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Dasatinib Treatment Increases Sensitivity to c-Met Inhibition in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cells.
ABSTRACT: In pre-clinical studies, triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells have demonstrated sensitivity to the multi-targeted kinase inhibitor dasatinib; however, clinical trials with single-agent dasatinib showed limited efficacy in unselected populations of breast cancer, including TNBC. To study potential mechanisms of resistance to dasatinib in TNBC, we established a cell line model of acquired dasatinib resistance (231-DasB). Following an approximately three-month exposure to incrementally increasing concentrations of dasatinib (200 nM to 500 nM) dasatinib, 231-DasB cells were resistant to the agent with a dasatinib IC50 value greater than 5 ?M compared to 0.04 ± 0.001 µM in the parental MDA-MB-231 cells. 231-DasB cells also showed resistance (2.2-fold) to the Src kinase inhibitor PD180970. Treatment of 231-DasB cells with dasatinib did not inhibit phosphorylation of Src kinase. The 231-DasB cells also had significantly increased levels of p-Met compared to the parental MDA-MB-231 cells, as measured by luminex, and resistant cells demonstrated a significant increase in sensitivity to the c-Met inhibitor, CpdA, with an IC50 value of 1.4 ± 0.5 µM compared to an IC50 of 6.8 ± 0.2 µM in the parental MDA-MB-231 cells. Treatment with CpdA decreased p-Met and p-Src in both 231-DasB and MDA-MB-231 cells. Combined treatment with dasatinib and CpdA significantly inhibited the growth of MDA-MB-231 parental cells and prevented the emergence of dasatinib resistance. If these in vitro findings can be extrapolated to human cancer treatment, combined treatment with dasatinib and a c-Met inhibitor may block the development of acquired resistance and improve response rates to dasatinib treatment in TNBC.
Project description:BACKGROUND:At least 50% of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) overexpress the epidermal growth factor receptor, EGFR, which paved the way for clinical trials investigating its blockade. Outcomes remained dismal stemming from mechanisms of resistance particularly the nuclear cycling of EGFR, which is enhanced by Src activation. Attenuation of Src reversed nuclear translocation, restoring EGFR to the cell surface. Herein, we hypothesize that changes in cellular distribution of EGFR upon Src inhibition with dasatinib can be annotated through the EGFR immunopositron emission tomography (immunoPET) radiotracer, [89Zr]Zr-cetuximab. METHODS:Nuclear and non-nuclear EGFR levels of dasatinib-treated vs. untreated MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 cells were analyzed via immunoblots. Both treated and untreated cells were exposed to [89Zr]Zr-cetuximab to assess binding at 4?°C and 37?°C. EGFR-positive MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468, and a patient-derived xenograft were treated with dasatinib or vehicle followed by cetuximab PET imaging to compare EGFR levels. After imaging, the treated mice were separated into two groups: one cohort continued with dasatinib with the addition of cetuximab while the other cohort received dasatinib alone. Correlations between the radiotracer uptake vs. changes in tumor growth and EGFR expression from immunoblots were analyzed. RESULTS:Treated cells displayed higher binding of [89Zr]Zr-cetuximab to the cell membrane at 4?°C and with greater internalized activity at 37?°C vs. untreated cells. In all tumor models, higher accumulation of the radiotracer in dasatinib-treated groups was observed compared to untreated tumors. Treated tumors displayed significantly decreased pSrc (Y416) with retained total Src levels compared to control. In MDA-MB-468 and PDX tumors, the analysis of cetuximab PET vs. changes in tumor volume showed an inverse relationship where high tracer uptake in the tumor demonstrated minimal tumor volume progression. Furthermore, combined cetuximab and dasatinib treatment showed better tumor regression compared to control and dasatinib-only-treated groups. No benefit was achieved in MDA-MB-231 xenografts with the addition of cetuximab, likely due to its KRAS-mutated status. CONCLUSIONS:Cetuximab PET can monitor effects of dasatinib on EGFR cellular distribution and potentially inform treatment response in wild-type KRAS TNBC.
Project description:Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) progresses rapidly but lacks effective targeted therapies. Our previous study showed that downregulating syndecan-binding protein (SDCBP) in TNBC inhibits the proliferation of TNBC cells. Dasatinib is a new small-molecule inhibitor of c-src phosphorylation. The aim of this study was to investigate if SDCBP is a potential marker to indicate whether a TNBC is suitable for dasatinib therapy. This study applied co-immunoprecipitation to identify the interaction between SDCBP and c-src in TNBC cell lines. In addition, immunohistochemistry was used to investigate SDCBP and tyrosine-419 phosphorylated c-src (p-c-src-Y419) expression in TNBC tissues. SDCBP-overexpressing MDA-MB-231 cells were then constructed to evaluate the effects of dasatinib on SDCBP-induced TNBC progression in vitro and tumor formation in nude mice. We found wild-type SDCBP interacted with c-src and promoted the phosphorylation of c-src; this phosphorylation was completely blocked by dasatinib. SDCBP lacking the PDZ domain had no such effect. Among the 52 consecutive random TNBC cases examined, the expression of SDCBP was consistent with that of p-c-src-Y419, and positively correlated with histological grading or Ki-67 levels. SDCBP overexpression significantly accelerated the proliferation and cell cycle progression of the TNBC cell line MDA-MB-231; these effects were prevented by dasatinib treatment. However, the subsequent inhibition of p27 expression partially restored the proliferation and viability of the TNBC cells. The results of this study suggest that SDCBP interacts with c-src, regulates G1/S in TNBC cells, and enhances tumor cell proliferation by promoting the tyrosine phosphorylation of c-src at residue 419. Dasatinib inhibits such phosphorylation and blocks SDCBP-induced cell cycle progression. Therefore, SDCBP might be an important marker for identifying TNBC cases that are suitable for dasatinib therapy.
Project description:Doxorubicin and Cisplatin are the frontline therapeutics for treatment of the triple negative breast cancers (TNBCs). Emergence of drug-resistance often contributes to failure of drugs and poor prognosis, and thus necessitates development of new and improved modalities to treat TNBCs. We generated and characterized chemotherapy-resistant TNBC cells following their culture in chronic presence of Doxorubicin or Cisplatin, and tested whether their viabilities were inhibited by a novel class of CARP- 1 functional mimetic (CFM) compounds. Analogs of parent compound CFM-4 were obtained through structure-activity based medicinal chemistry studies. CFM-4.16, a novel analog of CFM-4, caused superior inhibition of viability of TNBC cells when used in combination with doxorubicin. Doxorubicin and cisplatin inhibited viabilities of parental cells with GI50 dose of 0.02-0.1 ?M and 1.65 ?M, respectively. The GI50 dose of doxorubicin for doxorubicin-resistant TNBC cells was ? 10.0 ?M. For Cisplatin-resistant cells, the GI50 dose of Cisplatin was ? 6-15.0 ?M for MDA-MB-468 sublines and ? 150.0 ?M for MDA-MB-231 sublines. CFM-4.16 inhibited viability of chemotherapy-resistant TNBC cells, in part by inhibiting oncogenic cMet activation and expression, stimulating CARP-1 expression, caspase-8 cleavage and apoptosis. CFM-4.16 pretreatment enhanced anti-TNBC efficacies of inhibitors of cMET (Tevatinib) or cSrc (Dasatinib). CFM-4.16 suppressed growth of resistant TNBC cells in soft agar as well as in three-dimensional suspension cultures derived from enriched, stem-like cells. Finally, a nanolipid formulation of CFM-4.16 in combination with doxorubicin had superior efficacy in inhibiting TNBC xenograft growth. Our findings collectively demonstrate therapeutic potential of CFM-4.16 for parental and drug-resistant TNBCs.
Project description:Resistance to both chemotherapy and radiation therapy is frequent in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients. We established treatment-resistant TNBC MDA-MB-231/IR cells by irradiating the parental MDA-MB-231 cells 25 times with 2 Gy irradiation and investigated the molecular mechanisms of acquired resistance. The resistant MDA-MB-231/IR cells were enhanced in migration, invasion, and stem cell-like characteristics. Pathway analysis by the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery revealed that the NF-κB pathway, TNF signaling pathway, and Toll-like receptor pathway were enriched in MDA-MB-231/IR cells. Among 77 differentially expressed genes revealed by transcriptome analysis, 12 genes involved in drug and radiation resistance, including interferon-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats 2 (IFIT2), were identified. We found that baicalein effectively reversed the expression of IFIT2, which is reported to be associated with metastasis, recurrence, and poor prognosis in TNBC patients. Baicalein sensitized radio- and chemoresistant cells and induced apoptosis, while suppressing stem cell-like characteristics, such as mammosphere formation, side population, expression of Oct3/4 and ABCG2, and CD44highCD24low population in MDA-MB-231/IR cells. These findings improve our understanding of the genes implicated in radio- and chemoresistance in breast cancer, and indicate that baicalein can serve as a sensitizer that overcomes treatment resistance.
Project description:Radioresistant cells cause recurrence in patients with breast cancer after they undergo radiation therapy. The molecular mechanisms by which cancer cells obtain radioresistance should be understood to develop radiation-sensitizing agents. Results showed that the protein expression and activity of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) were upregulated in radioresistant MDA-MB-231 triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells. NQO1 knockdown inhibited the proliferation of NQO1 expressing Hs578t TNBC cells or the radioresistant MDA-MB-231 cells, whereas NOQ1 overexpression increased the survival of MDA-MB-231 cells, which lack of NQO1 expression originally, under irradiation. The cytotoxicity of ?-lapachone, an NQO1-dependent bioactivatable compound, was greater in radioresistant MDA-MB-231 cells than in parental cells. ?-lapachone displayed a radiosensitization effect on Hs578t or radioresistant MBDA-MB-231 cells. The expression of the long noncoding RNA NEAT1 positively regulated the NQO1 expression in radioresistant MDA-MB-231 cells at a translational level rather than at a transcription level. The inhibition of the NEAT1 expression through the CRISPR-Cas9 method increased the sensitivity of radioresistant MDA-MB-231 cells to radiation and decreased their proliferation, the activity of cancer stem cells, and the expression of stemness genes, including BMI1, Oct4, and Sox2. In conclusion, the NQO1 expression in triple-negative breast cancer cells determined their radiosensitivity and was controlled by NEAT1. In addition, NOQ1 bioactivatable compounds displayed potential for application in the development of radiation sensitizers in breast cancer.
Project description:Resistance to chemotherapy and radiation therapy is considered a major therapeutic barrier in breast cancer. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) play a prominent role in chemo and radiotherapy resistance. The established chemo and radio-resistant triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell line MDA-MB-231/IR displays greater CSC characteristics than the parental MDA-MB-231 cells. Escalating evidence demonstrates that metadherin (MTDH) is associated with a number of cancer signaling pathways as well as breast cancer therapy resistance, making it an attractive therapeutic target. Kaplan-Meier plot analysis revealed a correlation between higher levels of MTDH and shorter lifetimes in breast cancer and TNBC patients. Moreover, there was a positive correlation between the MTDH and CD44 expression levels in The Cancer Genome Atlas breast cancer database. We demonstrate that MTDH plays a pivotal role in the regulation of stemness in MDA-MB-231/IR cells. Knockdown of MTDH in MDA-MB-231/IR cells resulted in a reduction in the CSC population, aldehyde dehydrogenase activity, and major CSC markers, including ?-catenin, CD44+, and Slug. In addition, MTDH knockdown increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in MDA-MB-231/IR cells. We found that phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), a well-known pro-oxidant phytochemical, suppressed stemness in MDA-MB-231/IR cells through ROS modulation via the downregulation of MTDH. Co-treatment of PEITC and N-Acetylcysteine (a ROS scavenger) caused alterations in PEITC induced cell death and CSC markers. Moreover, PEITC regulated MTDH expression at the post-transcriptional level, which was confirmed using cycloheximide, a protein synthesis inhibitor.
Project description:Sprouty (Spry) proteins have been implicated in cancer progression, but their role in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), a subtype of lethal and aggressive breast cancer, is unknown. Here, we reported that Spry1 is significantly expressed in TNBC specimen and MDA-MB-231 cells. To understand Spry1 regulation of signaling events controlling breast cancer phenotype, we used lentiviral delivery of human Spry1 shRNAs to suppress Spry1 expression in MDA-MB-231, an established TNBC cell line. Spry1 knockdown MDA-MB-231 cells displayed an epithelial phenotype with increased membrane E-cadherin expression. Knockdown of Spry1 impaired MDA-MB-231 cell migration, Matrigel invasion, and anchorage-dependent and -independent growth. Tumor xenografts originating from Spry1 knockdown MDA-MB-231 cells grew slower, had increased E-cadherin expression, and yielded fewer lung metastases compared to control. Furthermore, suppressing Spry1 in MDA-MB-231 cells impaired the induction of Snail and Slug expression by EGF, and this effect was associated with increased EGFR degradation and decreased EGFR/Grb2/Shp2/Gab1 signaling complex formation. The same phenotype was also observed in the TNBC cell line MDA-MB-157. Together, our results show that unlike in some tumors, where Spry may mediate tumor suppression, Spry1 plays a selective role in at least a subset of TNBC to promote the malignant phenotype via enhancing EGF-mediated mesenchymal phenotype.
Project description:Standard chemotherapy cannot eradicate triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) while the residual cancer cells readily form the vasculogenic mimicry (VM) channels, which lead to the relapse of cancer after treatment. In this study, the functional vincristine plus dasatinib liposomes, modified by a targeting molecule DSPE-PEG2000-c(RGDyK), were fabricated to address this issue. The investigations were performed on TNBC MDA-MB-231 cells and MDA-MB-231 xenografts in nude mice. The liposomes exhibited the superior performances in the following aspects: the enhancement of cellular uptake via targeted action; the induction of apoptosis via activation of caspase 8, 9, and 3, increased expression of Bax, decreased expression of Mcl-1, and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS); and the deletion of VM channels via inhibitions on the VM channel indicators, which consisted of vascular endothelial-cadherin (VE-Cad), focal adhesion kinase (FAK), phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), and matrix metallopeptidases (MMP-2, and MMP-9). Furthermore, the liposomes displayed the prolonged circulation time in the blood, the increased accumulation in tumor tissue, and the improved therapeutic efficacy along with deletion of VM channels in the TNBC-bearing mice. In conclusion, the nanostructured functional drug-loaded liposomes may provide a promising strategy for the treatment of invasive TNBC along with deletion of VM channels.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an incurable disease where novel therapeutic strategies are needed. Proteolysis targeting chimeric (PROTAC) are novel compounds that promote protein degradation by binding to an ubiquitin ligase. In this work, we explored the antitumoral activity of two novel BET-PROTACs, MZ1 and ARV-825, in TNBC, ovarian cancer and in a BET inhibitor resistant model. METHODS:OVCAR3, SKOV3, BT549, MDA-MB-231 cell lines and the JQ1 resistant cell line MDA-MB-231R were evaluated. MTTs, colony-forming assay, three-dimensional cultures in matrigel, flow cytometry, and western blots were performed to explore the anti-proliferative effect and biochemical mechanism of action of MZ1 and ARV-825. In vivo studies included BALB/c nu/nu mice engrafted with MDA-MB-231R cells. RESULTS:The BET-PROTACs MZ1 and ARV-825 efficiently downregulated the protein expression levels of the BET protein BRD4, in MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-231R. MZ1 and ARV-825 also showed an antiproliferative effect on sensitive and resistant cells. This effect was corroborated in other triple negative (BT549) and ovarian cancer (SKOV3, OVCAR3) cell lines. MZ1 provoked G2/M arrest in MDA-MB-231. In addition, a profound effect on caspase-dependent apoptosis was observed in both sensitive and resistant cells. No synergistic activity was observed when it was combined with docetaxel, cisplatin or olaparib. Finally, in vivo administration of MZ1 rescued tumor growth in a JQ1-resistant xenograft model, reducing the expression levels of BRD4. CONCLUSIONS:Using both in vitro and in vivo approaches, we describe the profound activity of BET-PROTACs in parental and BETi-resistant TNBC models. This data provides options for further clinical development of these agents in TNBC.