437 isolates. Biofilm formation ability varied not only between MRSA and MSSA (P?= 0.0053), but also greatly among different genotypes (P?<?0.0001). The prevalence of the biofilm associated genes among ST59-SCCmec IV-t437 clone was: icaA (100.0%), icaD (97.3%), fnbpA (100.0%), fnbpB (0), clfA (100%), clfB (100%), cna (2.7%), bbp (0), ebpS (88.5%), sdrC (78.4%), sdrD (5.4%), and sdrE (94.5%).These results indicated strong homology of the MRSA stains isolated from Chinese children, which was caused by spread of multiresistant ST59-SCCmec IV-t437 clone with strong biofilm formation ability. The MSSA strains, in contrast, were very heterogeneity, half of which could produce biofilm strongly.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Nasal colonization of Staphylococcus aureus is a risk factor for the pathogen transmission and the development of infections. Limited information is available on the prevalence and molecular characteristics of S. aureus colonization in pediatric intensive care unit (ICU) patients. METHODS:A cross-sectional, island-wide study was conducted in 2011. Nasal swabs were collected from pediatric ICU patients at six tertiary hospitals in Taiwan. RESULTS:Of 114 patients enrolled in total, nasal colonization of S. arueus was detected in 30 (26.3%) of them, among whom 20 (17.5%) with methicillin-resistant S. arueus (MRSA). The ST59/SCCmec IV and V clones were most common and accounted for 45% of MRSA isolates, followed by ST239/SCCmec III (25%) and ST45/SCCmec IV (20%) clones. Three ST59 MRSA isolates carried the Panton-Valentine Leukocidin genes. CONCLUSIONS:The results indicated a high prevalence of S. arueus and MRSA nasal colonization among pediatric ICU patients in Taiwan. Identification of epidemic clones warrants the implement of infection control measures to reduce colonization and prevent the dissemination of MRSA in hospitals.
Project description:Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) strains, which often produce Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL), are increasingly noted worldwide. In this study, we examined 42 MRSA strains (25 PVL-positive [PVL+] strains and 17 PVL-negative [PVL(-)] strains) isolated in Taiwan for their molecular characteristics. The PVL+ MRSA strains included CA-MRSA strains with multilocus sequence type (ST) 59 (major PVL+ MRSA in Taiwan), its variants, and worldwide CA-MRSA ST30 strains. The PVL(-) MRSA strains included the pandemic Hungarian MRSA ST239 strain, the Hungarian MRSA ST239 variant, MRSA ST59 (largely hospital-acquired MRSA strains) and its variants, the pandemic New York/Japan MRSA ST5 strain (Japanese type), and the MRSA ST8 strain. The major PVL+ CA-MRSA ST59 strain possessed a tetracycline resistance-conferring (tetK positive) penicillinase plasmid and a drug resistance gene cluster (a possible composite transposon) for multidrug resistance. Moreover, it carried a novel staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) with two distinct ccrC genes (ccrC2-C8). This SCCmec (previously named SCCmec type V(T)) was tentatively designated SCCmec type VII. Sequencing of the PVL genes revealed the polymorphisms, and the PVL+ CA-MRSA ST59 strain possessed the ST59-specific PVL gene sequence. The data suggest that a significant amount of clonal spread is occurring in Taiwan and that the major PVL+ CA-MRSA ST59 Taiwan strain exhibits unique genetic characteristics, such as a novel SCCmec type and an ST59-specific PVL gene sequence.
Project description:The transmission between community-associated (CA-) and healthcare-associated (HA-) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has increased the challenge of infection control. To understand the clonal evolution and transmission of MRSA isolates, we compared the characteristics of 175 CA-MRSA and 660 HA-MRSA strains at a Chinese tertiary hospital in 2012-2017. Antibiotic susceptibility was performed on VITEK system, the genetic background of the isolates was characterized by SCCmec, spa, and MLST typing, while virulence determinants were screened using conventional PCR. Although more than 70% of the CA-MRSA isolates were erythromycin and clindamycin resistant, CA-MRSA was more susceptible than HA-MRSA to most of the antibiotics tested. ST239-MRSA-III-t030 (30%) was the most prevalent clone among HA-MRSA, while ST59-MRSA-IVa-t437 (28.8%) was the major clone among CA-MRSA. Notably, ST59-MRSA-IVa-t437 accounted for 6.7% of the chosen HA-MRSA isolates. Additionally, difference in virulence gene content was found between the CA- and HA-MRSA strains. In conclusion, epidemiological characteristics were largely different between CA- and HA-MRSA. Although ST239-MRSA-III-t030 is still the predominant clone among HA-MRSA, the community clone ST59-MRSA-IVa-t437 has the potential of becoming an essential part of HA-MRSA in the region tested.
Project description:Staphylococcus aureus belongs to one of the most common bacteria causing healthcare and community associated infections in China, but their molecular characterization has not been well studied. From May 2011 to June 2012, a total of 322 non-duplicate S. aureus isolates were consecutively collected from seven tertiary care hospitals in seven cities with distinct geographical locations in China, including 171 methicillin sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and 151 MRSA isolates. All isolates were characterized by spa typing. The presence of virulence genes was tested by PCR. MRSA were further characterized by SCCmec typing. Seventy four and 16 spa types were identified among 168 MSSA and 150 MRSA, respectively. One spa type t030 accounted for 80.1% of all MRSA isolates, which was higher than previously reported, while spa-t037 accounted for only 4.0% of all MRSA isolates. The first six spa types (t309, t189, t034, t377, t078 and t091) accounted for about one third of all MSSA isolates. 121 of 151 MRSA isolates (80.1%) were identified as SCCmec type III. pvl gene was found in 32 MSSA (18.7%) and 5 MRSA (3.3%) isolates, with ST22-MSSA-t309 as the most commonly identified strain. Compared with non-epidemic MRSA clones, epidemic MRSA clones (corresponding to ST239) exhibited a lower susceptibility to rifampin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, a higher prevalence of sea gene and a lower prevalence of seb, sec, seg, sei and tst genes. The increasing prevalence of multidrug resistant spa-t030 MRSA represents a major public health problem in China.