Degradation of D-2-hydroxyglutarate in the presence of isocitrate dehydrogenase mutations.
ABSTRACT: D-2-Hydroxyglutarate (D-2-HG) is regarded as an oncometabolite. It is found at elevated levels in certain malignancies such as acute myeloid leukaemia and glioma. It is produced by a mutated isocitrate dehydrogenase IDH1/2, a low-affinity/high-capacity enzyme. Its degradation, in contrast, is catalysed by the high-affinity/low-capacity enzyme D-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase (D2HDH). So far, it has not been proven experimentally that the accumulation of D-2-HG in IDH mutant cells is the result of its insufficient degradation by D2HDH. Therefore, we developed an LC-MS/MS-based enzyme activity assay that measures the temporal drop in substrate and compared this to the expression of D2HDH protein as measured by Western blot. Our data clearly indicate, that the maximum D-2-HG degradation rate by D2HDH is reached in vivo, as vmax is low in comparison to production of D-2-HG by mutant IDH1/2. The latter seems to be limited only by substrate availability. Further, incubation of IDH wild type cells for up to 48?hours with 5?mM D-2-HG did not result in a significant increase in either D2HDH protein abundance or enzyme activity.
Project description:Cancer-associated isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) 1 and 2 mutations gain a new activity of reducing ?-KG to produce D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2-HG), which is proposed to function as an oncometabolite by inhibiting ?-KG dependent dioxygenases. We investigated the function of D-2-HG in tumorigenesis using IDH1 and IDH2 mutant cancer cell lines. Inhibition of D-2-HG production either by specific deletion of the mutant IDH1-R132C allele or overexpression of D-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase (D2HGDH) increases ?-KG and related metabolites, restores the activity of some ?-KG-dependent dioxygenases, and selectively alters gene expression. Ablation of D-2-HG production has no significant effect on cell proliferation and migration, but strongly inhibits anchorage independent growth in vitro and tumor growth in xenografted mouse models. Our study identifies a new activity of oncometabolite D-2-HG in promoting tumorigenesis.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Recurrent mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and IDH2 genes, which are frequent in gliomas, result in marked accumulation of the metabolic by-product 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG) within tumors. In other malignancies, such as acute myeloid leukemia, presence of IDH mutation is associated with elevated 2-HG levels in serum or urine compartments. Circulating 2-HG in patients with glial malignancies has not been thoroughly investigated.<h4>Methods</h4>In this study, we analyzed 2-HG levels in the serum and urine of a large set of patients with IDH-mutant and IDH-wild-type glioma, and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from a subset of this cohort.<h4>Results</h4>We found that 2-HG was elevated in the urine of patients with IDH-mutant versus IDH-wild-type glioma, although no significant differences in 2-HG levels were observed in the serum or the small set of CSF samples obtained. Among patients with IDH-mutant glioma, 2-HG levels did not differ based on the histopathologic grade, genetic subtype (TP53 mutant or 1p/19q codeleted), presence of a canonical (IDH1 R132H) or noncanonical (any other IDH variant) mutation, or treatment type.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Our finding suggests that urinary 2-HG is increased among patients with IDH-mutant gliomas, and may represent a future surrogate, noninvasive biomarker to aid in diagnosis, prognosis, and management.<h4>Implications for practice</h4>Patients with glioma who harbor mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase genes showed selective elevation of the oncometabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate in the urine. Similar elevations were not identified in the serum or cerebrospinal fluid. 2-Hydroxyglutarate may serve as a useful, noninvasive biomarker to stratify patients newly diagnosed with glioma with regard to prognosis and management.
Project description:Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutations, a hallmark of gliomagenesis, result in the production of the oncometabolite R-2-hydroxyglutarate (R-2-HG) which is thought to promote tumorigenesis via DNA methylation. Here we identify an additional immunosuppressive activity of R-2-HG: Tumor cell-derived R-2-HG is taken up by T-cells where it induces a strong and immediate perturbation of calcium- and ATP-dependent signaling events, and polyamine biosynthesis. This results in a profound suppression of antigen-specific T-cell activation and effector cytokine production in experimental mouse and human systems. In a large cohort of WHO grade II and III gliomas, IDH1 mutant tumors display reduced infiltration by T-cells compared to IDH1 wildtype tumors. Spontaneous and induced mutation-specific antitumor immunity to syngeneic IDH1-mutant tumors in MHC-humanized mice is improved by isolated genetic ablation of the neomorphic enzymatic function of mutant IDH1. Taken together, these data attribute a novel, fundamentally non-tumor-cell-autonomous role of an oncometabolite in shaping the tumor immune microenvironment. We investigated the effects of exogenous R-2-HG on primary human T cells.
Project description:The oncometabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG) is a signature biomarker in various cancers, where it accumulates as a result of mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH). The metabolic source of 2-HG, in a wide variety of cancers, dictates both its generation and also potential therapeutic strategies, but this remains difficult to access in vivo. Here, utilizing patient-derived chondrosarcoma cells harboring endogenous mutations in IDH1 and IDH2, we report that 2-HG can be rapidly generated from glutamine in vitro. Then, using hyperpolarized magnetic resonance imaging (HP-MRI), we demonstrate that in vivo HP [1-13C] glutamine can be used to non-invasively measure glutamine-derived HP 2-HG production. This can be readily modulated utilizing a selective IDH1 inhibitor, opening the door to targeting glutamine-derived 2-HG therapeutically. Rapid rates of HP 2-HG generation in vivo further demonstrate that, in a context-dependent manner, glutamine can be a primary carbon source for 2-HG production in mutant IDH tumors.
Project description:2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG) is an oncometabolite accumulating in certain cancers and some neurometabolic diseases. In cancers 2-HG accumulation is induced by a gain-of-function mutation in isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) genes, leading to conversion of alpha-ketoglutarate (a-KG) into 2-HG
Project description:Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutations are common genetic abnormalities in glioma, which result in the accumulation of an "oncometabolite", D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2-HG). Abnormally elevated D-2-HG levels result in a distinctive pattern in cancer biology, through competitively inhibiting α-ketoglutarate (α-KG)/Fe(II)-dependent dioxgenases (α-KGDDs). Recent studies have revealed that D-2-HG affects DNA/histone methylation, hypoxia signaling, DNA repair, and redox homeostasis, which impacts the oncogenesis of IDH-mutated cancers. In this review, we will discuss the current understanding of D-2-HG in cancer biology, as well as the emerging opportunities in therapeutics in IDH-mutated glioma.
Project description:Mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase genes (IDH1/2) occur often in diffuse gliomas, where they are associated with abnormal accumulation of the oncometabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG). Monitoring 2-HG levels could provide prognostic information in this disease, but detection strategies that are noninvasive and sufficiently quantitative have yet to be developed. In this study, we address this need by presenting a proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) acquisition scheme that uses an ultrahigh magnetic field (? 7T) capable of noninvasively detecting 2-HG with quantitative measurements sufficient to differentiate mutant cytosolic IDH1 and mitochondrial IDH2 in human brain tumors. Untargeted metabolomics analysis of in vivo (1)H-MRS spectra discriminated between IDH-mutant tumors and healthy tissue, and separated IDH1 from IDH2 mutations. High-quality spectra enabled the quantification of neurochemical profiles consisting of at least eight metabolites, including 2-HG, glutamate, lactate, and glutathione in both tumor and healthy tissue voxels. Notably, IDH2 mutation produced more 2-HG than IDH1 mutation, consistent with previous findings in cell culture. By offering enhanced sensitivity and specificity, this scheme can quantitatively detect 2-HG and associated metabolites that may accumulate during tumor progression, with implications to better monitor patient responses to therapy.
Project description:Recently identified isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutations lead to the production of 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG), an oncometabolite aberrantly elevated in selected cancers. We developed a facile and inexpensive fluorimetric microplate assay for the quantitation of 2HG and performed an unbiased small-molecule screen in live cells to identify compounds capable of perturbing 2HG production. Zaprinast, a phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor, was identified as an efficacious modulator of 2HG production and confirmed to lower 2HG levels in vivo. The mechanism of action was not due to cGMP stabilization, but rather, profiling of metabolites upstream of mutant IDH1 pointed to targeted inhibition of the enzyme glutaminase (GLS). Zaprinast treatment reversed histone hypermethylation and soft-agar growth of IDH1-mutant cells, and treatment of glutamine-addicted pancreatic cancer cells reduced growth and sensitized cells to oxidative damage. Thus, Zaprinast is efficacious against glutamine metabolism and further establishes the therapeutic linkages between GLS and 2HG-mediated oncogenesis.Gain-of-function IDH mutations are common events in glioma, acute myelogenous leukemia, and other cancer types, which lead to the accumulation of the oncometabolite 2HG. We show that the drug Zaprinast is capable of reducing cellular 2HG levels by inhibiting the upstream enzyme GLS, thus identifying a new strategy to target 2HG production in selected IDH-mutant cancers.
Project description:We discovered recently that the central metabolite ?-ketoglutarate (?-KG) extends the lifespan of C. elegans through inhibition of ATP synthase and TOR signaling. Here we find, unexpectedly, that (R)-2-hydroxyglutarate ((R)-2HG), an oncometabolite that interferes with various ?-KG-mediated processes, similarly extends worm lifespan. (R)-2HG accumulates in human cancers carrying neomorphic mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) 1 and 2 genes. We show that, like ?-KG, both (R)-2HG and (S)-2HG bind and inhibit ATP synthase and inhibit mTOR signaling. These effects are mirrored in IDH1 mutant cells, suggesting a growth-suppressive function of (R)-2HG. Consistently, inhibition of ATP synthase by 2-HG or ?-KG in glioblastoma cells is sufficient for growth arrest and tumor cell killing under conditions of glucose limitation, e.g., when ketone bodies (instead of glucose) are supplied for energy. These findings inform therapeutic strategies and open avenues for investigating the roles of 2-HG and metabolites in biology and disease.
Project description:The family of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) enzymes is vital for cellular metabolism, as IDH1 and IDH2 are required for the decarboxylation of isocitrate to ?-ketoglutarate. Heterozygous somatic mutations in IDH1 or IDH2 genes have been detected in many cancers. They share the neomorphic production of the oncometabolite (R)-2-hydroxyglutarate [(R)-2-HG]. With respect to IDH2, it is unclear whether all IDH2 mutations display the same or differ in tumorigenic properties and degrees of chemosensitivity. Here, we evaluated the three most frequent IDH2 mutations occurring in cancer. The predicted changes to the enzyme structure introduced by these individual mutations are supported by the observed production of (R)-2-HG. However, their tumorigenic properties, response to chemotherapeutic agents, and baseline activation of STAT3 differed. Paradoxically, the varying levels of endogenous (R)-2-HG produced by each IDH2 mutant inversely correlated with their respective growth rates. Interestingly, while we found that (R)-2-HG stimulated the growth of non-transformed cells, (R)-2-HG also displayed antitumor activity by suppressing the growth of tumors harboring wild type IDH2. The mitogenic effect of (R)-2-HG in immortalized cells could be switched to antiproliferative by transformation with oncogenic RAS. Thus, our findings show that despite their shared (R)-2-HG production, IDH2 mutations are not alike and differ in shaping tumor cell behavior and response to chemotherapeutic agents. Our study also reveals that under certain conditions, (R)-2-HG has antitumor properties.