Ylide-Functionalization via Metalated Ylides: Synthesis and Structural Properties.
ABSTRACT: The α-metallated ylides [Ph3P-C-Z]-M+ (with Z=SO2Tol or CN and M=Na or K) were used as versatile nucleophiles for the facile access to ylide-substituted compounds. Halogenations, alkylations, carbonylations and functionalization reactions with main group element halides were easily accomplished by simple trapping reactions with the appropriate electrophiles. X-ray crystallographic studies of all compounds - including the first structures of α-fluorinated P-ylides - showed remarkable differences in the ylide backbone depending on the substituents. In the fluorinated compounds, a change from a fully planar to a pyramidalized ylidic carbon centre was observed despite the strongly anion-stabilizing ability of the yldiide substituent. π-Donation from the ylide substituent also resulted in geometric restrictions depending on the steric and electronic properties of the introduced substituents.
Project description:An efficient, three-component strategy for Rh(III)-catalyzed annulation of readily available 3-aminopyrazoles, aldehydes, and sulfoxonium ylides to give diverse pyrazolo[1,5- a]pyrimidines is disclosed. The reactions were performed under straightforward benchtop conditions using microwave heating with short reaction times. Good yields were obtained for many substituted aminopyrazoles and a very large variety of aromatic and heteroaromatic aldehydes, including those incorporating electron-withdrawing, electron-donating, basic nitrogen, halide and acidic functionality. Ester and methoxy functionalities could also be directly installed on the pyrimidine ring by employing ethyl glyoxylate and trimethyl orthoformate in place of the aldehyde, respectively. In addition, a range of sulfoxonium ylides provided products in good yields to establish that aryl, heteroaryl, and branched and unbranched alkyl substituents can be introduced with this reagent. Finally, the first use of a formyl sulfoxonium ylide in a chemical transformation enabled the preparation of products with only a single substituent on the pyrimidine ring as introduced by the aldehyde coupling partner. For the formyl ylide, a one-pot, stepwise reaction sequence was used to prevent competitive condensation of the formyl group with the aminopyrazole.
Project description:Phosphines are important ligands in homogenous catalysis and have been crucial for many advances, such as in cross-coupling, hydrofunctionalization, or hydrogenation reactions. Herein we report the synthesis and application of a novel class of phosphines bearing ylide substituents. These phosphines are easily accessible via different synthetic routes from commercially available starting materials. Owing to the extra donation from the ylide group to the phosphorus center the ligands are unusually electron-rich and can thus function as strong electron donors. The donor capacity surpasses that of commonly used phosphines and carbenes and can easily be tuned by changing the substitution pattern at the ylidic carbon atom. The huge potential of ylide-functionalized phosphines in catalysis is demonstrated by their use in gold catalysis. Excellent performance at low catalyst loadings under mild reaction conditions is thus seen in different types of transformations.
Project description:The first highly enantioselective, diastereoselective, and regioselective [2,3]-rearrangement of iodonium ylides has been developed as a general solution to catalytic onium ylide rearrangements. In the presence of a chiral copper catalyst, substituted allylic iodides couple with ?-diazoesters to generate metal-coordinated iodonium ylides, which undergo [2,3]-rearrangements with high selectivities (up to >95:5 r.r., up to >95:5 d.r., and up to 97?% ee). The enantioenriched iodoester products can be converted stereospecifically into a variety of onium ylide rearrangement products, as well as compounds that are not accessible by classical onium ylide rearrangements.
Project description:Quantum chemical calculations have been carried out to study the electronic structure of metalated ylides particularly in comparison to their neutral analogues, the bisylides. A series of compounds of the general composition Ph3 P-C-L with L being either a neutral or an anionic ligand were analyzed and the impact of the nature of the substituent L and the total charge on the electronics and bonding situation was studied. The charge at the carbon atom as well as the dissociation energies, bond lengths, and Wiberg bond indices strongly depend on the nature of L. Here, not only the charge of the ligand but also the position of the charge within the ligand backbone plays an important role. Independent of the substitution pattern, the NBO analysis reveals the preference of unsymmetrical bonding situations (P=C-L or P-C=L) for almost all compounds. However, Lewis structures with two lone-pair orbitals at the central carbon atom are equally valid for the description of the bonding situation. This is confirmed by the pronounced lone-pair character of the frontier orbitals. Energy decomposition analysis mostly reveals the preference of several bonding situations, mostly with dative and ylidic electron-sharing bonds (e.g., P?C- -L). In general, the anionic systems show a higher preference of the ylidic bonding situations compared to the neutral analogues. However, in most of the cases different resonance structures have to be considered for the description of the "real" bonding situation.
Project description:A mild ruthenium(II)-catalyzed homocoupling of ?-carbonyl sulfoxonium ylides was developed and the detailed mechanism was understood based on DFT calculations in the current report. The catalytic system utilizes the ?-carbonyl sulfoxonium ylide as both the directing group for ortho-sp2 C-H activation and the acylmethylating reagent for C-C coupling. Various substituents are compatible in the transformation and a variety of isocoumarin derivatives were synthesized at room temperature without any protection. The theoretical results disclosed that the full catalytic cycle contains eight elementary steps, and in all the cationic Ru(II) monomer is involved as the catalytic active species. The acid additive is responsible for protonation of the ylide carbon prior to the intramolecular nucleophilic addition and C-C bond cleavage. Interestingly, the intermediacy of free acylmethylation intermediate or its enol isomer is not necessary for the transformation.
Project description:A facile, high yielding access to rare chimeric compounds combining phosphorus ylides with complex glycosyl formamides is described. We determined x-ray structures gaining structural insight into this compounds class. In addition, data mining of similar compounds deposited within the Cambridge Structural Database was performed. These derivatives could be used either as synthetic intermediates via the ylide functionalization and glyco chemical biology synthons or improving the pharmacokinetic properties of a potential bioactive molecule, exploiting the glycosyl moiety.
Project description:Methionine, S-benzylcysteine and S-allylcysteine were converted into 2-diazo-3-oxo-4-phthalimidocarboxylic esters 8a-c in three steps. Upon rhodium-catalysed dediazoniation, two intramolecular carbenoid reactions competed, namely the formation of a cyclic sulfonium ylide and that of a six-ring carbonyl ylide. The S-methyl and S-benzyl ylides 12a and b could be isolated, while S-allyl ylide 12c underwent a [2,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement. The short-lived carbonyl ylides derived from methionine and S-benzylcysteine formed head-to-tail dimers by a [3 + 3]-cycloaddition and could be trapped with external dipolarophiles, while the S-allyl derivative 14c yielded the pentacyclic compound 17 by an intramolecular [3 + 2]-cycloaddition reaction.
Project description:The cycloaddition of pyridinium ylides with alkynes was investigated under mild conditions. A series of 13 pyridinium salts was prepared by alkylation of 4-substituted pyridines. Their reactivity with propiolic ester or amide in various reaction conditions (different temperatures, solvents, added bases) was studied, and 11 indolizines, with three points of structural variation, were, thus, isolated and characterized. The highest yields were obtained when electron-withdrawing groups were present on both the pyridinium ylide, generated in situ from the corresponding pyridinium salt, and the alkyne (X, Z = ester, amide, CN, carbonyl, etc.). Electron-withdrawing substituents, lowering the acid dissociation constant (pKa) of the pyridinium salts, allow the cycloaddition to proceed at pH 7.5 in aqueous buffers at room temperature.
Project description:Cyclic amino(ylide)carbenes (CAYCs) are the ylide-substituted analogues of N-heterocyclic Carbenes (NHCs). Due to the stronger ? donation of the ylide compared to an amino moiety they are stronger donors and thus are desirable ligands for catalysis. However, no stable CAYC has been reported until today. Here, we describe experimental and computational studies on the synthesis and stability of CAYCs based on pyrroles with trialkyl onium groups. Attempts to isolate two CAYCs with trialkyl phosphonium and sulfonium ylides resulted in the deprotonation of the alkyl groups instead of the formation of the desired CAYCs. In case of the PCy3-substituted system, the corresponding ylide was isolated, while deprotonation of the SMe2-functionalized compound led to the formation of ethene and the thioether. Detailed computational studies on various trialkyl onium groups showed that both the ?- and ?-deprotonated compounds were energetically favored over the free carbene. The most stable candidates were revealed to be ?-hydrogen-free adamantyl-substituted onium groups, for which ?-deprotonation is less favorable at the bridgehead position. Overall, the calculations showed that the isolation of CAYCs should be possible, but careful design is required to exclude decomposition pathways such as deprotonations at the onium group.
Project description:The first examples of azomethine ylides derived from allylic amine and glyoxal precursors are reported. The condensation of primary allylic and ?-aryl amines with glyoxylates or ?-aryl glyoxals affords conjugated azomethine ylides that undergo facile [3 + 2] cycloaddition, providing 5-alkenyl pyrrolidine cycloadducts that cannot be accessed through the classical use of amino esters as ylide precursors.