New Developments in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Eosinophilic Esophagitis.
ABSTRACT: PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic, allergen-driven, immune-mediated disease of the esophagus that progresses to esophageal fibrostenosis if left untreated. The aim of this review is to provide a concise update on recent clinically relevant advances in the development of diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for EoE. RECENT FINDINGS:Current diagnostic and disease monitoring protocols for EoE rely on repetitive endoscopic evaluations and esophageal tissue acquisition for histopathologic analysis. Recent advancements in EoE diagnosis include endoscopic functional lumen imaging probe (FLIP), transnasal endoscopy (TNE), and the emergence of non-invasive diagnostic tools including cytosponge, esophageal string test, and mucosal impedance probe. Biomarkers for EoE have not yet proven their clinical utility. No Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs currently exist for the treatment of EoE. Topical corticosteroid, proton-pump inhibitors (PPI), elimination diet, and dilation are the current treatment modalities for confirmed EoE. Promising results from clinical trials are emerging for biologic agents that target the interleukin (IL)-13 and the IL-4/IL-13 receptor, specifically, RPC4046 and dupilumab, respectively. New diagnostic algorithms, non-invasive diagnostic strategies, and treatment modalities for EoE are emerging. Patients with EoE continue to require a multimodal and multi-disciplinary management approach.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Management of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) requires repeated endoscopic mucosal sampling to assess disease activity. A less invasive and expensive means of monitoring of EoE is required. The objective of this study was to assess the accuracy, safety, and tolerability of the cytosponge compared to endoscopy and biopsy for histologic assessment of EoE. METHODS:In this prospective two-center cross-sectional study, patients with known EoE underwent cytosponge sampling followed by endoscopy and biopsy. Sample adequacy and eosinophil counts (eos/HPF) were determined for both cytosponge and endoscopic samples. The cytosponge was assessed for diagnostic accuracy, safety, and patient preference as compared to endoscopy. RESULTS:Six patients (7%) failed to swallow the sponge. One hundred and five procedures were successfully performed in 80 patients (66% male, 100% white, 19% stricture). The cytosponge sample was adequate in 102 and the biopsy in 104; 101 procedures had adequate samples by both techniques. Fifty-seven biopsies were graded as active EoE with ?15 eos/HPF as the gold standard. Eosinophil counts highly correlated between the biopsy and cytosponge (r=0.78, P<0.0001). Using a cutoff of ?15 eos/HPF for inactive disease, the sensitivity and specificity of the cytosponge was 75% and 86%, respectively. Six patients had active EoE on cytosponge not found on biopsy. For biopsies with inactive EoE, the cytosponge identified 38/44. No complications occurred, and cytosponge endoscopic abrasion scores were low (0.34/4). Patients preferred cytosponge to endoscopy with higher rating scores (7.27 vs. 6.11, P=0.002). CONCLUSIONS:Compared to endoscopy with biopsy, cytosponge provided a minimally invasive, safe, well tolerated, and accurate method to assess EoE histologic activity. (ClinicalTrial.gov number NCT01585103).
Project description:Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic inflammatory condition that causes esophageal remodeling and stricture formation. We compared the clinical course of symptoms, endoscopic findings, histology, and changes in phenotype over time in EoE patients with inflammatory and fibrostenotic phenotypes.Data were obtained from EoE patients from three medical centers and followed prospectively. Endoscopic features and histology from index and follow-up endoscopies were recorded. Behavior was classified as inflammatory if endoscopic findings demonstrated furrows or white plaques and as fibrostenotic if endoscopic findings included fixed rings or strictures.Two hundred and fifty-six EoE patients were included in the analysis. The mean age was 32±18 years, 25% of patients were <18 years, 89% of patients were Caucasians, and 74% of patients were male. The mean duration of symptoms before diagnosis was 6.8±7.2 years with a follow-up of 1.7±1.9 years (maximum follow-up of 12 years). Fifty-four percent of patients presented with fibrostenotic EoE, whereas 46% presented with inflammatory EoE. Patients with inflammatory disease were younger than those with fibrostenotic disease (24±19 vs. 39±15 years, P<0.001). Patients with fibrostenotic disease had a longer duration of symptoms than those with inflammatory disease (8.1±7.7 vs. 5.3±6.3 years, P=0.002). Over the study period, 47 (18%) had remission of inflammatory EoE, 68 (27%) continued to have inflammatory disease, 74 (29%) continued to have fibrostenotic disease, 65 (25%) fibrostenotic patients had regression of fibrosis, and 2 patients (1%) progressed from inflammatory disease to fibrostenotic disease. Patients who had regression from their fibrostenosis were more likely than patients who continued to demonstrate fibrostenosis to have a decrease in proximal (54% vs. 32%, P<0.001) and distal (70% vs. 38%, P<0.001) eosinophilia.Most EoE patients maintained their phenotype or had an improvement with <1% progressing from inflammatory to fibrostenosis. This suggests that early therapeutic strategies aimed at controlling inflammation may interrupt, decrease, or prevent the remodeling fibrosis in EoE.
Project description:Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic and progressive immune-mediated condition defined by symptoms of esophageal dysfunction and dense eosinophilic infiltration of the esophageal mucosa. Therapies consist of anti-eosinophilic medications and specialized diets aimed to decrease the progression of EoE and alleviate its symptoms, namely, dysphagia and food impaction. Assessing response to therapy remains challenging, as treatment end points are not well defined and currently consist of clinical, histologic, and endoscopic features. Newer validated measures may help standardize treatment end points. Emerging data support the use of maintenance therapy, which may reduce disease progression. Optimal dosages, delivery techniques, and duration of treatment need to be determined. When features of fibrostenosis develop, esophageal dilation is a safe and effective adjunctive strategy for improving symptoms. In EoE cases refractory to conventional treatments, newer therapies targeting inflammatory mediators and cytokines are on the horizon.
Project description:Background/Aims:The epidemiology and pathogenesis of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) remain unclear in Asian countries. We investigated clinicopathological characteristics and diagnostic trends of EoE, and evaluated 3 tissue biomarkers for correlation with disease activity and treatment response in Korean patients with EoE. Methods:We retrospectively reviewed 25 271 esophageal biopsies performed during upper endoscopies between 2006 and 2017. We diagnosed EoE based on ≥ 15 eosinophils/high-power field (HPF) and, symptoms of esophageal dysfunction. We performed immunohistochemical analysis for tryptase, eosinophilic derived neurotoxin (EDN), and eotaxin-3. Results:We diagnosed EoE in 72 patients (53 men and 19 women; mean age, 46.2 years) with presenting symptoms of, dysphagia (15.3%), epigastric pain (31.9%), and heartburn (30.6%). The diagnostic rate of EoE considerably increased between 2006 and 2017, from 0.29 diagnoses to 7.99 diagnoses per 1000 esophageal biopsies ( P < 0.001). The mean peak eosinophil count (PEC) was 56.0 (± 77.8)/HPF. Whereas the EDN (rho = 0.667, P < 0.001) and eotaxin-3 levels (rho = 0.465, P < 0.001) correlated with PEC, tryptase and PEC were weakly correlated (rho = 0.291, P = 0.013). EDN (rho = 0.279, P = 0.017), and tryptase (rho = 0.279, P = 0.033) correlated with the inflammatory score of Eosinophilic Esophagitis Endoscopic Reference Score. Immunohistochemical analysis and changes in tryptase, EDN, and eotaxin-3 levels were associated with histologic and endoscopic improvements. Conclusions:EoE incidence considerably increased during the 12-year period, regardless of endoscopic esophageal biopsy rate. Tryptase, EDN, and eotaxin-3 levels in esophageal biopsy specimens could be promising biomarkers for disease activity, symptom, and endoscopic response in Korea.
Project description:Phenotypes of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) are not well-characterized.To describe clinical features of patients with EoE with predefined phenotypes, determine predictors of these phenotypes, and make inferences about the natural history of EoE.Retrospective study.Tertiary-care center.Incident EoE cases from 2001 to 2011 that met consensus diagnostic guidelines.Review of records.Endoscopic phenotypes, including fibrostenotic, inflammatory, or mixed. Other groups of clinical characteristics examined included atopy, level of esophageal eosinophilia, and age of symptom onset. Multinomial logistic regression assessed predictors of phenotype status.Of 379 cases of EoE identified, there were no significant phenotypic differences by atopic status or level of eosinophilia. Those with the inflammatory phenotype were more likely to be younger than those with mixed or fibrostenotic (13 vs 29 vs 39 years, respectively; P < .001) and less likely to have dysphagia, food impaction, and esophageal dilation (P < .001 for all). The mean symptom length before diagnosis was shorter for inflammatory (5 vs 8 vs 8 years; P = .02). After multivariate analysis, age and dysphagia independently predicted phenotype. The odds ratio (OR) for fibrostenosis for each 10-year increase in age was 2.1 (95% CI, 1.7-2.7). The OR for dysphagia was 7.0 (95% CI, 2.6-18.6).Retrospective, single-center study.In this large EoE cohort, the likelihood of fibrostenotic disease increased markedly with age. For every 10-year increase in age, the odds of having a fibrostenotic EoE phenotype more than doubled. This association suggests that the natural history of EoE is a progression from an inflammatory to a fibrostenotic disease.
Project description:BACKGROUND & AIMS:Diagnosis and surveillance of Barrett's esophagus (BE) and eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) have become emerging public health issues. Cytosponge is a novel, minimally invasive esophageal cell collection device. We aimed to assess the data on safety and acceptability of this device. METHODS:We performed a patient-level review of 5 prospective trials assessing Cytosponge performance in patients with reflux disease, BE and EoE in primary and secondary care. Acceptability of Cytosponge and subsequent endoscopy were recorded with visual analogue scale (VAS), wherein 0 and 10 denoted lowest and highest acceptability. Median VAS scores were compared using a Mann-Whitney test. The number of attempts, failures in swallowing the device and occurrence of adverse events were analyzed. Risk factors for failure in swallowing were analyzed using a multivariate regression model. RESULTS:In total, 2672 Cytosponge procedures were performed, in 2418 individuals from 2008 through 2017. There were 2 adverse events related to the device: a minor pharyngeal bleed and a case of detachment (<1:2000). The median acceptability score for the Cytosponge was 6.0 (interquartile range [IQR], 5.0-8.0), which was higher than the score for endoscopy without sedation (median 5.0; IQR, 3.0-7.0; P < .001) and lower than the score for endoscopy with sedation (median 8.0; IQR, 5.0-9.0; P < .001). Nearly all patients (91.1%) successfully swallowed the Cytosponge, most on the first attempt (90.1%). Failure to swallow the device was more likely to occur in secondary care (odds ratio, 5.13; 95% CI, 1.48-17.79; P < .01). CONCLUSIONS:The Cytosponge test is a safe procedure with good acceptability ratings in a variety of health care settings.
Project description:Background/Aims:The prevalence of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is reportedly increasing in Western countries. However, its prevalence in Korea remains unknown. We investigated the diagnostic trends and clinical characteristics of EoE in Korea. Methods:Using an endoscopic database maintained at a tertiary care center, we retrospectively reviewed the biopsy reports regarding 18 399 biopsy specimens collected from all patients who underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy and esophageal biopsy at this facility between 2006 and 2014. The presence of more than 15 eosinophils per high-power field with symptoms related to esophageal dysfunction was considered to indicate EoE. Results:A total of 37 patients (male:female ratio, 29:8; mean age, 44.0 ± 13.0 years) were diagnosed with EoE. These patients presented with dysphagia (21.6%), epigastric pain (21.6%), heartburn (24.3%), and other symptoms (32.4%). Typical endoscopic appearance of EoE was noted in 33 cases (89.1%) and included linear furrows in 24 cases (64.8%), ringed esophagus in 10 cases (27.0%), and white exudates in 11 cases (29.7%). The median eosinophilic count was 25 per high-power field (interquartile range, 20-70). Notable histopathological findings included eosinophilic microabscesses in 21 cases (56.7%). The diagnosis rate of EoE was found to have increased from 2006 and to 2014 (P-value ? 0.001 by the Cochran-Armitage trend test). Conclusions:The number of patients with EoE appears to have increased significantly over the 9-year period investigated, while the number of endoscopic investigations increased only marginally. Greater awareness of EoE and the role of esophageal biopsies should be considered.
Project description:BACKGROUND & AIMS:The endoscopic reference score (EREFS) is used to determine severity of 5 endoscopic findings: edema, rings, exudates, furrows, and strictures. Little is known about the relationship between EREFSs and histologic markers of disease activity in children with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). We aimed to determine whether the EREFS can be used to identify children with EoE and how it changes with treatment. METHODS:We performed a prospective study of consecutive children (ages 2-17 years) undergoing diagnostic or post-treatment endoscopy scored real-time with EREFS from December 2012 through 2016. Findings from 192 diagnostic endoscopies and 229 post-treatment endoscopies were evaluated, from 371 children. Incident EoE cases were diagnosed based on 2011 consensus guidelines. Patients were treated with either elimination diet or topical steroids. Subjects who underwent endoscopy for symptoms of esophageal dysfunction but had normal esophageal findings from histology analysis were used as controls. EREFS and receiver operating characteristic curves were determined for incident EoE cases (n = 77) vs controls (n = 115), patients with active EoE (n = 101) vs inactive EoE after treatment (n = 128), and paired pre- and post-treatment cases of EoE (n = 85). Component and composite scores were correlated with eosinophilia. RESULTS:Visual detection of more than 1 esophageal abnormality during the diagnostic endoscopy identified children with EoE with 89.6% sensitivity and 87.9% specificity. EREFS correlated with peak level of eosinophilia (P < .001) at all esophageal levels. Children who responded to therapy had mean EREFSs of 0.5 compared to 2.4 in non-responders. In comparing pre-treatment vs post-treatment data from 85 patients, we found a significant reduction in the composite EREFS (from 2.4 to 0.7) (P < .001) among patients who responded to treatment; 92% of responders had a reduced EREFSs after treatment. EREFSs identified children with EoE with an area under the curve value (AUC) of 0.93. EREFSs identified children with active EoE following treatment with an AUC of 0.81 before treatment and an AUC of 0.79 after treatment. CONCLUSIONS:In a prospective study of children undergoing diagnostic or post-treatment endoscopy, we found the EREFS to accurately identify those with EoE. Children who responded to therapy had lower EREFS scores than non-responders. EREFSs can be used to measure outcomes of pediatric patients, in conjunction with histology findings, and assess treatments for children with EoE.
Project description:Esophageal biopsy specimens from patients with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) can feel firm, with resistance felt when pulling the forceps to obtain the tissue sample. We aimed to assess the diagnostic utility of the esophageal biopsy "pull" sign and determine its histologic associations and response to treatment.This was a prospective cohort study of adults undergoing outpatient upper endoscopy. Cases of EoE were diagnosed per consensus guidelines, and patients were subsequently treated with either topical steroids or dietary elimination. Control subjects were individuals who did not have EoE. The frequency of the esophageal biopsy "pull" sign was assessed in EoE patients and controls, and diagnostic metrics were calculated. The "pull" sign was also reassessed in patients after therapy.A total of 83 EoE patients and 121 control subjects were included. Sixty-three EoE patients (76%) were "pull" sign positive compared with just 2 control subjects (2%; P < .001), corresponding to a sensitivity and specificity of 76% and 98%, positive and negative predictive values of 97% and 86%, and positive and negative likelihood ratios of 45.9 and 0.245, respectively. The "pull" sign was the strongest endoscopic predictor of EoE case status at baseline and was less frequent after successful treatment (20% vs 79%; P < .001).The "pull" sign is highly specific for EoE and is rarely seen in non-EoE control subjects. In patients with EoE who respond to treatment, the "pull" sign often resolves. The "pull" sign may be a simple and easily obtained measure of esophageal remodeling.
Project description:It is important to identify patients with Barrett's esophagus (BE), the precursor to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Patients with BE usually are identified by endoscopy, which is expensive. The Cytosponge, which collects tissue from the esophagus noninvasively, could be a cost-effective tool for screening individuals with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) who are at increased risk for BE. We developed a model to analyze the cost effectiveness of using the Cytosponge in first-line screening of patients with GERD for BE with endoscopic confirmation, compared with endoscopy screening only.We incorporated data from a large clinical trial of Cytosponge performance into 2 validated microsimulation models of EAC progression (the esophageal adenocarcinoma model from Massachusetts General Hospital and the microsimulation screening analysis model from Erasmus University Medical Center). The models were calibrated for US Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results data on EAC incidence and mortality. In each model, we simulated the effect of a 1-time screen for BE in male patients with GERD, 60 years of age, using endoscopy alone or Cytosponge collection of tissue, and analysis for the level of trefoil factor 3 with endoscopic confirmation of positive results. For each strategy we recorded the number of cases of EAC that developed, the number of EAC cases detected with screening by Cytosponge only or by subsequent targeted surveillance, and the number of endoscopies needed. In addition, we recorded the cumulative costs (including indirect costs) incurred and quality-adjusted years of life lived within each strategy, discounted at a rate of 3% per year, and computed incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) among the 3 strategies.According to the models, screening patients with GERD by Cytosponge with follow-up confirmation of positive results by endoscopy would reduce the cost of screening by 27% to 29% compared with screening by endoscopy, but led to 1.8 to 5.5 (per 1000 patients) fewer quality-adjusted life years. The ICERs for Cytosponge screening compared with no screening ranged from $26,358 to $33,307. For screening patients by endoscopy compared with Cytosponge the ICERs ranged from $107,583 to $330,361. These results were sensitive to Cytosponge cost within a plausible range of values.In a comparative modeling analysis of screening strategies for BE in patients with GERD, we found Cytosponge screening with endoscopic confirmation to be a cost-effective strategy. The greatest benefit was achieved by endoscopic screening, but with an unfavorable cost margin.